“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Fairfax County, Virginia

Clickable Map of Fairfax County, Virginia and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil;; J.J.Prats/dc:title> Fairfax County, VA (709) Alexandria Ind. City, VA (355) Arlington County, VA (455) Fairfax Ind. City, VA (48) Falls Church Ind. City, VA (137) Loudoun County, VA (335) Prince William County, VA (653) Washington, DC (2450) Charles County, MD (150) Montgomery County, MD (714) Prince George s County, MD (624)  FairfaxCounty(709) Fairfax County (709)  (355) Alexandria (355)  ArlingtonCounty(455) Arlington County (455)  (48) Fairfax (48)  (137) Falls Church (137)  LoudounCounty(335) Loudoun County (335)  PrinceWilliamCounty(653) Prince William County (653)   D.C.(2450) Washington (2450)  CharlesCountyMaryland(150) Charles County (150)  MontgomeryCounty(714) Montgomery County (714)  PrinceGeorge'sCounty(624) Prince George's County (624)
Fairfax is the county seat for Fairfax County
Adjacent to Fairfax County, Virginia
      Alexandria (355)  
      Arlington County (455)  
      Fairfax (48)  
      Falls Church (137)  
      Loudoun County (335)  
      Prince William County (653)  
      Washington, D.C. (2450)  
      Charles County, Maryland (150)  
      Montgomery County, Maryland (714)  
      Prince George's County, Maryland (624)  
Touch name on this list to highlight map location.
Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
1Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Battery Mount Vernon(August 1898)
Concrete emplacement for three 8" breech-loading disappearing gunsMap (db m203326) HM
2Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Battery SaterGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Battery Sater and Other Defensive Tactics Fort Hunt became fully armed as a coastal defense installation upon completion of Battery Sater, the last of the four gun batteries. Battery Sater also served as a command center for mines placed in . . . Map (db m41177) HM
3Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Bethlehem Baptist Church
According to tradition, the earliest congregation, which would become the Bethlehem Baptist Church, was organized circa 1863 by Samuel K. Taylor, a former slave, who preached in the homes of the African-American residents of Gum Springs. Shortly . . . Map (db m100708) HM
4Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Beyond What You See TodayGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
In addition to its use as a coastal defense during the Spanish-American War, Fort Hunt served further military purposes in later years. During World War II, the military transported enemy prisoners here in unmarked, windowless buses, literally . . . Map (db m41176) HM
5Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — E-125 — Birthplace of Fitzhugh Lee
To the north stood Clermont, the birthplace of Fitzhugh "Fitz" Lee. Born on 19 Nov. 1835, Lee was the nephew of Gen. Robert E. Lee. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1856. During the Civil War, Fitzhugh Lee was commissioned as a . . . Map (db m161) HM
6Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Civilian Conservation CorpsGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), originally designed as a New Deal Program under the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, provided work for young men during the Depression Era, a time of excessive unemployment. From . . . Map (db m41173) HM
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7Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Commerce and Transportation
Rivers were like highways in Washington's time and having access to the water connected Mount Vernon to the outside world. Riverfront activities were a part of daily life and ranged from shipping and receiving goods, such as tobacco, fish, flour, . . . Map (db m148150) HM
8Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Fort Hunt ParkGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Welcome to Fort Hunt Park. The concrete platform in front of you, Battery Mount Vernon, once held a set of heavy guns designed to protect Washington, D.C. from naval attack. In 1885, Secretary of War William C. Endicott chaired a commission that . . . Map (db m41175) HM
9Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Fort Washington—The Capital’s Guardian Reported permanently removed
Fort Washington, directly across the river, is the oldest existing fortification erected for the defense of the national capital. It was begun in 1814 to replace the first fort which was destroyed during the War of 1812 with Great Britain. . . . Map (db m115808) HM
10Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — George Washington's Fisheries
"The whole shore in short is one entire fishery." -George Washington to Arthur Young, 1793
Mount Vernon's proximity to the Potomac River provided George Washington with access to vast quantities of fish. In one . . . Map (db m148057) HM
11Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — E-94_1 — Gum Springs
Gum Springs, an African-American community, originated here on a 214-acre farm bought in 1833 by West Ford (ca. 1785-1863), a freed man, skilled carpenter, and manager of the Mount Vernon estate. The freedman’s school begun here in 1867 at Bethlehem . . . Map (db m952) HM
12Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — E-94_2 — Gum Springs
Gum Springs, an African-American community, originated here on a 214-acre farm bought in 1833 by West Ford (ca. 1785-1863), a freed man, skilled carpenter, and manager of the Mount Vernon estate. The freedman's school begun here in 1867 at Bethlehem . . . Map (db m210268) HM
13Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — B-260 — Historic Green Spring
A 1784 brick house, spring house, and a designed landscape showcase the unique 1942 collaboration of two American masters of design, Walter Macomber and Beatrix Farrand. Green Spring is the only known place where both designers' work is extant. . . . Map (db m33710) HM
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14Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Historic White House Gatescirca 1819
The gates, which were installed in 1819, were one of the finishing touches to the reconstruction of the White House after it was burned during the War of 1812. The gates were commissioned by President James Monroe and were fabricated at the New . . . Map (db m140956) HM
15Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — History of the Wharf
In 18th-century America, riverside property was considered prime real estate, allowing owners to take advantage of transportation and trade opportunities. Located on the banks of the Potomac River, the wharf was an incredibly important part of . . . Map (db m147903) HM
16Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Home of George and Martha Washington / See Mount Vernon From The Water!George Washington's Mount Vernon
Home of George and Martha Washington "No estate in United America is more pleasantly situated than this. It lyes [sic] in a high, dry country 300 miles by water from the Sea and…on one of the finest Rivers in the world." -George . . . Map (db m147909) HM
17Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Hybla Valley Airport
Virginia's first airport permit was granted to Elvin W. Robertson's Hybla Valley Airport in February 1929. As President of Mount Vernon Airways, he utilized the airfield as a site for barnstorming and air circuses. Robertson, Fairfax Supervisor . . . Map (db m189494) HM
18Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — In Support of American DefenseGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Fort Hunt played a key role in military development and defense. It was used as a major fortification during the Spanish-American War, as a logistical/training support center during peacetime, and as a military installation during WWI and WWII. . . . Map (db m41172) HM
19Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — E-69 — Little Hunting Creek
The Washington family land south of here, named Mount Vernon in the 1740s, was part of a grant made in 1677 by the Northern Neck proprietors to Col. Nicholas Spencer and Lt. Col. John Washington. George Washington’s great-grandfather. John . . . Map (db m794) HM
20Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Mount Pleasant Baptist Church
Mount Pleasant Baptist Church was founded in 1867 during post-Civil War Reconstruction. Freedmen were given one acre of land for religious and educational purposes and a burying ground for colored people. The first church was a one-room . . . Map (db m189258) HM
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21Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Mount Vernon Memorial HighwayGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway
Construction of the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway was the result of years of public support for a dignified memorial road connecting the nation’s capital with the home of its first president. The 15-mile roadway opened in 1932, to commemorate the . . . Map (db m93158) HM
22Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — P.O. Box 11421942 - 1946
This flagpole is dedicated to the veterans of P.O. Box 1142 who served this country as members of two military intelligence service (MIS) programs during World War II. Their top secret work here at Fort Hunt not only contributed to the allied . . . Map (db m71583) HM
23Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Peake Family Cemetery
Rumored to have been a slave cemetery, this burial ground is the final resting place of several white and black residents of Gum Springs. In 1762, Humphrey Peake inherited three slaves — Caesar, Ben and Allee; a mare named Flower, five . . . Map (db m131555) HM
24Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — People and the LandGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
American Indians occupied the region at least 13,000 years ago. They hunted game and gathered nature's bounty while residing in temporary seasonal camps. Approximately 3,000 years ago, they began to grow crops and establish permanent villages. . . . Map (db m41174) HM
25Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Preserving the Viewshed
George Washington recognized and celebrated the beauty of the Potomac River and its connection to his life here, once describing it in a 1793 letter to Arthur Young as "one of the finest Rivers in the world." When discussing his . . . Map (db m148148) HM
26Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — Protecting America's LegacyGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Fort Hunt, part of a national park known as the George Washington Memorial Parkway, reflects the history of Virginia and the nation. Places along the Parkway represent outstanding examples of cultural landscapes; historical, architectural, and . . . Map (db m115809) HM
27Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — The Last Defense — Fort Hunt — Reported missing
British warships took advantage of the width and depth of the Potomac River to sail up from the Chesapeake Bay during the War of 1812. Existing defenses were too weak to stop them from shelling Alexandria. Aware that the nation’s Capitol was . . . Map (db m46129) HM
28Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — The Potomac Watershed
The Potomac River meanders over 383 miles from Fairfax Stone, West Virginia, to Point Lookout, Maryland, where it flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The watershed of the Potomac River stretches across: Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, . . . Map (db m148154) HM
29Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — The Thirteen Adjacent Elms1732–1932
The thirteen adjacent elms representing the thirteen original colonies were planted in commemoration of the bicentennial celebration of George Washington’s birth and to revere the ancient and honorable artillery company of Massachusetts organized . . . Map (db m939) HM
30Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — To Commemorate the 250th Anniversary Reported missing
To commemorate the 250th anniversary of the birth of George Washington the citizens of the original Washington, Tyne and Wear, England present to the people of the United States 250 trees planted along the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. . . . Map (db m940) HM
31Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — US Route 1 Wall of AviationHybla Valley and Beacon Field — EW Robertson and HJ Lehman —
Hybla Valley From Dream to Flight School This section of Historic Route 1 boasted two private airfields that began operations in the mid 1920’s. When Dr. Hugo Eckener and First Officer Captain Ernst Lehmann flew the Graf Zeppelin . . . Map (db m68104) HM
32Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — War at our Doorstep
While its location on the Potomac was usually a blessing—both for its beautiful views and commercial opportunities—Mount Vernon's safety was threatened by activities on the river during times of war. American Revolution (1775-1783) In . . . Map (db m147908) HM
33Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — E-146 — Woodlawn Methodist Church
African Americans in Woodlawn, four miles southwest of here, established Woodlawn Methodist Episcopal Church ca. 1866. The Woodlawn area, formerly part of George Washington's Mount Vernon estate, was home to African Americans who had been free . . . Map (db m131212) HM
34Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria — WW II: A Battle Fought at Home and Abroad
The United States engaged in World War II (WWII) at home and on foreign soil. With formal entry of the United States into WWII, the Military Intelligence Service (MIS) began two top-secret programs, known as MIS-Y and MIS-X, at Fort Hunt. Under the . . . Map (db m41161) HM
35Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — A Fine Improvable MarshGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
When George Washington surveyed the future site of Alexandria in 1749, he described this area as a “fine improvable marsh.” Do you think that ideas about improving marshlands have changed since Washington's time? How can we improve Dyke Marsh . . . Map (db m108523)
36Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — A Place to Rest—or NestGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway
Nearly 300 different kinds of birds find food, shelter, or a rest stop in Dyke Marsh. Birds that migrate thousands of miles along the Atlantic Flyway rest here on their way to winter homes in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. . . . Map (db m108487)
37Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Anatomy of a Tidal MarshGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway
Your body has a heart and blood vessels to carry nutrients to your tissues, lungs to breathe, kidneys to filter out pollutants, and skin to protect you. When you look closely at Dyke Marsh, you can find natural systems that do all the same things. . . . Map (db m108522)
38Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Belle Haven Park
An area that was part of Washington's perimeter defenses established by the Union Army after the disaster of the Battle of Manassas (First Bull Run)Map (db m154463) HM
39Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — E-70 — Colonial Fort
Nearby at John Mathew’s land on Hunting Creek, Governor William Berkeley constructed a fort authorized by the Virginia House of Burgesses on 21 Sept. 1674. Militiamen from Lancaster, Middlesex and Northumberland Counties garrisoned the fort under . . . Map (db m775) HM
40Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Defenses of WashingtonFort Willard Park
After Virginia seceded from the Union on April 17, 1861 the District of Columbia was on the dangerous border between the divided states. Because of the city’s importance, the Union Army immediately occupied Northern Virginia, which allowed troops to . . . Map (db m47967) HM
41Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Fort Willard
Civil War Fort constructed in 1862 as part of the defense system for Washington, D.C.Map (db m47976) HM
42Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Fort WillardFort Willard Park
Fort Willard Park contains significant earthworks and archaeological remains of a fort built in 1862 by the Union Army. It was one of 63 forts that were built surrounding the District of Columbia during the Civil War as part of the Defenses of . . . Map (db m154524) HM
43Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Historic Jones PointMount Vernon Trail — George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Park Service —
In the distance is Jones Point, designated as the southern corner of the District of Columbia by President George Washington. In 1790 Congress established the nation’s capital with a ten-mile square of land ceded by Virginia and Maryland. Alexandria . . . Map (db m154908) HM
44Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — These Trees
These trees were planted in commemoration of the eight Presidents of the United States who were sons of Virginia. George Washington, 1789-1797 • Thomas Jefferson, 1801-1809 • James Madison, 1809-1817 • James Monroe, 1817-1825 • Wm. . . . Map (db m814) HM
45Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Belle View — Wasteland or Wetland?What is Your Point of View? — George Washington Memorial Parkway —
Here, 400 years ago, the Piscataway tribe fed themselves on fish and waterfowl. In the early 1800s, Virginia farmers built retaining walls, called dykes, to drain this marsh and make farmland. The dykes proved too hard to keep intact. Without dyles, . . . Map (db m117252) HM
46Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — A View from the Beginning / Explore Historic Huntley
A View from the Beginning Welcome to the 1820s Thomas Francis Mason Thomas Francis Mason, grandson of George Mason IV, was a prominent lawyer, mayor and judge in Alexandria, D.C. He worked tirelessly for the economic . . . Map (db m127722) HM
47Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — Beacon Field Airport
In 1929, Airway Beacon No. 55, a pilot’s navigation aid, was installed on this site owned by W.F.P. Reid. Beacon Field is named for the beacon tower. Under the Civilian Pilot Training Program established in 1938, Ashburn Flying Service trained . . . Map (db m69516) HM
48Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — E-102 — Fort Lyon
In this vicinity stood Fort Lyon, the major fortification on the left flank of the Federal defenses guarding the city of Washington during the Civil War. Named in honor of Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, the fort covered an area of nine acres with its . . . Map (db m154523) HM
49Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — Huntley
The Huntley mansion house and its surrounding farm complex were built circa 1820 as a secondary residence for Thomson Francis Mason and his wife Elizabeth Clapman Price. Thomson Francis Mason, a prominent Virginia lawyer, was active in Alexandria . . . Map (db m7911) HM
50Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — Missing Views, Lost StoriesA View for All Time
Before the Civil War, the only full-time Huntley residents were those who worked the land: the enslaved people and the overseers. They labored to raise profitable crops of wheat, oats, rye, and corn for the Masons. In August 1828, Bob, a . . . Map (db m144205) HM
51Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — New Views, New VoicesA View for All Time
The view changed in all directions after the Civil War and emancipation. New people and opportunities appeared. The Harrisons became the new voices at Huntley in 1868. They were the first owners to live here full-time, and they immersed . . . Map (db m144232) HM
52Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — Saint Mark's Episcopal Church
Saint Mark's Episcopal Church is one of several congregations that evolved from the efforts of nineteenth century students from the Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria. The first congregation met at the original Groveton Schoolhouse on . . . Map (db m42387) HM
53Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Groveton — Your View, Your Voice
From here, it's easy to see why Betsey Mason wrote that she planned to visit Huntley for much-needed peace and quiet in the 1840s. The view—of the land and of the people who lived and worked here—has changed since then, but thanks to community . . . Map (db m198368) HM
54Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Jefferson Manor — E-81 — Defenses of Washington
During the Civil War, the U.S. Army constructed a series of forts and artillery batteries around Washington to protect it from Confederate attack. Forts O’Rourke, Weed, Farnsworth, and Lyon stood just to the north, and Fort Willard which still . . . Map (db m2330) HM
55Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Jefferson Manor — Fairview – Caught in History's Crossfire
In the early 19th century these 10 acres were part of Burgundy Plantation. In the 1850s, John A. Fairfax established a 150 acre plantation named Fairview on the property. He improved the existing dwelling originally constructed between 1800 and . . . Map (db m131551) HM
56Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Jefferson Manor — Mount Eagle MansionGeorge Washington Visited Here Often
This is the site of the Mount Eagle Mansion, built in 1790 by Bryan Fairfax. George Washington was a long-time friend of Fairfax. Washington visited here frequently and dined here the last time only a week before he died in 1799. . . . Map (db m140957) HM
57Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Jefferson Manor — Parapet and Gun PlatformsMount Eagle Park
Battery between Fort O'Rourke and Fort Farnsworth In the tree line in front of you are visible remnants of earthworks constructed by United States Army engineers in 1862 as a part of the Defenses of Washington. This earthen parapet . . . Map (db m131553) HM
58Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Kingstowne — Carrolltown
In this vicinity a small African-American settlement grew from ten acres of land given to Jane Carroll by her owner, Dennis Johnston, before 1856. Jane's son, George, acquired an additional 121 acres from Johnston's heirs in 1899 and 1903. In 1904 . . . Map (db m163) HM
59Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Kingstowne — Potter’s Hill
Schools at Potters Hill. Based on picture captions left by early local historians like Edith Sprouse we believe there were at least three different school houses at the intersection of Telegraph and Beulah Roads. We have pictures and some . . . Map (db m106894) HM
60Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Kingstowne — The Spy with the Glass Eye
In early January 1862, Colonel Wade Hampton, with a small detachment of cavalrymen crossed the Occoquan River, and rode towards Pohick Church looking for a fight. After going only a few miles beyond the church on Telegraph Road, it encountered a . . . Map (db m106896) HM
61Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Advantageous Fencing
"Much fencing is necessary at this plantation before it can be said to be advantageously laid off and in good order." George Washington to John Fairfax, January 1, 1789
When it came to fencing, . . . Map (db m182621) HM
62Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Batteau Construction Project
"I shall not object to one of the Carpenters assisting Mr. Stuart in building a Batteau…" George Washington to Anthony Whitting, January 20, 1793
The batteau constructed here is 21 feet long . . . Map (db m182614) HM
63Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Batteau Design
"A batteau…is the most proper Vessel for water fencing by being flat bottom'd and will go in Shawl water.." Anthony Whitting to George Washington, January 16, 1793
Although we do not have a . . . Map (db m182618) HM
64Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Bowling Green
"Began again to Smooth the Face of the Lawn, or Bolling [sic] Green on the West front of my House…" Washington Diary Entry, September 30, 1785
. . . Map (db m182575) HM
65Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Colonial Revival Garden
Mount Vernon's lower garden provided vegetables, fruits, and herbs to feed the Washingtons and their guests. Kitchen gardens were considered the most consequential part of gardening in the 18th century as they contributed to health and survival. . . . Map (db m182577) HM
66Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — E-67 — Doeg Indians
A group of Virginia Indians referred to as the Doeg (but also Dogue, Taux, and other names) occupied villages and settlements along the Potomac and Occoquan Rivers by 1607. They included Tauxenent, near the mouth of the Occoquan River, Namasingakent . . . Map (db m32063) HM
67Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Domestic AnimalsFound in George Washington's Forest
George Washington was very fond of horses and dogs and owned many during his lifetime. Both animals could be found in the forest as part of various activities at the estate, such as foxhunts. The American Kennel Club credits George Washington for . . . Map (db m182650) HM
68Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Dung Repository
"When I speak of a knowing Farmer, I mean one who understands the best course of Crops […] & above all, Midas like, one who can convert everything he touches into manure, as the first transmutation towards Gold." George . . . Map (db m182581) HM
69Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Espaliers and Cordons
Gardeners carefully pruned and trained dwarf variety fruit trees, such as apple, apricot, cherry, and peach. These living sculptures not only please the eye, but also maximize valuable growing space. Espaliers generally grow against a wall. . . . Map (db m182580) HM
70Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Fence and Ditch
"…there is nothing I more ardently desire; nor indeed is there any more essential to my permanent interest, than raising of live fences on proper Ditches or banks." —George Washington to Overseers at Mount Vernon, July . . . Map (db m182585) HM
71Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Fruit Garden and Nursery
Most of this four-acre enclosure was devoted to an orchard that produced the apples, cherries, peaches, and other fruits needed in the kitchen. Vegetables, grains, and pasture grasses were grown in beds and allowed to "go to seed," providing the . . . Map (db m182590) HM
72Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — George WashingtonConservationist
The forest around George Washington's home has been preserved and protected since the last quarter of the 18th century, beginning with Washington himself. A working plantation made great demands on the surrounding forest, as wood was . . . Map (db m182653) HM
73Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — George Washington's Distillery and Gristmill in 1799
1. Miller's Cottage, Kitchen, Garden and Orchard Constructed 1770-1771. From 1770 to 1799, George Washington employed several millers who lived in this cottage. 2. Gristmill Constructed 1770-1771. The mill had two sets of . . . Map (db m140954) HM
74Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — George Washington's Forest
In the 18th century, George Washington's Mount Vernon property included Dogue Run Farm, Muddy Hole Farm, River Farm, Union Farm, and Mansion House Farm, where you are now. As the map illustrates, more than half of this 8,000-acre property was . . . Map (db m148093) HM
75Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — E-73 — George Washington's Gristmill
In 1771, George Washington replaced a deteriorated gristmill that his father, Augustine, may have erected as early as the 1730s. The new mil ground grain from Mount Vernon and neighboring farms, and was outfitted with two pairs of millstones. In . . . Map (db m32060) HM
76Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — George Washington's Landscape Design
"The whole plantation, the garden, and the rest prove well that a man born with the natural taste may guess a beauty without having seen the model. The General has never left America…but it seems as if he had copied the best samples . . . Map (db m182659) HM
77Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Ha-ha Walls
George Washington wanted to keep farm animals away from the Mansion without obstructing visitors' views of a pastoral landscape with animals grazing in the distance. Instead of fences, he used ha-ha walls, which have a top level that is even with . . . Map (db m194337) HM
78Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — In Memory of the Many Faithful Colored Servants of the Washington Family
Buried at Mount Vernon from 1760 to 1860. Their unidentified graves surround this spot.Map (db m7849) HM
79Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Lower (Kitchen) Garden
"…as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country." —Martha Washington, 1792
Before grocery store existed, most homes maintained kitchen gardens that provided the produce. Since the . . . Map (db m182576) HM
80Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Mount Vernon's Slave MemorialFaith. Hope. Love.
In Memory of the Afro Americans who served as slaves at Mount Vernon This monument marking their burial groundMap (db m14170) HM
81Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Necessary
Only members of the gentry used the Necessary, commonly known as an outhouse or privy, and likely only in good weather. Chamber pots were used inside the house in evenings and in cold or inclement weather. Slaves removed, emptied, and cleaned the . . . Map (db m140945) HM
82Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Nursery Beds
"I entirely approve…of establishing large Nurseries of every kind of plant that i fit for hedges." George Washington to Farm Manager Anthony Whiting December 9, 1792
Tender shoots and cuttings . . . Map (db m182586) HM
83Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Origin of the Purple Heart TrailMount Vernon, Virginia
This marker commemorates the establishment of the Purple Heart decoration by General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, on August 8, 1782. The Purple Heart Trail memorializes those patriots who were awarded the . . . Map (db m14173) HM
84Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Original Mount Vernon High School
The original Mount Vernon High School was located here on 8.8 acres that were once part of George Washington's Mount Vernon estate. Fairfax County purchased the land for $400 per acre in November 1938. Construction funding was provided by Fairfax . . . Map (db m100772) HM
85Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Other Useful ResourcesIn The Forest
A Cobblestone Quarry Archaeologists and geologists agree that during George Washington's day, this area was a likely source of stone for the Mount Vernon estate. Cobbles (a naturally rounded rock fragment) were collected and used to . . . Map (db m182625) HM
86Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Park and ParkwayGeorge Washington Memorial Parkway
Dedicated in 1932, the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway was created to honor George Washington’s 200th birthday. This scenic parkway connected Mount Vernon to the recently dedicated Arlington Memorial Bridge. As the first modern motorway built by . . . Map (db m93157) HM
87Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Pope-Leighey
The house of moderate cost is not only America's major architectural problem but the problem most difficult for her major architects. - Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936 Frank Lloyd Wright's solution was the Usonian house, a . . . Map (db m140946) HM
88Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Powel Coach
Samuel Powel, mayor of Philadelphia and good friend of the Washingtons, owned the handsome coach made by Clark Brothers, well known Philadelphia carriage makers who also built a small coach, or chariot for the Washingtons. A chariot accommodates two . . . Map (db m194335) HM
89Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Punt
A punt is a flat-bottomed boat with a square-cut bow that was designed for use on small rivers or other shallow water. This type of vessel was very common in 18th-century America. George Washington's records show that punts were used by hired and . . . Map (db m182619) HM
90Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Riding Chair
As a young man, George Washington acquired a riding chair similar to the 18th century example you see here (alongside a modern reproduction). Popular in America and England, riding chairs could travel country lanes and back roads more easily than . . . Map (db m217318) HM
91Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Seed Beds
"…it is miserable for a farmer to be obliged to buy his Seeds; to exchange Seeds may, in some cases be useful; but to buy them after the first year is disreputable." George Washington to Farm Manager William Pierce . . . Map (db m182589) HM
92Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Slave Cabin
This cabin represents dwellings inhabited by enslaved people who worked on Washington's outlying farm. Groups of cabins were arranged opposite an overseer's house. At Dogue Run Farm, where Washington's 16-sided treading barn was originally . . . Map (db m182624) HM
93Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Slave Cemetery
There are no records that document the number of enslaved or free African-Americans who are buried in this cemetery. From oral histories and a handful of early 19th-century visitor accounts, estimates range from 100-150 people. Among those . . . Map (db m112650) HM
94Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Slave Memorial
In 1929, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association placed a marker noting the location of the slave cemetery, believed to be the first commemoration of its kind at a historic site. Despite this recognition, the burial ground lay unattended for decades, . . . Map (db m112855) HM
95Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Slavery at Mount Vernon
“It is my Will and desire that all the Slaves which I hold in my own right shall receive their freedom.” George Washington in his will, 1799
Of the 316 slaves at Mount Vernon in 1799, most lived . . . Map (db m93616) HM
96Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Slavery at Mount Vernon
In 1799, this estate was home to a community of 317 enslaved men, women, and children who had no choice but to live here. Most of these enslaved people lived and worked on the four outlying farms as rural laborers. About one quarter of the . . . Map (db m112852) HM
97Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Soil Improvements
"When I speak of a knowing farmer, I mean one who understands the best course of crops; … and above all, Midas like, one who can convert everything he touches into manure, as the first transmutation towards Gold." . . . Map (db m182620) HM
98Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Sundries Field
"For in the affairs of farming or Planting, more perhaps than in any other, it may justly be said there is a time for all things." George Washington to John Fairfax, January 1, 1789
In addition . . . Map (db m182611) HM
99Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — Sunrise to Sunset
"The sun never caught [Washington] in bed, and he was unwilling it should find any of his people sleeping." Former Washington slave, quoted in Parley's Magazine, 1838
In 1799, most of Mount . . . Map (db m182623) HM
100Virginia, Fairfax County, Alexandria, Mount Vernon — The Fruit Garden
"For every acre…, an Apple tree of good grafted fruit is to be planted on the premises, in a regular orchard truly laid out in rows forty feet apart…Between w[hi]ch, (also in regular order) rows of peach trees…" George . . . Map (db m182594) HM

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Mar. 27, 2023