Ashland in 1860 was a quiet, charming village. Its 150 residents lived in cottages on tree-lined streets. A fashionable hotel, a notable racecourse, and a famous mineral springs resort made Ashland a social center. Then came war.
In the summer . . . — — Map (db m8199) HM
In 1838, the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad bought 462 acres bordering its tracks twelve miles north of Richmond in Hanover County. The company created a small summer retreat and passenger rest stop there. In 1858, the area was . . . — — Map (db m1991) HM
Following the Union army's departure from the North Anna River on 26 May 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee cautiously moved his army south toward Richmond to stay between the Federals and the capital. Lee's wagon trains, using nearby Ellett's . . . — — Map (db m17788) HM
Ashland's business district developed after the Civil War around the intersection of England and Thompson streets and Railroad Avenue. The train station was on the east side of the tracks north of England Street, with a passenger shed on the west . . . — — Map (db m92677) HM
Confederate Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart with his 1,200 cavalrymen rode past this spot on the morning of 12 June 1862, heading west. On a mission to gather intelligence about Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, Stuart hoped to . . . — — Map (db m15837) HM
Six miles east still stands Hanover Courthouse, in which, December, 1763, Patrick Henry delivered his great speech in the “Parsons’ Cause,” when he denounced the British government for vetoing an act of the Virginia General Assembly. — — Map (db m15849) HM
In mid-June 1862, having defeated three Union armies in the Shenandoah Valley, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and his Valley Army joined Gen. Robert E. Lee to defend Richmond. Jackson and his men marched by here on 26 June to strike the . . . — — Map (db m16168) HM
The Patton series of tanks are named after General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. Third Army during WWII, and one of the ﬁrst American advocates for the use of tanks in battle.
The M60 Patton battle tank entered active duty . . . — — Map (db m79750) HM
Railroad transportation was still new in 1836 when the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac (RF&P) Railroad Company completed a single track from Richmond to a sawmill 20 miles north in rural Hanover County. At the same time, the RF&P purchased a . . . — — Map (db m92674) HM
Three blocks west is Randolph-Macon College for men, oldest permanent Methodist college in America. Chartered in 1830 and named for John Randolph and Nathaniel Macon. Originally located at Boydton in Mecklenburg County, it was moved here in 1868. — — Map (db m1992) HM
Chartered in 1830 in Boydton, this institution is the oldest Methodist-affiliated college in continuous operation in the United States. It is named for statesmen John Randolph of Virginia and Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina. The college was moved . . . — — Map (db m8213) HM
Chartered in 1830 in Boydton, this institution is the oldest Methodist-affiliated college in continuous operation in the United States. It is named for statesmen John Randolph of Virginia and Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina. The college was moved . . . — — Map (db m8214) HM
This lot was the site of the home of
Rev. Alexander G. Brown D.D.
Chaplain at Boydton 1857-1858
Financial Secretary 1871-1875
Member of Board of Trustees
of Randolph-Macon College
for twenty nine years 1871-1900
Dr. Brown . . . — — Map (db m149678) HM
Virginia public school boards began providing transportation to white students early in the 20th century but frequently denied this service to African Americans. Black children often had to walk miles to school, leading to nonattendance. Across . . . — — Map (db m112286) HM
Erected in 1729-32 as the Upper Church of Saint Paul's Parish, Hanover County, Slash Church's location next to swampy woods (a "slash" in 18th-century terms) gave it its name. The Reverend Patrick Henry, uncle of the famous patriot, served as rector . . . — — Map (db m16167) HM
Late in the morning of 12 June 1862, Confederate Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart and 1,200 cavalrymen reached this intersection on a mission to gather intelligence about Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac. Here Stuart's column . . . — — Map (db m15842) HM
Near here, on Winston's Farm, J. E. B. Stuart, advancing north, camped on June 12, 1862. Stuart was scouting to find the position of the right wing of McClellan's army besieging Richmond. At this point he turned east to Hanover Courthouse. Stuart . . . — — Map (db m15834) HM
Here at Elmont (known as Kilby's Station during the Civil War), Confederate Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart assembled the last of his 1,200 cavalrymen and began his ride around Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac on 12 June 1862. . . . — — Map (db m15840) HM
On the afternoon of 12 June 1862, Confederate Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's column passed here on a mission to gather intelligence about Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac. Riding northeast toward the Richmond, Fredericksburg, . . . — — Map (db m15881) HM
The Town of Ashland has two historic districts: the Randolph-Macon College Historic Campus that was made a district in 1979 and the larger Ashland Historic District established in 1983.
The Randolph-Macon College Historic Campus encompasses . . . — — Map (db m92675) HM
Just to the east stood the Clarke house (Lockwood), wherein Gen. Robert E. Lee made his field headquarters, 28-31 May 1864. While here, and though ill, Lee deployed troops to key positions in Hanover County, including Haw's Shop, Totopotomoy Creek, . . . — — Map (db m15753) HM
Fortifications on this hill mark the strong confederate works along Totopotomoy Creek, prepared as a defensive position in General Lee’s withdrawal from the Rapidan to the James. Engagements here May 29-30, 1864, were preliminary to the Second . . . — — Map (db m14259) HM
Crossing the road at this point were Federal entrenchments heavily shelled by the Confederates in the operation of May 29-30, 1864, immediately preceding the Second Battle of Cold Harbor. The nearby Shelton House was mentioned frequently in . . . — — Map (db m14261) HM
The original Beaver Dam School was built in 1909 on land acquired by the School Board of Beaver Dam District No. 3 of Hanover County. On 16 Dec 1919, fire destroyed the original two-story frame building that housed both elementary and high school . . . — — Map (db m80002) HM
Scotchtown is best known as the site from which Patrick Henry rode to Richmond in March of 1775 to deliver his infamous “Liberty or Death” speech. . Some have even suggested that the house, where he had been forced to confine his wife . . . — — Map (db m47453) HM
A mile north is Scotchtown, Patrick Henry's Home, 1771-1777. Dolly Madison, President James Madison's wife, lived here in her girlhood. Layfayette was here in May, 1781, retreating northward before Cornwallis. Cornwallis passed here in June, 1781, . . . — — Map (db m21924) HM
The first railroad depot at Beaver Dam was built ca. 1840 to serve the farmers of Hanover and Louisa counties. Its strategic location during the Civil War made it a target of many Union raids. The July 20, 1862, raid saw the depot burned and Colonel . . . — — Map (db m5186) HM
Despite the disaster that had befallen the 35th Massachusetts, General Ledlie became even more determined to secure Ox Ford. Against the orders of his division commander, the drunken general ordered his unsupported brigade to assault the Confederate . . . — — Map (db m20957) HM
As the imperiled Union brigade huddled in the ravine before you, General Mahone recognized that their bold assault was unsupported and ordered General Harris to send a regiment from these trenches to attack them. At 6:45 p.m. the 12th Mississippi . . . — — Map (db m20959) HM
A ﬁeld hospital was set up beside the river where the wounded were given what little care could be provided in the darkness and rain. The waters of the North Anna were now too high to carry the men to safety, so the Federal soldiers settled . . . — — Map (db m75005) HM
The American Coaster Enthusiasts recognize Rebel Yell as an ACE Roller Coaster Landmark, a designation reserved for rides of historic significance.
Designed by John C. Allen (1907-1979) of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, the 92-foot high . . . — — Map (db m19072) HM
You are standing before the trench line of the 10th Georgia Battalion, which held the right flank of Wright’s brigade. The Florida brigade and Lane’s artillery battalion held the position across the ravine to your right. On May 25 and 26 cannon and . . . — — Map (db m20971) HM
A half mile north, a brigade of Union infantry commanded by Brig. Gen. James H. Ledlie struck the center of Lee’s army, which blocked Grant’s approach to Richmond. Formidable earthworks hastily erected by Brig. Gen. William H. Mahone’s division . . . — — Map (db m21054) HM
Grant misinterpreted Lee’s withdrawal on May 23 and 24 as Confederate weakness and ordered the Army of the Potomac to brush aside any scattered Rebel resistance and advance to Richmond. Major General Ambrose E. Burnside received orders to move his . . . — — Map (db m20953) HM
This "Kiddie Chair Carousel" (as named by the manufacturer Intamin AG of Switzerland) has also operated under names "Totem-Go-Round" and "Hickory Limbs" since its opening debut.
A concrete "tree" surrounds the original ride structure.
The . . . — — Map (db m22726) HM
The Boulder Bumpers is a miniature version of the Dodgem car ride in Candy Apple Grove. It features two-rider cars, built by Bertazzon of Italy, that run on a 59' x 30' steel-plated floor. the ride structure is painted concrete "boulders".
A 70 . . . — — Map (db m22700) HM
The two-room log house, a rare survivor of a once-common house type, was built about 1843 probably by Sarah Thornton, whose father-in-law John Thornton acquired the property in 1790. On 16 July 1862, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and his . . . — — Map (db m21921) HM
The five Virginia regiments led by Colonel David A. Weisiger began construction of the trenches before you on the morning of May 24 and continued to work on them during the next two days. The Virginians had been resting quietly near Anderson’s . . . — — Map (db m74893) HM
This monument honors all the valiant men who lost their lives on the battlefields of the North Anna May 23-26, 1864 “No more shall the war cry sever, or the winding rivers be red; They banish our anger forever when they laurel the graves of . . . — — Map (db m15167) HM
One of the units that suffered heavily in the skirmish fighting in the woods before you was the 56th Pennsylvania Infantry. The exhausted and depleted nature of the Army of the Potomac was demonstrated by the loss in officers in this veteran . . . — — Map (db m145751) HM
At daybreak of May 25, Major General Gouverneur K. Warren advanced his 5th Corps to confront Lieutenant General A. P. Hill's 3rd Corps, extending from Anderson's Tavern to the North Anna River. Connection was soon made with the relieved men of . . . — — Map (db m145750) HM
The earthworks before you form a unique pattern known as the “V’s”. At first glance, the trenches seem to be without pattern or purpose but they tell the story of the Union defense of the area on May 24-27. The line of trenches on the . . . — — Map (db m75011) HM
Fork Church was first housed in a 1722 frame building near the present church site. It was known as "The Chapel in the Forks" and derived its name from the nearby confluence of the North and South Anna rivers and the Little and Newfound rivers. The . . . — — Map (db m21922) HM
Although Ledlie's assault resulted in a bloody repulse, Grant clearly understood the Confederates held Ox Ford in strength. The Union General in Chief suddenly realized he had maneuvered the Army of the Potomac into a hazardous position. . . . — — Map (db m145741) HM
On May 25th, the aggressive Confederate skirmish fire drew the ire of General Charles Griffin, whose division was assigned to fill in the gap between Crawford's men and the main road to the south. As an old artilleryman now commanding an infantry . . . — — Map (db m145752) HM
This junction was one of the most pivotal sites for the well-being of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army. Known during the war as Hanover Junction, it was the intersection of two important railroads. The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac . . . — — Map (db m125005) HM
Two 19th-century railroads crossed at grade level just east: the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac and the Virginia Central, which ran west to the Shenandoah Valley, the Confederacy’s breadbasket during the Civil War. This junction attained . . . — — Map (db m14864) HM
The Marquis de Lafayette and his outnumbered colonial troops abandoned Richmond on 27 May 1781 to avoid Gen. Charles Cornwallis's approaching forces. Lafayette marched north from Richmond through Hanover County and likely crossed the nearby North . . . — — Map (db m9212) HM
Ledlie’s men reached safety after uniting with Colonel Elisha Gaylord Marshall's 9th Corps Provisional brigade. Marshall was a tough West Point graduate who fought on the western frontier and was severely wounded at the battle of Fredericksburg. Ln . . . — — Map (db m75004) HM
The ﬁghting pits before you mark the positions of the skirmishers of the 2nd Georgia Battalion of General Ambrose Wright’s Brigade, defending Ox Ford. The Georgians were in a perfect position to ﬁre into the ﬂank of Ledlie’s . . . — — Map (db m74895) HM
The crack of thunder and ﬂash of lightning echoed across the ravine before you, as the men of Ledlie’s Brigade struggled to survive the relentless Confederate riﬂe and cannon ﬁre which targeted them with fatal precision. The low . . . — — Map (db m74894) HM
General R.E. Lee commanding the Army of Northern Virginia crossed here 22d May 1864 and checked the Army of the Potomac commanded by General U.S. Grant
"A crisis in the War Between the States" — — Map (db m80003) HM
Approaching Richmond from the north after the Wilderness Campaign, Lt. General U.S. Grant sought to cross the North Anna River and capture the critical rail center at Hanover Junction (Doswell). General R. E. Lee ordered the construction of a . . . — — Map (db m14867) HM
The first unit of the Union Ninth Corps to cross the North Anna was Brigadier General James H. Ledlie’s brigade. His 1,500 infantrymen were ready to advance by 3:00 p.m., despite having been soaked up to their armpits while crossing the river. . . . — — Map (db m20955) HM
From the gun pits served by McIntosh’s artillery battalion, you can easily see the natural strength of the Confederate position. The repulse of Ledlie’s brigade served as a warning to Grant that Lee was still on the North Anna in great strength and . . . — — Map (db m20967) HM
Operating 25 years in the same corner of what was originally called "The Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera", this popular children's jeep ride was manufactured by Intamin AG of Switzerland.
This "Kiddie Merry Hunting" ride cost about $41,000 in . . . — — Map (db m22724) HM
Brigadier General Samuel W. Crawford's Union 5th Corps division arrived in support of Crittenden's advance on the afternoon of May 24, 1864. Crawford's men supported Ledlie's ill fated attack by engaging Confederate sharpshooters but what had been . . . — — Map (db m145749) HM
The rough terrain at Ox Ford discouraged large scale battle, reducing warfare here into a contest between small units and even individual soldiers. The nature of this combat guaranteed both sides would remain in an unfriendly temper for the next . . . — — Map (db m145742) HM
The melee resulting from the combination of a pouring thunderstorm, the boiling mix of ﬁve regiments of Union soldiers pursued by three regiments of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia infantrymen - accented by the ﬂashes and smoke of . . . — — Map (db m74896) HM
On May 26, General Grant admitted that he finally encountered an unmovable object; Lee's defenses on the North Anna River. His telegram to General Henry Halleck in Washington declared that "to make a direct attack from either wing would cause a . . . — — Map (db m145740) HM
Built near a wooded section of the park once known as Shady Grove, guests could walk through the woods and watch these ⅘ scale replicas of classic automobiles.
The cars are modeled after 1917 Model T Fords.
The top speed is about 6 . . . — — Map (db m20886) HM
actured by the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, "No. 44" first opened in 1917 at Riverside park in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1938 the ride was sold to Roger Williams Park in Providence, Rhode Island, then came to Kings Dominion in 1973 during . . . — — Map (db m19074) HM
Standing on concrete footers extending sixteen feet below ground, the Eiffel Towers is 331'-6" tall, weighs about 800 tones and is a 1/3 replica of the original. The top observation platform is 275 feet high, and offers a spectacular view of the . . . — — Map (db m21832) HM
(west side of Marker): The Fight for North Anna On May 21, 1864, Union General Ulysses S. Grant directed the Army of the Potomac away from Spotsylvania Court House in a turning movement toward Hanover Junction, today known as Doswell. . . . — — Map (db m15164) HM
The trenches before you were manned by the soldiers of Brigadier General Nathaniel Harris’ brigade of Mississippians, who had deployed just to the right of Sanders’ Alabamians by 1:00 p.m. on the 24th. The small pits behind the trench line served as . . . — — Map (db m20956) HM
You are now standing in the tip of the famous “inverted V” position constructed by Lee’s army along the North Anna River. The trenches on your left continued to the Little River, while those on the right anchored on a bend in the North Anna below . . . — — Map (db m20961) HM
At 11:00 a.m. six cannon of Major John Lane’s Georgia artillery battalion, followed closely by Brigadier General Edward A. Perry’s weakened 270-man Florida infantry brigade, moved down this road to cover the vital crossing of Ox Ford. As the Union . . . — — Map (db m20946) HM
The Scooby-Doo Ghoster Coaster opened in 1974 with Lion Country Safari, making it the first ride to operate at Kings Dominion. The figure 8 layout is patterned after a similar coaster that once ran at Cincinnati's Old Coney amusement park.
The . . . — — Map (db m86390) HM
Patterned after the old flumes built to transport lumber out of the west coast mountains at the turn of the century, this is a classic log flume designed and manufactured for family fun.
Water flows through the trough at 3,500 gallons per . . . — — Map (db m10776) HM
The second stand-up roller coaster built in the United States, and the first introduced on the east coast.
The ride features 2,210 feet of track & a lift hill 93 feet tall.
The ride was repainted in 2000 to celebrate our 25th anniversary. . . . — — Map (db m10754) HM
Built by Zierer, The Wave Swinger is named for its wave-like motion, creating a thrilling experience for guests of all ages. Note the craftmanship of the original oil paintings on the center column and top crown, cleaned and retouched in 1997.
. . . — — Map (db m21836) HM
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia arrived here at the North Anna River on May 22, 1864. The next day, the Union Army of the Potomac followed, having maneuvered around the Confederates from the Wilderness through Spotsylvania . . . — — Map (db m73939) HM
Volcano, The Blast Coaster was introduced in 1998, and in 2000 still reigns as the world's first and fastest suspended blast coaster.
Riders are blasted 155 feet vertically through the mouth of an active volcano.
Volcano, the Blast Coaster is . . . — — Map (db m17796) HM
Water Works is 16 acres of wet family fun, offering a total of 28 water slides and attractions, and free with a paid admission to the park.
"Hurricane Reef" first opened in 1992 with 20 water slides, then doubled its size in 1999 with the . . . — — Map (db m20889) HM
Hanover County. Area 512 Square Miles. Formed in 1720 from New Kent, and named for the electorate of Hanover. Patrick Henry and Henry Clay were born in this county. In it were fought the battles of Gaines's Mill, 1862, and Cold . . . — — Map (db m25366) HM
The Rev. John Preston Clarke (1831-1915), a free black man, and his Madagascar-born wife, Lucy Ann Renibe Winston, were raised in a Quaker community of free blacks in Montpelier. Ordained a minister in 1867, Clarke helped foster black institutions . . . — — Map (db m93188) HM
Three miles northwest is Clay Spring, where Henry Clay was born, April 12, 1777. He passed most of his early life in Richmond, removing to Kentucky in 1797. His career as a public man and as a peacemaker between North and South is an important part . . . — — Map (db m92712) HM
Lord Cornwallis, marching northward in pursuit of Lafayette’s American force, camped near here, May 30, 1781. He entered this road from the east on his way from Hanover Town to the North Anna at Chesterfield Ford (Telegraph Bridge). — — Map (db m1918) HM
Near here lived in 1610 Machumps, brother-in-law to King Powhatan.
Near here were born Patrick Henry and Henry Clay.
In this building on 1st December 1763 Patrick Henry lighted the torch of liberty in the Parson’s . . . — — Map (db m226209) HM
Hanover County was organized in 1720 and named for George I, King of England and former elector of Hanover in Germany. Seventeen years later (between 1737 and 1738), construction of the courthouse structure began and was completed in 1743. The . . . — — Map (db m32691) HM
In December 1763, the Historic Hanover Courthouse was the site of the famous Parsons’ Cause, an opening salvo of the American Revolution. During the Parsons’ Cause trial, Patrick Henry voiced one of the first American objections to denial of the . . . — — Map (db m32692) HM
This community’s first real taste of war came in May 1862, when Gen. George B. McC1e11an’s Union army moved from the east to threaten Richmond. On May 25, McClellan ordered troops to reconnoiter the Hanover Courthouse area and push back any enemy . . . — — Map (db m15818) HM
During the Civil War, Cleavers and Amanda Chisholm's Hanover Tavern "hosted" both armies and refugees who fled the depredations of war. Hard fighting just outside of town on May 27, 1862 resulted in several hundred casualties. Two weeks later, . . . — — Map (db m170041) HM
Hanover Tavern was an essential part of the county courthouse complex during the 18th and 19th centuries, serving as the center of social life. For people living on large farms and plantations, whose closest neighbors could live miles away, taverns . . . — — Map (db m32693) HM
John Shelton opened the first tavern at the permanent site of Hanover Courthouse about the 1750s. The current tavern’s earliest segment dates from about 1791. The tavern prospered with the establishment of the stage coach line until the railroad . . . — — Map (db m62525) HM
We honor all who served
World War I
Buchanan, Levy A. • Collins, Robert F. • Duke, William L. • Fleet, William A. • Gallamore, H. • Harper, George T. • Haynes, James A. • Jenkins, Edwin T. •
Melton, Lawrence J. • Mills, Guss W. • . . . — — Map (db m53811) WM
Janie Porter Barrett was born in Athens, Ga. She graduated from Hampton Institute and soon began teaching home-management techniques to other young African American women and girls. In 1915, Barrett founded the Industrial School for Wayward Colored . . . — — Map (db m22272) HM
Born in Richmond, Va., to a free black mother and enslaved father, John Henry Smyth graduated from Howard University Law School in Washington, D.C., in 1872 and worked variously as a teacher, bank cashier, lawyer, and newspaper editor. He served as . . . — — Map (db m1917) HM
Newmarket stood on the Little River near Verdon in northern Hanover County until 1987, when to preserve it Robert W. Cabaniss moved it to this site. The seat of the Doswell family for whom the town of Doswell was named, the house is the sole . . . — — Map (db m15852) HM
Born at Studley Plantation six miles east of here was licensed to practice law on April 15, 1760. His awe-inspiring power as an orator was first recognized here at Hanover County Courthouse in his charge to the petit jury on December 1, 1766, in the . . . — — Map (db m32682) HM
The Colonial River Road
After centuries of use by native people and the colonists of New Kent County, the road along the Pamunkey River was extended past the tobacco ports of Newcastle and Page’s Warehouse (later . . . — — Map (db m53801) HM
Martha Ann Fields and most of her 11 children were enslaved laborers on the Nutshell plantation, just northeast of here. In 1863, she led her family across the Pamunkey River to Union lines and freedom. The family settled in Hampton, pursued . . . — — Map (db m152223) HM
General Washington and General Rochambeau passed here on Sept. 13, 1781 on their way to victory at Yorktown. One mile south, they turned east on state route 605.
The marking of this route is a gift from the French Government. Committee of the . . . — — Map (db m226210) HM
Site of the home of
Samuel Merdith, Sr., Gent.
St. Pauls Parish, Hanover Co.
A grandson of
Thomas Meredith, Sr.
Emigrant in 1636, Virginia
His land grant in 1661 — — Map (db m70460) HM
In their honor
The men who carried this position were soldiers . . . — — Map (db m174711) HM WM
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