With the discovery of gold and silver in Nevada at Goldfield and Tonopah, the need for electric power for mining operations was fulfilled in September, 1905, by construction of a hydro-electric plant on Bishop Creek, which supplied 1,300 . . . — — Map (db m629) HM
Ballarat was born in eighteen ninety seven
following the discovery of the Radcliff Mine
in Pleasant Canyon.
Its namesake was the famous gold city
in Victoria Australia.
It was never a very large town.
It served Panamint Valley and Death . . . — — Map (db m159356) HM
The Big Pine Veterans Memorial was established by the Big Pine Civic Club in the year 2000 to honor all veterans of the Owens Valley. The 80-foot tall pole proudly displays the "Stars and Stripes" with the California State flag . . . — — Map (db m54427) HM
This Giant Sequoia is reported to have been planted to commemorate the opening of Westgaard Pass to automobile traffic. The tree was named in honor of President Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt. — — Map (db m54428) HM
Camp Independence soldiers needed a road to Waucoba-Deep Springs. In 1873 J. S. "Scott" Broder completed this road and collected tolls until 1900. In 1913 A. L. Westgaard led an American Automobile Assn. tour across here, seeking a new . . . — — Map (db m54425) HM
Zurich Station, formerly Alvord, was established in 1884 as a freight and passenger station on the Carson & Colorado Railway - known locally as "The Slim Princess."
Zurich was the main railroad station for Big Pine and points east. Its name . . . — — Map (db m92763) HM
This historic mining artifact is known as a track mucking machine. It dates back to the 1960s and was used by Union Carbide Corporation at the nearby Pine Creek Tungsten mine 20 miles North West of Bishop. During World War II and for some years . . . — — Map (db m78131) HM
On April 6, 1862, a battle took place around this site between newly arrived citizens of the Owens River Valley and the Paiute and Shoshone Indians, original inhabitants of the land. The reason for this battle is lost in obscurity, but brave men on . . . — — Map (db m628) HM
Behind this plaque is the original road that went to the Bishop Creek Drainage. Built at the turn of the 20th Century, this road brought miners and supplies to the Wilshire Mine, known today as the Cardinal Mine.
Seven miles up this road was . . . — — Map (db m189377) HM
For the first time in many months the peace and calm of the town were disturbed by a succession of pistols shots last Saturday night. The shots were fired by Officer Plumley in arresting one Phillip Staiger for disorderly conduct . . . — — Map (db m78316) HM
In 1883 the Carson & Colorado Railroad was built between Mound House (Near Carson City, Nevada) through Laws to Keeler, California. A distance of 300 miles. Laws Station was named in honor of Mr. R.J. Laws, Assistant Superintendent of the railroad . . . — — Map (db m10333) HM
Near this location, on Oct. 1, 1871, escaped convicts Moses Black and Leander Morton were lynched by vigilantes to avenge the killing of Robert Morrison, a well liked Wells Fargo agent from Benton. Morrison was a member of the sheriff's posse who . . . — — Map (db m72571) HM
The first white man’s settlement in northern Owens Valley was built here in 1861 and two years later prospectors named it Owensville. It thrived for some time but in 1864, as mining in the White Mts. petered out the miners moved on to better . . . — — Map (db m2953) HM
West of this spot, gold was discovered in the Pine Creek drainage by Civil War veterans. It was not until April, 1916, when tungsten was discovered by four men: O.E. Vaughn, A.E. & C.C. Beauregard, and James Sproul on their claims, Blizzard 1, 2, 3 . . . — — Map (db m2952) HM
Fifty years ago, the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada was the site of intense atmospheric research to explore the cause and dynamics of the newly appreciated and powerful mountain wave phenomenon known locally as the Sierra Wave.
This . . . — — Map (db m156150) HM
In 1861, Samuel A. Bishop, his wife and party left Fort Tejon for the Owens Valley driving 650 head of stock. On August 22, Bishop reached a creek later named for him and southwest of this spot, established San Francis Ranch. There a peace treaty . . . — — Map (db m627) HM
The Slim Princess “Engine 9” was built in 1909 and first saw service on the 36 inch narrow gauge rails (standard gauge is 4 feet 8 ½ inches) of the Nevada, California and Oregon Railroad. It came to the Mina Branch of the Southern Pacific in 1929 . . . — — Map (db m78315) HM
First Panel Left:
Logging at Mono Mills
This mural illustrates the Kinneys and Summers (Ernest’s grandmother was a Summers) hauling logs.
The rig with the big wheels called “Michigan Wheels” is dragging the timber . . . — — Map (db m78320) HM
In August 1924 Matt Wilkenson opened the Kittie Lee Inn, which was named for his daughter. When William R. Whorff purchased it in 1925, the Kittie Lee became "the" place to stay for Hollywood's finest.
When Bishop Airport was a training center . . . — — Map (db m72572) HM
A hybrid offspring of a male donkey, commonly known as a jackass and a female horse. Characterized by long ears, a braying voice and short mane, this patient and sure footed animal has been used as a beast of burden throughout the world.
Its . . . — — Map (db m92729) HM
The early days of Inyo County presented many challenges to the original settlers, particularly for peacekeepers. The first sheriff, W.A. Greenly, served only one year. Many officials served only one or two years before resigning. Territorial and . . . — — Map (db m200934) HM
The Kittie Lee Inn was built in 1924 and was considered to be the height of luxury. During Hollywood’s heyday of filming movies in the High Sierra, almost all of the great stars stayed here at one time or another. Will Rogers, Randolph Scott, . . . — — Map (db m78314) HM
In June 1873 Colonel Sherman Stevens built a sawmill and flume on Cottonwood Creek high in the Sierra’s directly west of this spot. The flume connected with the Los Angeles Bullion Road. The lumber from the flume was used for timbering in the . . . — — Map (db m52104) HM
In June 1873 Colonel Sherman Stevens built a sawmill and flume on Cottonwood Creek high in the Sierras directly west of this spot. The flume connected with the Los Angeles Bullion Road. The lumber from the flume was used for timbering in the mine . . . — — Map (db m33877) HM
In the 1930s, this billboard directed travelers to the Coso Hot Springs resort, which was 10 miles to the east.
Molten rock, or magma, lies about five miles below the earth's surface. Groundwater
percolates through rock fractures, is . . . — — Map (db m195627) HM
We the Numu, (pronounced Noom, which is our word for people) known
now as Owens Valley Paiute, are native to the broad and beautiful valleys
here. What you see may look stark and dry, but long before the whites came,
we understood this land . . . — — Map (db m195037) HM
From the snowey heights of
the Sierras beyond the
deep shadows of Death Valley,
beloved and trusted by people
of all faiths. He led them
toward life's wider horizons.
He passed this way. — — Map (db m72566) HM
you is part of one of the largest military aircraft
training areas in the U.S. It has been used continuously since
the 1930s. Much of what is now the western portion of
Death Valley National Park was added under the condition
that . . . — — Map (db m194626) HM
This building was originally built by the Pacific Coast Borax Company in 1924. The original name of the facility was Corkill Hall, and was the social center for Death Valley Junction between 1924 to 1948.
Between the years 1948 to 1967, Corkill . . . — — Map (db m78582) HM
This historic crossroad has been used by Indians, Clampers, Death Valley 49ers, ranchers, farmers, settlers and tourists. The town was originally called Amargosa. In 1907, the name was changed to Death Valley Junction. At this junction, the Tonopah . . . — — Map (db m78583) HM
Among the first structures greeting visitors entering
the park from the west, these two stone buildings at
Emigrant were built to serve as a ranger station and
are a legacy of the Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC). Created by President Franklin . . . — — Map (db m159295) HM
Good Life in Badwater
Water is rare and precious in Death Valley. Imagine the disappointment when a surveyor mapping this area could not get his
mule to drink from this pool. He wrote on his map that the
spring had "bad water," and . . . — — Map (db m159465) HM
Near this spot the Bennett-Arcane contingent of the Death Valley '49ers, emigrants from the Middle West, seeking shortcut to California gold fields, were stranded for a month and almost perished from starvation. William Lewis Manley and John Rogers, . . . — — Map (db m159315) HM
Through this natural gateway the Death Valley Forty-Niners, more than one hundred emigrants from the middle west, seeking a shortcut to gold fields of central California, entered Death Valley in
December, 1849. All suffered from thirst and . . . — — Map (db m167508) HM
Seeking to capitalize on the mystique of Death
Valley, early promoters attached dubious names
like "Devils Cornfield" to its strange and unusual
features. Thought to resemble bundled corn left
to dry in rows at harvest time, the root system . . . — — Map (db m195412) HM
Crystallized salts compose the jagged formations of this forbidding landscape. Deposited by ancient salt lakes and shaped by winds and rain, the crystals are forever
Listen carefully. On a warm day you may hear a metallic cracking . . . — — Map (db m158905) HM
A few structural remains and the nearby borax
windrows are the most visible reminders of
Eagle Borax Works, the first borax refinery in
Businessman Isador Daunet founded the Eagle
operation on this site, producing borax by . . . — — Map (db m159313) HM
From the very early days of tourism in Death Valley, visitors wanted to explore the geologic treasures found in Golden Canyon. Once a road travelled up the canyon, but now only remnants of asphalt remain and the route is now Death
Valley's most . . . — — Map (db m195617) HM
Good fortune inspired the name “King of the Desert,“ coined for the Keane Wonder Mine by the Rhyolite Herald in 1911. The mine was discovered by Jack Keane and Domingo Etcharren in 1904. Producing over a million dollars in gold from 1904 to 1917, . . . — — Map (db m159260) HM
During the first two decades of this century the Keane Wonder Mine was the scene of major investment and development. The products of this labor were the riches - gold and silver.
About 1903, Jack Keane, prospector, discovered gold in this . . . — — Map (db m159264) HM
This was a mining boom town founded on wild and distorted advertising. 300
hopeful people swarmed here and a post office was established in August,
1926. In February 1927, the post office closed and the town died. — — Map (db m159527) HM
The Roaring '20s, like the 1990s and
early 2000s, fueled an age of excess and
speculation, setting the stage for Leadfield,
a town built on dreams of wealth.
Lead deposits attracted prospectors to Titus
Canyon as early as 1905, but . . . — — Map (db m195240) HM
This waterhole, only one in the sand dune area of Death Valley, was at the junction of two Indian trails. During the bonanza days of Rhyolite and Skidoo it was the only known water source on the cross-valley road. When sand obscured the spot, a . . . — — Map (db m94591) HM
Indian rock carvings are found throughout
the Western Hemisphere. Indians living today
deny any knowledge of their meaning. Are they
family symbols, doodlings, or ceremonial
markings? Your guess is as good as any.
Ancient Archives . . . — — Map (db m159528) HM
Flash Flood Scours Grapevine Canyon
On the night of October 18, 2015, heavy rains pounded Grapevine Canyon. Floodwaters roared out of the canyon mouth — visible to the northeast — and down the valley behind the ranger station. After . . . — — Map (db m195573) HM
Bury me beside Jim Dayton in the valley we loved. Above me write: "Here lies Shorty Harris, a single blanket jackass prospector." - Epitaph requested by Shorty (Frank) Harris, beloved gold hunter, 1856-1934.
Here Jas. Dayton, pioneer, perished, . . . — — Map (db m159314) HM
Before you is vivid evidence of one of the geologic forces that shapes Death Valley. Unlike most geologic features, the age of Ubehebe Crater (u-bee hee-bee) is measured in thousands rather than millions of years; it is about 2,000 years old. . . . — — Map (db m167511) HM
Traces of civilization remain for a long time on the face of Death Valley. Here, on both sides of the paved highway, you can see tracks of wagons that rolled between the mining boom towns of Rhyolite, Nevada and Skidoo, California. — — Map (db m159209) HM
Mining comes and goes with fluctuating demand for minerals, but the draw of the desert is eternal. By the 1920s borax mining activity had slowed and the Pacific Coast Borax Company began looking for other uses for its holdings in Death Valley. The . . . — — Map (db m159455) HM
These panels deal with how borax was mined and refined at the Harmony Borax Works in Death Valley.
Borates - salt minerals - were deposited in ancient lake beds that uplifted and eroded into the yellow Furnace Creek . . . — — Map (db m80567) HM
Furnace Creek is a spring fed stream flowing into Death Valley. Native Americans lived here centuries prior to its discovery by lost Forty Niners. In 1881, Aaron Winters found borax nearby, and sold his claims and water rights to William Tell . . . — — Map (db m159457) HM
Steam tractor and ore wagons introduced
at Old Borate to replace the twenty mule
teams and replaced in turn by the Borate
and Daggett Railroad. The tractor was later
used and abandoned on the Beatty-Keane
Wonder Mine Road in Death Valley. — — Map (db m159872) HM
On the marsh near this point borax was discovered in 1881 by Aaron Winters who later sold his holdings to W. T. Coleman of San Francisco. In 1882 Coleman built the Harmony Borax Works and commissioned his superintendent J. W. S. Perry to design . . . — — Map (db m158971) HM
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — — Map (db m158620) HM
For more than a century, the 20 Mule Team has been the symbol of the Borax industry — on product labels, in history books, and on television. The status is well-earned; mule teams help solve the most difficult task that faced death Valley Borax . . . — — Map (db m194275) HM
Though steeped in legend, the frenzied search
for gold and other materials in Death Valley
produced few fortunes. Borax, the "White
Gold of the Desert," ranks as the valley's
most profitable mineral.
Harmony Borax works, in front of you, . . . — — Map (db m32661) HM
This auditorium is one of three original buildings remaining here from Manzanar War Relocation Center. As you walk closer, listen for laughter, tears, music—the sounds of celebration and sadness that once echoed through this building’s . . . — — Map (db m122704) HM WM
At the request of settlers, Colonel George Evans led a military expedition to this site on July 4, 1862. Hence its name “Independence”. Indian hostilities ceased and the camp closed. War again broke out in 1865 and the camp was reoccupied as Fort . . . — — Map (db m2954) HM
An oil burning steam locomotive, built by Baldwin in 1911, was purchased by the Southern Pacific R.R. in 1926 to haul passengers and freight along the 300 miles narrow gauge line, known locality as the “Slim Princess”. Jim Butler of . . . — — Map (db m52099) HM
Architect: William H. Weeks
Contractor: McCombs and Son
Board of Supervisors
George W. Naylor * Amos Hancock
Thomas Thomson, Jr. * W.V. Butler
Accepted: November 8, 1921
The Inyo County Courthouse is . . . — — Map (db m2956) HM
Built originally as a stagecoach depot in 1866, it evolved into a railroad station in 1883 to carry freight and passengers on the Carson & Colorado Railroad line, known locally as the "Slim Princess". It served the Independence community from 1883 . . . — — Map (db m72573) HM
Over the years, this monument has become an icon, inspiring a grass-roots movement to preserve Manzanar and remember the sacrifices of 120,313 Japanese Americans confined by their own government. — — Map (db m70549) HM
In the early part of the World War II, 110,000 persons of Japanese ancestry were interned in relocation centers by Executive Order No. 9066, issued on February 19, 1942.
Manzanar, the first of ten such concentration camps, was bounded by . . . — — Map (db m122703) HM WM
“But if ever you come beyond the borders as far as the town that lies in a hill dimple at the foot of Kearsarge, never leave it until you have knocked on the door of the brown house under the willow-tree at the end of the village street, and . . . — — Map (db m2955) HM
In 1916, the citizens of Independence
purchased a 40 acre tract of land and
donated it to the State of California
for the building of a fish hatchery.
This structure was the result. The
first trout were produced in 1918, and
since that . . . — — Map (db m218383) HM
One hundred thirty feet west of this site, Charles Putnam built the first cabin of permanent habitation in what is now Inyo County in August 1861. The building served as a home, trading post, hospital, and “fort” for early settlers, as well as a . . . — — Map (db m2957) HM
Life at Manzanar was uncertain, but the prospect of dying behind barbed wire, far from home, may have been unthinkable. On May 16, 1943, Matsunosuke Murakami, 62, became the first of 150 men, women, and children to die in camp. He and 14 others, . . . — — Map (db m70534) WM
America went to work for the war effort in 1942, and Manzanar was no exception. More than 500 young Japanese Americans wove camouflage nets here for the U.S. Army. Since citizenship was a job requirement, most saw weaving nets as a chance to prove . . . — — Map (db m70551) HM
Cerro Gordo discovered by Mexicans in 1865 was at $17,000,000 Inyo's wealthiest mineral producer. Silver, lead, zinc, water and supplies all went by mule train, tram. The "Bessie Brady" boat across Owens Lake and Remi Nadeau mule teams to build the . . . — — Map (db m72747) HM
In 1862 this high quality deposit of dolomitic limestone was discovered. Its remorte location delayed development until 1883, when the Carson & Colorado Railroad was constructed. In 1885, Drew Haven Dunn filed a mining claim and the Inyo Marble . . . — — Map (db m72577) HM
On Names and Routes
The numbering of the current State and Federal highways reflects the piecemeal manner in which
these highway systems were conceived, constructed and signed. Most highways replicate or replace
older local . . . — — Map (db m195706) HM
From Mound House, Nevada, narrow gauge rails of the Carson & Colorado Railroad reached this site in 1883. Cerro Gordo and other mines faltered, the rail line fell on hard times, so plans to extend the line to Mojave were abandoned, leaving Keeler as . . . — — Map (db m72574) HM
Owens Lake was once over 300 feet deep and part of a large ancient freshwater lake. As the climate changed over centuries, the lake began to dry up leaving behind concentrated minerals and salts. By 1905, diversion of water by farmers in the Owens . . . — — Map (db m72575) HM
The Owens Lake Silver-Lead Furnace and Mill was built here by Col. Sherman Stevens in 1869 and used until March 1874. James Brady assumed its operation in 1870 for the Silver-Lead Company and built the town of Swansea. During the next few years the . . . — — Map (db m72576) HM
In 1938, this hill area, among many others in these Alabama Hills, served as a stand-in for the hill country of northern India when RKO made the classic adventure film, 'Gunga Din,' on location in Lone Pine. Hundreds of horsemen raced across the . . . — — Map (db m93442) HM
The Alabama Gates and gate house were constructed in 1913 when the Los Angeles Aqueduct was built to dewater the aqueduct when maintenance is necessary. On November 16, 1924, seventy or more local citizens seized the aqueduct at the Alabama Gates . . . — — Map (db m93252) HM
In the 1870’s bullion bars from Cerro Gordo mines were hauled across Owens Lake on the steamer “Bessie Brady” to Cartago Boat Landing. Remi Nadeau’s 14 mule teams hauled the bullion to Los Angeles, returning with freight. — — Map (db m81960) HM
The town was named after Dr. E. Darwin French who explored the area in 1860 giving his name to the falls, canyon, and wash. First recorded mine, the Promontorio, was discovered by Rafael Cuervo October 1876. Darwin was the center of activity of the . . . — — Map (db m72567) HM
On the date of March 26, 1872, an earthquake of major proportions shook Owens Valley and nearly destroyed the town of Lone Pine.
Twenty seven persons were killed.
In addition to single burials, 16 of the victims were interred in a . . . — — Map (db m34157) HM
This Plaque Presented to The Beverly and Jim Rogers Lone Pine Film Museum to Honor Masons and Shriners.
Dedicated to all Masons and Shriners who appeared in movies filmed in the Alabama Hills, Lone Pine and surrounding areas. Presented by Kerak . . . — — Map (db m72578) HM
This cemetery was established in 1865 when Mrs, McGuire and her son were killed on Jan. 1, 1865, during the last battle of the 1860's Owens Valley Indian Wars. Those buried here were the Town's founders, including C. Begole and A. Johnson, who along . . . — — Map (db m93443) HM
The story of movie-making in Lone Pine must include local rancher Russell Spainhower, who for years was Hollywood’s main contact man here. “We need 50 horses and 10 wagons next week,” they’d say and Spainhower would arrange it, plus help . . . — — Map (db m146399) HM
Since 1920, hundreds of movies and TV episodes, including Gunga Din, How The West Was Won, Khyber Rifles, Bengal Lancers, and High Sierra, along with, The Lone Ranger and Bonanza, with such stars as Tom Mix, Hopalong Cassidy, Roy Rogers, Gary . . . — — Map (db m52103) HM
On March 26, 1872 at 2:30AM, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded destroyed 52 out of the 59 buildings in Lone Pine.
Because of the scarcity of building materials the largely immigrant population of Lone Pine, (estimated 250-300), . . . — — Map (db m52102) HM
The Dow Hotel was built in 1923 to accommodate the growing numbers of movie companies coming regularly to Lone Pine even then. The motel units were added in 1957. Those who stayed here over the years while filming in the Alabama Hills include Tom . . . — — Map (db m146400) HM
The pageant weekend in 1937 was created by Father Crowley and locals to celebrate the opening of the much needed new paved road section connecting Owens Valley to Death Valley and points east.
Friday morning a special gourd of water was . . . — — Map (db m77727) HM
There is gold in the hill in front of you, and old-
time prospector Shorty Harris and his greenhorn
partner Pete Aguereberry discovered it in 1905.
Their discovery triggered a short-lived mining
boom. The tent town of Harrisburg blossomed . . . — — Map (db m168072) HM
Here at Aguereberry Point you can see why
Death Valley is often described as a vast geologic
museum. Badwater Basin far below and the
peaks of the Panamint Mountains above are the
results of the land tilting along active fault lines;
the . . . — — Map (db m168023) HM
Roy Journigan acquired this mill site in Emigrant Canyon shortly after passage of the 1934 Gold Reserve Act caused the price of gold to jump from $20 to $35 an ounce. His strategy was to operate a custom mill for local mines, so both he and the . . . — — Map (db m212389) HM
You are standing in what once was downtown
Unlike other Death Valley boomtowns, Skidoo
flourished for nearly ten years. At its height in
1907 it boasted 700 residents, a newspaper, bank,
school, and telephone service. The hundreds . . . — — Map (db m159370) HM
Powered by water piped from a spring high in
the Panamint Range, the Skidoo Mill extracted
gold from ore and was one of Death Valley's
most profitable operations. Skidoo had the only
water-powered milling plant in Death Valley.
The . . . — — Map (db m159375) HM
The Skidoo Pipeline can be seen either north or south of this location. The pipeline, which ran from Birch Spring in Jail Canyon to the millsite 23 miles away, was completed in 1907 at a cost of $250,000. — — Map (db m159328) HM
Gold from the Eureka Mine sustained Pete
Aguereberry for 40 years. Historians estimate
that Aguereberry extracted about $175,000 worth
of gold (then valued at $20 per ounce) from
Providence Ridge during his lifetime.
Cashier Mill . . . — — Map (db m168029) HM
During the 1930s, Americans struggled with the financial and social turmoil of the Great Depression. The employment rate reached 25 percent, and many men were unable to support their families. Their frustration contributed to the election of . . . — — Map (db m159360) HM
Built in 1877, these kilns produced charcoal for the Modock Mine smelter about 20 miles to the west. Workers filled the stone kilns with piñon pine logs (relatively abundant in this area) and fired them. The burning, which reduced the wood to . . . — — Map (db m159369) HM
This District possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States Of America.
The Coso Rock Art District contains the largest concentration of unaltered prehistoric petroglyphs and associated sites in North . . . — — Map (db m196327) HM
Early People at Fossil Falls - Life at the Edge of Volcanoes and Glaciers
An Oasis in the Past
Imagine this spot twelve thousand years ago. The
climate was much wetter than it is now. Large lakes
filled many of today's . . . — — Map (db m194960) HM
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