“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers in Tybee Island, Georgia

Clickable Map of Chatham County, Georgia and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil;; J.J.Prats/dc:title> Chatham County, GA (518) Bryan County, GA (54) Effingham County, GA (29) Liberty County, GA (75) Jasper County, SC (37)  ChathamCounty(518) Chatham County (518)  BryanCounty(54) Bryan County (54)  EffinghamCounty(29) Effingham County (29)  LibertyCounty(75) Liberty County (75)  JasperCountySouth Carolina(37) Jasper County (37)
Savannah is the county seat for Chatham County
Tybee Island is in Chatham County
      Chatham County (518)  
      Bryan County (54)  
      Effingham County (29)  
      Liberty County (75)  
      Jasper County, South Carolina (37)  
Touch name on this list to highlight map location.
Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
1Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 4.5 Inch Blakely Rifle
Made by Fawcett, Preston and Company (Liverpool, England), this rifle and the others like it came through the blockade on the British steamship Fingall, November 12, 1861. It fired a projectile weighing 24 pounds and had an effective range of about . . . Map (db m67808) HM
2Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 5,275 Shots & Shells in 30 Hours — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Acting Brigadier General Quincy Adams Gillmore led the Union artillery attack on Fort Pulaski. Because the US Army originally built the fort, he knew its strengths and weaknesses and targeted the angle in front of you. Within range of Tybee . . . Map (db m134112) HM
3Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — A Bustling Village — Fort Pulaski National Monument
In front of you, reaching to the North Channel, a busy village supported Fort Pulaski. Originally built to house workers constructing the fort, the village became an extension of the post. How people used village buildings changed over time. The . . . Map (db m134069) HM
4Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — A Devastating Bombardment — Fort Pulaski National Monument
April 10, 1862: The Confederates refused a formal demand to surrender because enemy guns were a mile away—more than twice the effective range of heavy artillery of the day. When Union troops opened fire, their new rifled cannons fired . . . Map (db m134110) HM
5Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — A Turning Point In History — The Reduction of Fort Pulaski — The Battery —
This island became the "platform" on which the Union Army mounted 36 pieces of heavy artillery in early 1862. The bombardment that began on April 10 led to the surrender of Fort Pulaski 30 hours later. The placement of these batteries can be . . . Map (db m18245) HM
6Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Battery Hambright
Cockspur Island saw one more military use after the War Between the States. During the Spanish American War, a small force was garrisoned here to protect the river mouth. They operated the controls for electric mines in the Savannah River, . . . Map (db m15064) HM
7Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Brooke Rifle
Cast at the Tredegar Foundary in Richmond, Virginia, this rifled cannon had an effective range of 5 miles and fired a projectile weighing 64 pounds. Designed by a Confederate Naval Officer, it was considered superior to other rifled guns used . . . Map (db m67815) HM
8Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Burial Sites of Immortal 600
The Immortal 600 were a group of Confederate officers held prisoners of war at Fort Pulaski during the bitterly cold winter of 1864-1865. They were moved here from Charleston where they had been placed in the line of artillery fire in retaliation . . . Map (db m5076) HM
9Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Changing Landscape — Fort Pulaski National Monument
In the 1800s, a busy village stood where you now see a wooded area beyond the parking lot. Here at the mouth of the Savannah River, Cockspur Island was a strategic military outpost from before the Revolutionary War until after World War II. Tides . . . Map (db m134101) HM
10Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Cisterns of the Construction Village — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Robert E. Lee, newly graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, joined Major Samuel Babcock of the Army Corps of Engineers in 1829 to begin work on building a construction village on this site. Two years later Lee . . . Map (db m13185) HM
11Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Cockspur Island Lighthouse
The Cockspur Island Lighthouse, located in front of you was built in 1856. Six years later it was a silent witness to the Battle of Fort Pulaski. On April 10-11, 1862, the lighthouse was located midway between Union forces here on Tybee Island and . . . Map (db m19678) HM
12Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 25-41 — Cockspur Island Lighthouse
Designed and built in 1848 by renowned architect John S. Norris to mark the entrance to the South Channel of the Savannah River, the Cockspur Island Lighthouse was destroyed by a hurricane in 1854. A larger replacement was built on the same . . . Map (db m47201) HM
13Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Engineering Dry Land — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Controlling tidal flow over the island was a critical first step in the construction of Fort Pulaski. A complex system of ditches and dikes drain water away from the fort. Designed in 1829 by young Army engineer Lieutenant Robert E. Lee, the system . . . Map (db m134095) HM
14Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-60 — Federal Batteries on Tybee Island
Between February 21 and April 9, 1862, Federal troops under Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore erected 36 guns in 11 batteries, extending eastwardly on Tybee Island from Lazeretto Creek opposite Fort Pulaski. Two of the Federal batteries consisted of rifled . . . Map (db m7545) HM
15Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Federal Siege Batteries
Thirty-six big guns on Tybee Island, 1 to 1½ miles away, converged their fire on the fort. The bombardment proved that rifled cannon could destroy masonry forts.Map (db m67816) HM
16Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Final Resting Place — Fort Pulaski National Monument
The cemetery at Fort Pulaski marks the final resting place for workers, families, and soldiers. Union and Confederate soldiers, as well as the people who built the fort and supported the troops garrisoned here, once shared this hallowed ground. . . . Map (db m134114) HM
17Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Fort at Play — Fort Pulaski National Monument
The 48th New York Volunteers garrisoned Fort Pulaski after the Confederates surrendered the fort. On special occasions, soldiers invited guests from Hilton Head to enjoy a day of festivities and games. Sack and wheelbarrow races on the parade ground . . . Map (db m134096) HM
18Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 25-61 — Fort Pulaski
Named for General Casimir Pulaski, the Polish hero who was mortally wounded at the siege of Savannah, 1779, Fort Pulaski was built in accordance with plans by General Simon Bernard, formerly chief engineer under Napoleon. Begun in 1829 and . . . Map (db m5037) HM
19Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-58 — Fort Screven — ←—«
The Legislature of Georgia in 1786 passed a law providing for a fort on Cockspur or Tybee Island to be named in honor of General James Screven, Revolutionary War hero. It was never built by the state. In 1808 the Federal government obtained . . . Map (db m22316) HM
20Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 82002393 — Fort Screven — 1897 - 1945
Has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places By the United States Department of the Interior May 25, 1982Map (db m18842) HM
21Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Fort Screven Bakery — Building #97
Activated just prior to the Spanish-American War and inactivated at the close of World War II, Fort Screven served as a military post for almost 50 years. During that time, Fort Screven was a coast artillery installation, an infantry post, District . . . Map (db m13076) HM
22Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Fort Screven District — 1898-1945
The Fort Screven District is a nationally recognized Historic District. The first buildings to be built for Fort Screven were the six Endicott Period Batteries, that would be used for coastal defense. All of which were constructed between the years . . . Map (db m200251) HM
23Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Freedom Ahead! — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Union forces took back Fort Pulaski in 1862, opening a door to freedom for enslaved people in the region. Families fled to this Union outpost in Confederate territory for liberty and protection. The military recruited African American men from the . . . Map (db m134093) HM
24Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — German Volunteers
Membership Roll of the Officers and Privates of the German Volunteers organized in 1845 who left Savannah on board the Steam Tug Sampson on Wednesday the 24th of January 1861, to garrison Fort Pulaski John H. Stegin, . . . Map (db m5050) HM
25Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Guarding the Door — Fort Pulaski National Monument
The demilune (French for "half-moon") protected the fort's entrance. During the Civil War, the demilune wall was about waist high with gun platforms on the flat top. After the Civil War, while Fort Pulaski was still a military post, Army . . . Map (db m134094) HM
26Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — H.M.S. Otranto and Fort Screven
On September 19, 1918, 574 US Army officers and enlisted men departed Fort Screven under the command of 2nd Lt Samuel E. Levy to board the British troopship H.M.S. Otranto. The ship departed New York carrying more than 1025 U.S. soldiers and . . . Map (db m200247) HM
27Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Henry Sims Morgan
. . . Map (db m10898) HM
28Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Henry Sims Morgan
Henry Sims Morgan graduated with the class of 1897 from West Point Academy. A second lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, he was in charge of construction of a battery on Wassaw Island from 1897 to 1898. Morgan drowned on August 31, 1898 while . . . Map (db m200248) HM
29Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 25-32 — History of Emancipation: — Gen. David Hunter and General Orders No. 7
On April 13, 1862, following the Union capture of Ft. Pulaski during the Civil War, Maj. Gen. David Hunter issued General Orders No. 7 freeing those enslaved at the fort and on Cockspur Island. Hunter, an abolitionist advocating the enlistment of . . . Map (db m13830) HM
30Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Hot Shot Furnace
Only the foundation remains of one of the fort’s furnaces which heated cannon balls. Used against wooden ships, the red-hot projectiles could start a disastrous fire – even after skipping on the water several times. Loading a cannon with hot . . . Map (db m67781) HM
31Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Immortal Six Hundred
Confederate States of America Immortal Six Hundred Brave on the field of battle with steadfast loyality to country and comrades. They placed honour above life itself. The “13” who died and are buried here . . . crossed over on Lt. . . . Map (db m67821) HM
32Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-63 — John Wesley — (1703-1791)
On February 6, 1736, John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, landed at Peeper (now Cockspur) Island near here and there preached to his fellow voyagers his first sermon on American soil. A monument has been erected on Cockspur Island to commemorate . . . Map (db m5072) HM
33Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — John Wesley Landing Site
(upper inscription): John Wesley landed in America on this island. February 6, 1736 (lower inscription): From the Journal of John Wesley "Fri, 6,- About eight in the morning I first set my foot on American ground. It . . . Map (db m12917) HM
34Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Key to the South — Fort Pulaski National Monument
The Union Army took control of Hilton Head Island after the Battle of Port Royal Sound in November 1861. More than 15,000 Union troops landed on the island to establish a large military base. From Hilton Head, Union forces conducted military actions . . . Map (db m134102) HM
35Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-64 — Lazaretto — ←—«
After the repeal of the anti-slavery provision in the Charter of the Colony of Georgia on 1749, an act permitting the importation of slaves ordered the erection of a Lazaretto (Quarantine Station) on Tybee Island. Not until 1767 were 104 acres . . . Map (db m12953) HM
36Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Long Range Artillery Duel
This recreated gun battery marks the center of the Union lines. Between February and April 1862, eleven gun batteries were erected on Tybee Island. A battery was not located on this site, but the cannon on the left is an original from the battle. . . . Map (db m30507) HM
37Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Moat Feeder Canal
In wartime the moat was filled with water from the South Channel of the Savannah River. This feeder canal featured stop-lock gates which provided water control and access to small barges bringing supplies to the fort. When filled from this . . . Map (db m13187) HM
38Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Model 1859 Seacoast Carriage
The Phoenix Iron Works of Philadelphia made this carriage for a Parrott rifle (cannon). The weapon fired a 100 pound projectile 8500 yards. Carriage and gun weighed almost 13,000 pounds. In 1978 this carriage was recovered from a long-lost . . . Map (db m67807) HM
39Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — North Pier Trail — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Cockspur Island has changed tremendously in the last 200 years. Before the early 1800s, the island was mainly a salty grass marsh with a few, forested bits of dry land. With the US Army's decision to construct a fort here, they cut down trees to . . . Map (db m134113) HM
40Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Parrott Rifle
On April 10, 1862, German volunteers of the 46th N. Y. Regiment manned this gun and the one on the right. On that date the guns bore down on Fort Pulaski from one of eleven Federal batteries located on Tybee and McQueens Islands. Following their . . . Map (db m67818) HM
41Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Powder Magazine
By noon, April 11, 1862, shells breached the opposite side of the fort and struck this wall. Inside sat great stores of gunpowder. The fort surrendered two hours later.Map (db m67805) HM
42Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Prepared for Battle — Fort Pulaski National Monument
In early 1862, Confederate soldiers used earth and timbers to create a blindage. The blindage created a covered walkway to protect troops against incoming shot and shells. They also dug ditches in the parade ground to catch rolling cannon shot. . . . Map (db m134099) HM
43Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Quest for Freedom
"Without going into a detailed history of my life, which would be too long, it will suffice to say to you in the language of an old soldier and of a citizen, that, in coming to America, my sole object has been to devote myself entirely to her . . . Map (db m89126) HM
44Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Red-hot Shot — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Hot shot furnaces were state of the art for defense systems of their day. Soldiers heated cannonballs in specially designed furnaces until they glowed red hot. They carefully loaded the hot shot into cannons and fired at wooden ships. Even after . . . Map (db m134100) HM
45Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Sheltering Crown — Fort Pulaski National Monument
This is the historic cupola that topped the Cockspur Island Lighthouse. The cupola protected the powerful Fresnel lens at the top of the lighthouse tower. In 1995, preservation staff discovered several structural cracks in the cupola and removed it . . . Map (db m134077) HM
46Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Shifting Shoreline — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Since 1867, the island has grown due to dredging. Cockspur Island was once much smaller than it is today. Since the end of the Civil War through the 1980s, the Savannah River was dredged to make it deep enough for ocean-going container ships. . . . Map (db m134109) HM
47Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Soldier of Liberty — Fort Pulaski National Monument
Casimir Pulaski became a national hero in Poland when he fought for Polish liberty against Russian and Prussian forces in 1771. A year later, Poland lost the fight and Pulaski was forced to flee his homeland. He met Benjamin Franklin in Paris in . . . Map (db m134074) HM
48Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Southwest Bastion — Fort Pulaski
The Southwest Bastion held a special type of cannon to protect the fort’s entrance. These cannon, known as 24-pounder flank defense howitzers, were aimed at the drawbridge. Today, this area provides a cutaway view of the fort’s upper foundations. . . . Map (db m67800) HM
49Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Southwest Magazine
Used as a shell magazine during the Confederate occupation, the Federals saw fit to use it as “dark confinement” for Confederate Officers held prisoner during the Winter, 1864-65.Map (db m67797) HM
50Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Store House
Colonel Edward L. Molineaux, 157th N. Y. Volunteers, left a diary describing these casemates. From here, the Quartermaster Department issued bulk supplies to the garrison. During the night of February 25, 1865, seven prisoners, members of the . . . Map (db m67803) HM
51Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Breached Wall — April 10-11, 1862
" The result of this bombardment must cause, I am convinced, a change in the construction of fortification as radical as that foreshadowed in naval architecture by the conflict between the Monitor and Merrimac. No works of stone or brick can . . . Map (db m13224) HM
52Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Breached Wall
The southeast angle of Fort Pulaski was breached by early afternoon on April 11, 1862. With devastating accuracy, Union rifled artillery accomplished this task in only 30 hours. It would take over 1,000 Federal troops six weeks to repair the battle . . . Map (db m67780) HM
53Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Carbo House
Constructed in 1932 has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places May 21, 2010Map (db m200252) HM
54Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Demilune
Surrounded on all sides by the moat, the demilune (literally “half-moon”) protected the vulnerable fort entrance. This triangular area was modified in 1872 by the addition of earthen mounds which housed powder magazines. During the . . . Map (db m67779) HM
55Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Loss of the HMS Otranto October 1918
Prelude to Disaster On September 19, 1918, 574 Coastal Artillery Corps (CAC) officers and troops from the surrounding Georgia counties, including Chatham, set out by train from Tybee Island to New York under the command of 2nd Lt. Sam Levy. . . . Map (db m200243) HM
56Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Parade
The Confederates used earth and a “blindage” of timbers as protection against shot and shells falling within the fort. To reduce casualties from flying debris, the “light colonnade” or veranda roof along the gorge was . . . Map (db m67782) HM
57Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — The Tybrisa Pavilion II — Walter Parker Pier and Pavilion at Tybee Island
The Tybrisa Pavilion II The Tybrisa Pavilion stood for three-quarters of a century as a landmark on the South Atlantic Ocean. Built in 1891 by the Central of Georgia Railroad, it became a well known destination for day-trippers and seasonal . . . Map (db m13778) HM
58Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-65 — The Waving Girl
For 44 years, Florence Martus (1868-1943) lived on nearby Elba Island with her brother, the lighthouse keeper, and no ship arrived for Savannah or departed from 1887 to 1931 without her waving a handkerchief by day or a lantern by night. Throughout . . . Map (db m5049) HM
59Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — This Memorial Commemorates The Act Of...
This Memorial Commemorates the act of Lieutenant Christopher Hussey Of the Montgomery Guards and Private John Latham of the Washington Volunteers, the first volunteer regiment of the State of Georgia. While under fire during the bombardment of . . . Map (db m4231) HM
60Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Through the Thick Brick Wall — Fort Pulaski National Monument
With devastating accuracy, Union rifled artillery breached the southeast angle of Fort Pulaski in less than 30 hours. It took Federal troops six weeks to repair the battle damage. For the remainder of the war, Fort Pulaski was a Union outpost in the . . . Map (db m134098) HM
61Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 025-62 — Tybee Island — »—→
Tybee Island was named by the Indians who came from the interior to hunt and fish. Settled since the beginning of the colony of Georgia, it was the scene in 1775 of the first capture by the first Provincial vessel commissioned by any Congress in . . . Map (db m44320) HM
62Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Tybee Island Wade-Ins
In the early 1960s, Savannah Beach, now Tybee Island, GA, was the site of Civil Rights protests called wade-ins, akin to the sit-in demonstrations of the time. These protests, planned and conducted by the NAACP Savannah Youth Council, sought to . . . Map (db m200228) HM
63Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — Tybee Island Wade-Ins
At a mass meeting of the Savannah NAACP, W.W. Law, Chapter President and local icon of the Civil Rights movement, praised the protesters:
“If these youngsters can sit in, wade in, and kneel in, all Negroes can stay off Broughton . . . Map (db m200229) HM
64Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 25-59 — Tybee Lighthouse —
A lighthouse on Tybee was one of the first public structures in Georgia. Completed in 1736 by William Blithman of cedar piles and brickwork, its 90 foot height made it the loftiest in America. Destroyed in a storm, it was replaced by another . . . Map (db m7423) HM
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Jul. 5, 2022