“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Saint John, New Brunswick

1 Chipman Hill Entrance<br>(<i>marker partially visible left of door</i>) image, Touch for more information
By Cosmos Mariner, July 14, 2019
1 Chipman Hill Entrance
(marker partially visible left of door)
1New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — 1 Chipman Hill
English: Remarkable for the range of trompe l'œil effects and skillful execution, the wall and ceiling paintings inside this residence, part of a row of similar town houses, reflect the taste of the High Victorian era, . . . Map (db m140107) HM
2New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — A Legacy of Tea / Du thé en héritagePeople Waiting Making Art Public / Rendre l’art public — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: In 1867, brothers George and William Barbour started a wholesale operation on South Market Wharf supplying fish, eggs, poultry and other local goods to vessels and area retailers. Although the building burned in the . . . Map (db m145582) HM
3New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — A Portal to the New World / La porte du Nouveau Monde — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Look out to the head of the harbour, and you'll see Partridge Island, a major point of entry for European immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, almost 100 years before Ellis Island. Many of our ancestors . . . Map (db m145397) HM
4New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — An Island Abounding With Life / Une île pleine de vie — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Partridge Island has been home to natural and human communities for a long time. It began about 300 million years ago when ash from an ancient volcano created the island. Sand and soil slowly built up, seeds took . . . Map (db m145599) HM
5New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Ancient Life / D'anciennes formes de vie
English: Some of the world's oldest fossils from a time long before dinosaurs have been found near here. Billion-year-old cyanobacteria lived underwater in Precambrian times and left circular shapes in the rock called . . . Map (db m147794) HM
6New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Benedict ArnoldRebel and Loyalist / Rebelle et loyaliste
English: In 1741 Benedict Arnold was born in Connecticut to a prosperous family. Twice before he was 18 young Arnold ran away to join British forces fighting the French and Indian wars. When the American revolution began . . . Map (db m141993) HM
7New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Canada’s Original CityLa ville originale du Canada
English What do you do for a 225th anniversary The answer in Canada’s first incorporated city was celebrate! Saint John 225: The Original City/La ville originale was a year-long celebration of the city’s heritage, creativity and . . . Map (db m77568) HM
8New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely . . . Map (db m120628) HM
9New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Centerbeam Place
This historic city block of attached late-Victorian buildings was designed and constructed immediately after the Great Fire of 1877 that swept away much of Saint John. Prominent architects from Canada and the United States vied for the honour of . . . Map (db m77457) HM
10New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Charles Gorman
English: Charles Ingraham Gorman, born 1897 in Saint John, quickly grew into a boy with great energy. He thrived on competition. Once he had ice skates he dazzled family and friends with his speed on ice. At ten Charlie competed . . . Map (db m142002) HM
11New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Church of Saint Andrew and Saint DavidÉglise Saint Andrew and Saint David
English Constructed in 1879, on the site of the 1815 “Auld Kirk”, the present church is a faithful representation of the Gothic Revival style. One highlight of the interior is the Gothicized pulpit by local carver John Rogerson. . . . Map (db m77483) HM
12New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Clearing Customs in Style / Franchir les douanes avec grâce — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: From 1881 to 1960, a massive building with a central dome and two elaborate towers dominated the Saint John waterfront. The Custom House was three storeys high on Prince William Street and five storeys on Water . . . Map (db m145399) HM
13New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Colonel Gabriel G. LudlowFirst Mayor of Saint John / Premier maire de Saint John
English: Born to a wealthy American family in 1736, Gabriel Ludlow grew up a supporter of the King. When the American Revolution came Ludlow raised a battalion for General DeLancey's Brigade. He was commissioned colonel of the . . . Map (db m141992) HM
14New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Defending the Harbour / À la défense du port — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Saint John Harbour has long been strategically important. There are many sites in and around the harbour relating to its defense — from Fort Saint Marie, now known as Fort LaTour, a fortified fur-trading . . . Map (db m145591) HM
15New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Dock Street Generating StationLe Centrale Dock Street — 1889-1976 —
English The New Brunswick Electric Power Commission’s DOCK STREET PLANT, built on this site in 1889, was the longest continually operating electrical generation station in the world. Built by the Saint John Railway Company, the 18,000 . . . Map (db m77558) HM
16New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Electrifying the Uptown / L'électrification du centre-ville — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Saint John Energy was established by the Saint John Common Council in 1922 to manage and operate the transmission and distribution of electrical power and energy in the City of Saint John. The Union Street substation . . . Map (db m145395) HM
17New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Marine Compound EngineLa Première Machine Compound de Marine
English The first vessel in the world propelled by a compound steam engine was the REINDEER launched for service on the Saint John, in 1845. Both the vessel and engine were designed by Benjamin Tibbets, a native of Queen’s County, New . . . Map (db m77428) HM
18New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Steam Fog HornLa Premiere Corne de Brume a Vapeur
English In 1854, Robert Foulis of St. John, N.B., first advocated the use of a steam horn or whistle to give warning to vessels in foggy weather. An apparatus devised by him was installed on Partridge Island in 1859. This was the first . . . Map (db m77430) HM
19New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fishing the Harbour / La pêche dans le port — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: For at least 10,000 years the Saint John harbour and river estuary, with its rich range of maritime food resources, from shellfish to walrus, provided abundantly for the Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) and their ancestors. . . . Map (db m147795) HM
20New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort HoweMajor Gilfrid Studholme — Indian Treaty of 1778/Le Traité Indien de 1778 —
Three markers are mounted on this monument Fort Howe English Late in 1777 Major Gilfred Studholme hurriedly fortified this ridge overlooking the mouth of the Saint John River. Throughout the remainder of the American . . . Map (db m77537) HM
21New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort La Tour
Fort La Tour was built on this site in 1631 by Charles de La Tour, a historical crossroads for First Nations peoples, French settlers and British traders. La Tour’s wife, Francoise-Marie Jacquelin defended the Fort against rival Charles de Menou . . . Map (db m138888) HM
22New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort La Tour
Français: Les peoples des Premières nations ont utilisé cet endroit comme lieu de rassemblement et de cérémonie pendant plus de 4000 ans. En 1631, Charles de Sainte-Étienne de La Tour a établi un poste de traite fortifié. Alors que . . . Map (db m152385) HM
23New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort La Tour / Le Fort La Tour
English: In 1631, Charles de Sainte-Étienne de La Tour built a fort here on ground traditionally used by First Nations people, for some 4000 years. The fort became one of the earliest centres of the French fur trade with the . . . Map (db m139998) HM
24New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fossil Hunters / Chasseurs de fossiles
English: Saint John was home to some of Canada's earliest fossil hunters. One great story from the 1880s tells how a young boy named Will Matthew found a gigantic trilobite — perhaps the largest ever found at that time about . . . Map (db m147799) HM
25New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Founding of New BrunswickLa Fondation du Nouveau-Brunswick
English The increase of population consequent upon the large influx of Loyalists in 1783 and 1784 convinced the British government of the desirability of creating the Province of New Brunswick. This was done on 16 August 1784. Brigadier . . . Map (db m77519) HM
26New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Françoise Marie Jacquelinand the Battle for Fort La Tour / et la lutte pour le fort La Tour
English: In 1640 Françoise Marie Jacquelin from France stepped onto the shores of Acadia to marry Charles de Saint-Étienne, Sieur de La Tour, the 46 year-old Governor of Acadia. With her marriage the young bride joined the war for . . . Map (db m141988) HM
27New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — George B. OlandMoosehead Breweries / La Brasserie Moosehead
English: When George Bauld Oland was growing up in Dartmouth, N.S. he was surrounded by his brothers and sisters and many Oland cousins. Their homes were together by the Halifax harbour near the Oland family brewery. The popular . . . Map (db m141995) HM
28New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Here Stood the House Occupied by Benedict Arnold
Here stood the house occupied by Gen. Benedict Arnold, famous Revolutionary War soldier, prominent merchant and trader 1787 to 1791.Map (db m147887) HM
29New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Imperial TheatreLe Théâtre Imperial
English Constructed in 1912-1913 to the designs of Philadelphia architect A.E. Westover, this structure was built by the Keith-Albee chain of New York City and its Canadian subsidiary, the Saint John Amusements Company. Dramatic, musical . . . Map (db m77506) HM
30New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Irish Immigrant Memorial
This Celtic cross, erected in 1967 by descendants of the Irish settlers, is a half scale replica of a cross which stands on Partridge Island in Saint John Harbour. A reproduction of the plaque on the original cross is shown below. This . . . Map (db m78253) HM
31New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — John RobertsonLord of the North / Le Lord du Nord
English: At age 16 John Robertson left Scotland for Saint John to work as his uncle's clerk. From his arrival in 1817 Robertson's energy, vision and shrewd business sense were combined with significant social skills. People liked . . . Map (db m141994) HM
32New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — K. C. Irving
English: Kenneth Colin Irving, known to everyone as K.C., spent most of his life in New Brunswick. He was born (March 1899) in Buctouche, Kent County where his father owned various businesses. From his earliest years it was . . . Map (db m142000) HM
33New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — King Edward VII Memorial BandstandKiosque À Musique Commémoratif Roi Edouard VII
English The Memorial Bandstand was designed and built in 1908 for the City Coronet Band by Neil Brodie, a local architect. One year later, it was donated to the City of Saint John in the name of Edward VII of England. The bandstand is . . . Map (db m77531) HM
34New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — King’s SquareCarré King’s Square — Established 1785/Fondé en 1785 —
English King’s Square, named for King George III of England, was granted to the City of Saint John by royal charter in 1785. During its early years, the grounds were the site of such public uses as oxen roasts, fireworks displays, militia . . . Map (db m77534) HM
35New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Koluskap and Beaver / Koluskap et le castor
English: Koluskap and Beaver The following is a creation story kept by the storytellers of the Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) about their ancestors in the communities of the Wolastoq (St. John River) where it meets the Bay of . . . Map (db m141909) HM
36New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Land of the Dawn / La terre de l’aurore
English: Land of the Dawn The traditional territory of the Wolastoqiyik is called Wabanaki (Land of the Dawn). Wolastoqiyik, people of the beautiful river, have been here since the beginning. In the beginning the river . . . Map (db m141443) HM
37New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Loyalist House / La Maison Loyaliste
English: This gracious building is a well-preserved example of the homes built by prosperous United Empire Loyalists and their descendants. Constructed before 1820 by the merchant David Merritt, this house was maintained with . . . Map (db m139999) HM
38New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Menahkwesk "Saint John"
As the people of the Saint John River/Walastakok River, Maliseets are known to have lived on this river for nearly 12,000 years. When The Europeans first came here in 1604 we were living in a village on an island in this harbor. Maliseets referred . . . Map (db m138887) HM
39New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Mills at Union Point / Les usines à Union Point
English: The site opposite, where Irving Pulp and Paper mill now stands, has been used for mill operations since the early 19th century. At that time the site was known as Union Point. Mills at Union Point 1835 . . . Map (db m142003) HM
40New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Navy Island (Ouigoudy Island) — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Through this viewing tube you can see a small patch of ground around one of the abutments of the Saint John Harbour Bridge. This is all that remains visible of a small island known as Navy Island. For centuries this . . . Map (db m147874) HM
41New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — New Brunswick’s First School of Law
Established on October 8, 1892 in connection with King’s College, Windsor, N.S., New Brunswick’s first School of Law was located in this building until 1953. The school is now the Faculty of Law of the University of New Brunswick. This plaque was . . . Map (db m77482) HM
42New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — No. 2 Mechanics’ Volunteer Company Engine HouseCaserne No 2 des Mécaniciens Pompiers Volontaires
English The cry “Fire!” so terrified Canadians in the early 19th century that communities began to construct permanent fire stations. Erected in 1840, this elegant Neoclassical building is a pioneer example of a firehall . . . Map (db m77508) HM
43New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Oland Family Breweries
1867 The year has great significance — not only did it mark Canada's confederation, but it also marked the year that Susannah Oland introduced her family's October Brown Ale to the public. 1870 John Oland died unexpectedly, but . . . Map (db m145396) HM
44New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Partridge Island / l'île Partridge
English: Look toward the mouth of the harbour and you'll see Partridge Island, an official National and Provincial Historic Site. Only 600 metres (654 yards) long by 300 metres (327 yards) wide, the rocky island was home to . . . Map (db m145596) HM
45New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Prince William Street - Before and After the 1877 FireRue Prince William - Avant et Après le Grand Incendie de 1877
This marker has plaques on both sides. English Before the 1877 Fire The year is 1865, and you are looking across Market Square at the “Imperial Building.” This was the site of the famous “Coffee . . . Map (db m77480) HM
46New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Prince William Streetscape / La Rue Prince William
English: This historic streetscape is distinguished by its rare concentration of homogeneous, primarily late 19th century architecture. Traditionally referred to as “Wall Street,” the area contains major public . . . Map (db m137519) HM
47New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Rebels Attack / Les attaques des rebelles
English: Partnership at Portland Point In August 1775 the 140 residents of Portland Point were attacked. A Machias war sloop burnt Fort Frederick, carried off its four soldiers and a ship full of supplies from the upriver . . . Map (db m141990) HM
48New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Robert Foulis
English: In 1822 when Robert Foulis arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick he was 30 years old, a well-educated Scotsman from Glasgow, recognized as brilliant in sciences, and trained as an engineer. He spent the rest of his life in . . . Map (db m141998) HM
49New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John – The Working Port / Saint John, port en activité — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: For more than two hundred years the City of Saint John and its sheltered, ice-free port, have been critical to the economic success of New Brunswick. Historically providing a port of entry for people and products, the . . . Map (db m145394) HM
50New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John 225th Anniversary Clock
English:This Clock commemorates the 225th Anniversary of the Incorporation of the City of Saint John on May 18th 1785 as Canada’s First Incorporated City. It also recognizes May 18th, celebrated in Saint John as Loyalist Day, for . . . Map (db m147895) HM
51New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John City MarketLe Marché de Saint John
English Built between 1874 ad 1876, the Saint John City market narrowly escaped the fire that swept through the town in 1877 and stands today as a rare and distinguished example of a 19th century market building. Designed in the Second . . . Map (db m77535) HM
52New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John Harbour Defensive Network / Réseau défensif du port de Saint JohnProvincial Historic Site / Lieu historique provincial
English: Saint John Harbour has been a strategic military site from the 1600’s through 1945. Each conflict led to the construction of defensive installations reflecting changing naval technologies. Français: . . . Map (db m145597) HM
53New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John’s First Wind Grist Mill
...built on this corner 1795, became city’s first poorhouse, also temporary military barracks, destroyed by fire 1819Map (db m77484) HM
54New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John’s Original Burial GroundLe premier cimetière de Saint John
English Saint John’s original burial ground was established on this site shortly after the landing of the United Empire Loyalists in 1783. After its closure as a cemetery in 1845, the site became a memorial garden with tree lined walkways . . . Map (db m77518) HM
55New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Samuel de ChamplainNames St. John River on June 24, 1604 / Il nomme le fleuve Saint-Jean le 24 juin 1604
English: On March 7th 1604, Samuel de Champlain, map-maker for Henry IV of France, sailed for L'Acadie with its newly appointed Lieutenant-General, Pierre du Gua de Monts. A second ship followed with Pont-Gravé who had explored . . . Map (db m141299) HM
56New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Scottish StrengthLa puissance écossaise
English Saint John has a strong Scottish presence. The breakup of the clan system in the late 18th century caused massive emigration from the Highlands. As a result, some 25 percent of the population has Scottish ancestry. Scottish . . . Map (db m77458) HM
57New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Shedding Light on the Three Sisters Mystery / Faire la lumière sur le mystère des trois sœurs — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Where does a nickname come from? No one can say why the Three Lamps light is better known as The Three Sisters. Nevertheless, local residents know the landmark by its nickname and have many stories to explain it. . . . Map (db m145600) HM
58New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Simonds, Hazen and WhiteA Partnership / Un partenariat
English: In 1762 three young ex-officers of provincial regiments (units of Americans within the British army) joined in a trading venture. The Boston friends - James Simonds, James White and William Hazen - were attracted to the . . . Map (db m141991) HM
59New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Sir Samuel Leonard TilleyFather of Confederation / Père de la Confédération
English: Born in 1818 at Gagetown, NB, Leonard Tilley apprenticed at age 13 to a pharmacist in the north end of Saint John known as Portland. As a certified pharmacist 7 years later, Tilley and his cousin opened "Peters and Tilley . . . Map (db m141997) HM
60New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — St. John's (stone) Church / L'Église St. John
English: Constructed in 1824-1825, St. John’s is one of the earliest Gothic Revival churches in Canada. Its name, the Stone Church, reflects the high quality of its regularly coursed masonry. The skillful treatment of its Gothic . . . Map (db m140105) HM
61New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The "Three Lamps"
1842 • A navigational signal lamp was erected on this site 1847 • A single gas lamp was erected by the Saint John Gas Co. and dedicated to the harbour pilots of Saint John 1848 • The Saint John Gas Co. commissioned Alexander . . . Map (db m145598) HM
62New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Marco PoloLe Marco Polo
English A three-masted full-rigged ship with a modified clipper hull, the Marco Polo earned a reputation as the “fastest ship in the world” and drew international attention to New Brunswick shipyards. Built in 1851 by . . . Map (db m77456) HM
63New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Great Fire of 1877/L’incendie de 1877Trinity Royal — Saint John’s First Historic Preservation Area/Premiere de conservation historique de Saint John —
There are two side to this marker English The Great Fire of 1877 One of the most destructive fires of modern times occurred at Saint John, N.B., on Wednesday, June 20th, 1877. It was more calamitous in its character than . . . Map (db m77570) HM
64New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Landing of the LoyalistsDébarquement des Loyalistes
English On 10 May 1783 the Spring Fleet, carrying over 2,000 Loyalists, arrived at the Saint John River mouth. The exiles, mostly civilians from the Middle Colonies, established themselves in the newly-surveyed townsites of Parr and . . . Map (db m77432) HM
65New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Largest in British North America / La plus grande en Amérique du Nord britannique — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: Imagine the harbour full of sails, wooden vessels of every shape and size navigating the tricky tidal currents to enter port. Imagine the snap of the canvas and the shouts of sailors dropping the massive sheets to . . . Map (db m145400) HM
66New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Marco Polo / Le Marco PoloThe Fastest Ship in the World / Le navire le plus rapide du monde
(English:)The Marco Polo and the Golden Age of Sail The Fastest Ship in the World Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada In the background you can see Saint John as it appeared in 1851, twenty-six years before the great fire of 1877 . . . Map (db m138894) HM
67New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The New Community of Saint John / La nouvelle localité de Saint John
English: With the rebels controlling the New England timber trade in 1779, Hazen and White secured a contract to supply the Royal Navy with essential masts and spars. Their lumber camps fought battles with those of rival traders . . . Map (db m141989) HM
68New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Saint John Harbour Bridge / Le pont du port de Saint JohnConnecting the City / un accès à la ville — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: The St. John River, with its long interior waterways, deep and sheltered harbour, and connection to the oceans of the world, is a natural highway for those travelling with the flow of the river. However, for those . . . Map (db m147796) HM
69New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Shards of Timeby Peter Powning
English: This sculpture is based on the rich historical and archeological heritage of the area — where the St. John River meets the Bay of Fundy and where inhabitants have congregated over millennia. It comprises a . . . Map (db m147797) HM
70New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Tides of Fundy / Les Marées de Fundy — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: The tides in the Bay of Fundy are among the highest in the world, reaching 16 m (53 feet) at the head of the bay. Closer to the mouth, the tidal range is less. At Saint John it averages 7 m (23 feet), still enough to . . . Map (db m147800) HM
71New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Troop Fleet in the Days of Sail
This plaque is in commemoration of the firm of Messrs. Troop and son, shipowners in the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, where the business of the firm was carried on during the years 1847-1912. Founded by Jacob V. Troop, the business was . . . Map (db m77459) HM
72New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Thomas Stockwell SimmsT.S. Simms & Co., Brush Makers to the World / fabricant de brosses pour le monde entier
English: The American Civil War had a significant impact on young Thomas Stockwell Simms. A native of Maine, he tried to enlist in Lincoln's Republican army at age 16 when he was too young. At 18 he was accepted by the Seventh . . . Map (db m141996) HM
73New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Touch Two Ancient Continents / Toucher à deux anciens continents — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: You can see and touch two ancient continents which actually meet beneath the Reversing Falls Bridge. According to geologists, this is possible because small continental slices drifted across the globe before they . . . Map (db m147798) HM
74New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — West meets East / L'ouest et l'est se rencontrent — Harbour Passage Trail —
English: West meets East… by Harbour Ferry Long before a bridge spanned the harbour, passenger ferries linked the east and west sides of Saint John. From 1841 to 1954, eight different ferries provided service between . . . Map (db m145398) HM
75New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — William Kilby ReynoldsBuider, Reversing Falls Bridge / Bâtisseur du pont des Chutes réversibles
English: Born in Maine in 1810, young Kilby Reynolds soon proved he had remarkable mechanical skills. His inventive mind enjoyed developing improvements and trying new ideas. In 1844 Reynolds purchased a large sawmill property . . . Map (db m142001) HM
76New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Wolastoq Park / Le parc Wolastoq
English: Wolastoq Park The Name Wolastoq means "the Beautiful River" in the language of the Maliseet people who lived beside it. Today, we know it as the beautiful St. John River. For many centuries before Europeans arrived . . . Map (db m141298) HM
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Apr. 10, 2021