“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

A Fort Evolves Marker image, Touch for more information
By Dale K. Benington, July 27, 2011
A Fort Evolves Marker
1 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Fort EvolvesFort Mississauga
The Tower By 1813, the British were planning to build "a tower in small redoubt to command the entrance of the Mississauga Point." Begun in the Spring of 1814, this tower rests on the remains of the first Capital of . . . Map (db m52200) HM
2 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Location
A Strategic Location You are standing at Mississauga Point where the Niagara River flows into Lake Ontario. Long ago the lakes and rivers were military supply and transportation routes and forts were built to protect them. . . . Map (db m52610) HM
3 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site
Fort Niagara was only 1200 metres from Fort George, well within artillery range. In May, 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara, its detached batteries, and American warships at the river's mouth completely destroyed Fort George and forced . . . Map (db m53604) HM
4 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site
The Niagara River was extremely important from a strategic perspective. It was part of the St. Lawrence – Great Lakes system, one of the main transportation routes on either side of the border. Those who controlled the waterways would . . . Map (db m140087) HM
5 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Action at Butler's FarmEngagement a Butler's Farm
On the 8th of July, 1813, an outpost of the invading force, encamped near Fort George, was defeated by a band of Six Nations and Western Indians led by Chiefs John Norton and Blackbird and interpreters Michel Brisebois, Louis Langlade and Barnet . . . Map (db m48747) HM
6 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Bicentennial of First Parliament
This plaque, erected by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, commemorates the Bicentennial of the first Parliament of Upper Canada held at Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) near this site on September 17th, 1792, which marked the beginning of . . . Map (db m140020) HM
7 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point
Brown's Inn was located here. Both the Canadian York Militia and the American Army bivouacked near here on separate occasions during the War of 1812. Adam Brown later added a store to his inn, and built a wharf on the river shore below, where . . . Map (db m49166) HM
8 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point
Brown's Point Here Gen. Sir Isaac Brock called out on his way to Queenston Heights 13th October 1812 "Push On York Volunteers."Map (db m49482) HM
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9 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Butler's Rangers
In 1777 John Butler of New York raised a force of Rangers who, with their Iroquois allies, raided the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey throughout the American Revolutionary War. From their base at Fort Niagara they successfully . . . Map (db m75857) HM
10 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Capture of Fort Niagara 1813
In the early morning of December 19th, 1813, a force under Colonel John Murray, consisting of detachments of the 100th and 41st Regiments. Royal Scots, Royal Artillery and Canadian Militia embarked in bateaux at the foot of this ravine. Crossing . . . Map (db m49158) HM
11 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Chloe Cooley and the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada
On March 14, 1793 Chloe Cooley, an enslaved Black woman in Queenston, was bound, thrown in a boat and sold across the river to a new owner in the United States. Her screams and violent resistance were brought to the attention of Lieutenant Governor . . . Map (db m75858) HM
12 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — First Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
The first session of the Legislative Assembly held at Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) from 17 September to 15 October 1792, introduced a limited form of representative government to the newly created colony of Upper Canada. The elected assembly formed . . . Map (db m140021) HM
13 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort GeorgeLe Fort George
Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In May, 1813, it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. . . . Map (db m48743) HM
14 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort MississaugaLe Fort Mississauga
This tower and earthwork are all that survive of the barracks, guardroom, and cells of Fort Mississauga. Built between 1814 and 1816 to replace Fort George as the counterpoise to the American Fort Niagara immediately opposite, it was garrisoned . . . Map (db m48745) HM
15 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga is a National Historic Sitean impotant part of Canada's story!
• Mississauga Point was the location of a Neutral First Nation fishing settlement by the 15th century. • The area was under the control of the Seneca Nation during the late 17th century, and it became home to the Mississauga Nation by the . . . Map (db m52236) HM
16 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga TrailSentier du fort Mississauga
Explore a part of our heritage - visit a fort almost 200 years old and discover part of the Lake Ontario shoreline. Explorez un volet de notre patrimoine - visitez un fort qui a presque 200 ans d'histoire et decouvrez une partie du rivage du . . . Map (db m48632) HM
17 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara
Across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally by the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional supply route to . . . Map (db m53630) HM
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18 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara
Only 1200 metres across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional . . . Map (db m140089) HM
19 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Guns Gins and Devil Carts
Garrison guns were heavy and awkward to move. To be transported, the barrel had to be taken off the carriage with the help of a tripod hoist or gun gin. The gin was equipped with a pulley system that made it possible for two men to lift the barrel. . . . Map (db m54006) HM
20 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Janet Carnochan 1839 - 1926
For more than thirty years Janet Carnochan, a native of Stamford, Ontario, taught elementary and secondary school at Niagara-on-the Lake, but she made her greatest contribution to the community as a historian rather than as an educator. A . . . Map (db m75859) HM
21 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — John Graves SimcoeFirst Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada 1791-1796
Here at Niagara on September 17, 1792 he presided over the first representative assembly of this province. His genius foresaw the greatness of this country and he threw himself into its building with ardour and enthusiasm. . . . Map (db m49475) HM
22 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — John Graves Simcoe1752-1806
Simcoe was born in Northamptonshire and educated at Oxford. He joined the British army in 1771, and from 1777-81 commanded the Queen's Rangers, a Loyalist corps in America. After the Loyalist influx had led to the creation of a separate province of . . . Map (db m75860) HM
23 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — John Graves SimcoeThe first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada
With the generous support of the Ministry of Canadian Heritage, the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake Heritage Fund and the Henry N.R. Jackson Foundation. Sculptor Roy Charles Asplin Unveiled July 1999Map (db m140011) HM
24 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Joseph-Geneviere, Comte de Puisaye
Soldier, politician, diplomatist and colonizer, de Puisaye was born at Mortagne-en-Perche, France, about 1755 and enlisted in the French Army at 18. Elected to the States General in 1789, he supported reform but, alarmed by the course of the . . . Map (db m49159) HM
25 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Later YearsInoculation at Old Navy Hall, Niagara Camp
[Text on Marker]: Immediately after the War of 1812, a new wooden storehouse was built on this site. It was converted into barracks for British troops during the border troubles of 1838. The building remained in use until the 20th . . . Map (db m49478) HM
26 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Lieutenant-Colonel John Butler 1725-1796
Born in New London, Connecticut, Butler settled in the Mohawk Valley, New York, in 1742. Commissioned in the British Indian Department in 1755, he served in the Seven Years War. At the outbreak of the American Revolution , he was compelled to leave . . . Map (db m49165) HM
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27 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Locomotive Turntable
For 103 years, beginning in 1854, a train powered by a steam locomotive pulled into the Niagara Dock. At first it only came from Chippawa via Niagara Falls and Queenston but by 1863 the line had been extended as far as Fort Erie and Buffalo. The . . . Map (db m54079) HM
28 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — McFarland House 1800
This Georgian style house was built in 1800 by John McFarland (1757-1815) and his sons, on land granted by the Crown. It is one of the oldest surviving structures in the Niagara district. During the War of 1812 it was used as a hospital by both . . . Map (db m49480) HM
29 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Memorial Hall, 1906
This building, the first in Ontario to be constructed for use solely as an historical museum, was begun in 1906 and completed the following year. Its erection was due largely to the dedicated efforts of Miss Janet Carnochan, founder, and for thirty . . . Map (db m75861) HM
30 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Navy Hall
The facilities of this strategic location have served British and later Canadian troops stationed at Niagara from 1765 to the 1920's.Map (db m49477) HM
31 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Negro Burial Ground1830
Here stood a Baptist church erected in 1830 through the exertions of a former British soldier. John Oakley, who although white, became pastor of a predominantly negro congregation. In 1793 Upper Canada had passed an act forbidding further . . . Map (db m75862) HM
32 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Agricultural Society1792 - 1805
The first organization devoted to the improvement of agriculture in Ontario was founded at Niagara. Its original name, the Agricultural Society of Upper Canada, reflected Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe’s hope that it would become a . . . Map (db m139985) HM
33 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara ApothecaryLa Pharmacie De Niagara
Acquired by the Ontario Heritage Foundation in 1969, the Niagara Apothecary is a fine example of a Confederation era commercial establishment and pharmacy. Although the building probably dates to the 1820's. It was extensively renovated in 1866 when . . . Map (db m24609) HM
34 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara District Court House / Le palais de justice du district de Niagara
[English] This is the third and only surviving court house erected for the former Niagara District. Constructed between 1846 and 1848, it was designed by the prominent Toronto architect, William Thomas, in the fashionable Neoclassical style . . . Map (db m196309) HM
35 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Harbour and Dock Company
Formed by local businessmen in 1831, the Niagara Harbour and Dock Company created a shipping basin here on the Niagara River by hiring hundreds of labourers to excavate a riverside marsh. By the late 1830s the company employed close to 400 workers . . . Map (db m54049) HM
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36 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Historical Society1895 - 1995
On December 12th, 1895, a group of dedicated persons founded the Niagara Historical Society. This tree was planted in 1995 to commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Society.Map (db m140025) HM
37 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Land Purchases
To obtain land on which to settle Loyalists and dispossessed members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, Guy Johnson in May 1781 and John Butler in May 1784 negotiated treaties with representatives of the Mississauga and Chippewa of this region. The . . . Map (db m75863) HM
38 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara National Historic Sites
Brock's Monument and Queenston Heights: This striking commemoration and final resting place of Major General Brock marks the site of the Battle of Queenston Heights. Visitors can climb the 235 stairs to take in spectacular views, or . . . Map (db m54037) HM
39 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara on the Lake Historical District
(Left side is in English) In 1778, Loyalist refugees began crossing from Fort Niagara to settle the west bank of the Niagara River. A town was laid out in a grid pattern of four-acre blocks and grew quickly, gaining prominence as the first . . . Map (db m24585) HM
40 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Point Mississauga LighthouseLe Phare de Point Mississauga
The first lighthouse on the Great Lakes was built of stone at Point Mississauga in 1804 by John Symington, under orders from Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter. Demolished in 1814 to make room for this fort, its materials with debris from the ruined . . . Map (db m48746) HM
41 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Polish Soldier’s Burial Plot1917 – 1919
This burial plot commemorates the Polish soldiers who trained in this community from 1917 – 1919 at Camp Kosciuszko and subsequently made the supreme sacrifice – They personified the Polish soldiers’ motto: “For Your Freedom and . . . Map (db m140019) HM
42 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Sir Isaac Brock's First Burial Site
Placed Here by the Niagara Historical Society This Marks The Spot Where Gen. Sir Isaac Brock, was buried from 1812 To 1824Map (db m53535) HM
43 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Six Pounder Field Gun
Field artillery was designed for mobility. Cannons mounted on carriages with large wheels could be moved quickly, even over rough terrain. This six pounder has a limber to carry ammunition and supplies and would be harnessed to a team of horses. . . . Map (db m54000) HM
44 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Southern Terminus of The Bruce Trail
This cairn marks the southern terminus of the Bruce Trail, a cross-country foot trail established along or adjacent to the Niagara Escarpment extending from Tobermory on Georgian Bay in the north to this southern terminus at Queenston Heights. . . . Map (db m79046) HM
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45 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — St. Mark’s Church
One of the earliest Anglican churches in the province, St. Mark’s was begun in 1804 to serve a congregation organized twelve years earlier. Its first rector, the Reverend Robert Addison, chaplain of Upper Canada’s first Legislative Assembly, . . . Map (db m139894) HM
46 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — St. Vincent de Paul Church, 1835
The Parish of St. Vincent de Paul is the direct successor of the many and often interrupted endeavors in the Niagara area since 1626. At first concerned with native peoples, later French and then English-speaking priests came as chaplains for the . . . Map (db m37237) HM
47 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Battle of Fort GeorgeLa Bataille de Fort George
On the 25th May, 1813, the American Fleet and the Batteries at Fort Niagara across the river began a devastating two-day bombardment of Fort George. On the 27th a large American force was landed and after a brief engagement in which his outnumbered . . . Map (db m48628) HM
48 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Battle of Fort George
In May of 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara and detached batteries destroyed Fort George paving the way for invasion. On May 27th, a large American force defeated a much smaller number of British regulars, militia and First Nations . . . Map (db m140092) HM
49 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Burning of St. Davids 1814
On July 18th, 1814, during the final American campaign on the Niagara frontier, Major-General Peter B. Porter sent a detachment of militia from the United States encampment at Queenston to attack St. Davids. This force, commanded by . . . Map (db m58172) HM
50 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Canada Constellation1799-1800
On July 20, 1799, the first edition of the "Canada Constellation", Upper Canada's earliest independent newspaper, was published at Niagara by Gideon and Silvester Tiffany, two brothers who had come from the United States. Gideon had at first held . . . Map (db m75864) HM
51 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Early Years
[Text on Marker]: Navy Hall originally consisted of a small shipyard, storehouses, residences and docks which served as a depot for local supplies; it also served as a trans-shipment point for the posts on the upper Great Lakes. From . . . Map (db m49476) HM
52 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Field House
One of the oldest brick houses in Ontario, this handsome Georgian structure was built about 1800. Originally a farm house, it was the home of Gilbert Field (1765-1815), a United Empire Loyalist who was in possesion of the land by 1790. During the . . . Map (db m56718) HM
53 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The First Provincial Parliament   1792
On September 17, 1792, Colonel John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, opened in this community, then the capital, the first provincial parliament. The legislature consisted of an appointed Legislative Council and an elected . . . Map (db m139893) HM
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54 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Fortified Mouth of the Niagara River
The St.Lawrence and Great Lakes system was the most efficient route to the interior of the continent of North America. Large waterways allowed for substantial sailing vessels to trade and maintain contact with Native allies from Montreal to the . . . Map (db m53624) HM
55 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Remains of Three Soldiers
Here was found in August 1899 The remains of three Soldiers who fell on 27th May 1813 In defense of our country Map (db m48629) HM
56 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Upper Canadian Act Against Slavery (1793)
Inspired by the abolitionist sentiment emerging in the late 18th century, Lieutenant-Governor J.G. Simcoe made Upper Canada the first British territory to legislate against slavery, which had defined the conditions of life for most people of African . . . Map (db m75865) HM
57 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Thomas Moore(1779 - 1852)
One of Ireland's best loved and renowned poets and lyricists, Thomas Moore visited Niagara during July 1804. Captivated by the scenic splendour of the area and as guest of Col. Isaac Brock, Commander at Fort George, Moore frequently found rest and . . . Map (db m49481) HM
58 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Town of Niagara
Known at various times as Butlersburg, West Niagara and Newark, its first permanent settlers, including Butler’s Rangers and other Loyalists, arrived about 1780. The first five sessions of Upper Canada’s legislature met here under . . . Map (db m139988) HM
59 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Township of Niagara War Memorial
This monument was erected in memory of the men of Niagara Township who gave their lives for the cause of freedom in the Great War 1914 – 1918 And in World War II 1939 – 1945 Whose names are here recorded and in honour of those who . . . Map (db m140123) WM
60 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Ubique
Everywhere Artillery was vitally important to the defense of Upper Canada. Due to a shortage of heavy cannons available in the province, there were only five garrison guns mounted inside Fort George in May of 1813. . . . Map (db m53989) HM
61 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Upper Canada Gazette, or American OracleThursday, April 18, 1793
Ontario’s first newspaper, Upper Canada Gazette, or American Oracle was published in Niagara-on-the-Lake by Louis Roy, King’s Printer to John Graves Simcoe, founding Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. The first edition of four pages . . . Map (db m140013) HM
62 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Vrooman's BatteryLa Batterie Vrooman
Manned by Captain Samuel Hatt's 5th Lincoln (Militia) Regiment and a small party of the Lincoln Militia Artillery under Lieutenant John Ball, and consisting of one 24-pounder cannon mounted within a crescent-shaped earthwork, this Battery was . . . Map (db m48750) HM
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63 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — Welcome to Fort George
Built in 1796, Fort George was the scene of fierce engagements during the War of 1812. It was captured and destroyed then refortified by the Americans in 1813. It was re-taken by the British later that same year. The fort was abandoned in the . . . Map (db m54038) HM
64 Ontario, Niagara Region, Niagara-on-the-Lake — William Kirby1817-1906
In English: Born in England, Kirby came to Canada in 1839 and began work as a tanner in the vicinity of Niagara-on-the-Lake. There he developed his literary talents and soon after moving into the town in 1848 embarked on a long and . . . Map (db m34915) HM
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May. 31, 2023