“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania

Clickable Map of Chester County, Pennsylvania and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil;; J.J.Prats/dc:title> Chester County, PA (236) Berks County, PA (257) Delaware County, PA (196) Lancaster County, PA (348) Montgomery County, PA (234) New Castle County, DE (428) Cecil County, MD (167)  ChesterCounty(236) Chester County (236)  BerksCounty(257) Berks County (257)  DelawareCounty(196) Delaware County (196)  LancasterCounty(348) Lancaster County (348)  MontgomeryCounty(234) Montgomery County (234)  NewCastleCountyDelaware(428) New Castle County (428)  CecilCountyMaryland(167) Cecil County (167)
Location of Upper Merion Township, Pennsylvania
    Chester County (236)
    Berks County (257)
    Delaware County (196)
    Lancaster County (348)
    Montgomery County (234)
    New Castle County, Delaware (428)
    Cecil County, Maryland (167)
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Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
1Pennsylvania (Chester County), Upper Merion Township — Upper Forge Site
Between here and the creek stood the forge. A low stone dam diverted water to power the bellows and hammer. Mount Misery, rising behind you, provided wood for charcoal. During the encampment, a road to the forge cut through the gap on the hill in . . . Map (db m28893) HM
2Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — “Crowded and Very Sickly”
Putrid fever, the itch, diarrhea, dysentery and rheumatism were some of the afflictions suffered by the Continental troops. At Valley Forge the Hospital Department inoculated two to three thousand against smallpox. Medicine, food, blankets and . . . Map (db m28969) HM
3Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — 1st and 2nd Rhode Island Regiments
Dedicated to Major General Nathanael Greene Brigadier General James Mirchell Varnum Colonel Christopher Greene Colonel Israel Angell and to other officers and men of 1st and 2nd Rhode Island Regiments encamped at Valley Forge in 1777-1778. - Let . . . Map (db m28897) HM
4Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — 9/11 Memorial
[Text as center bottom reads] On September 11, 2001 there was a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. . . . Map (db m126762) HM WM
5Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — A City of HutsRefuge for the Winter
Welcome to the fourth largest city in America. Arriving in this rural area in the winter of 1777, soldiers immediately began building 2000 log huts for shelter, earthworks for defense, and rubble roads to keep out the deep, boot-pulling mud. . . . Map (db m132268) HM
6Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — A Pointed Defense
On the attack, this would be your perspective: advancing uphill, passing through sharp obstructions, only to face artillery and supporting infantry mounted in the redan. Brigade huts would be across the road, just behind the defenses. These . . . Map (db m28973) HM
7Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Advance RedoubtEarthwork Defense System
Soldiers constructed earthen fortifications called redoubts (French for a place of retreat). These redoubts were connected by miles of entrenchments designed to strengthen the natural advantages of the terrain here. These fortifications were part . . . Map (db m132287) HM
8Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — American Icon
Americans of the Revolutionary era looked to ancient Rome and Greece as models of republican ideals. This statue, a bronze copy of die original marble which has stood in the rotunda of the Virginia State capitol since 1796, includes both classical . . . Map (db m77119) HM
9Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Are the British Coming?A Commanding View
Look down this hill. Imagine you are a soldier on the lookout for British soldiers approaching from Philadelphia. In 1777, this view was completely open, with no trees or buildings. The miles-long view from this hilltop made this a well protected . . . Map (db m132298) HM
10Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Artillery Park
Some redoubts and earthworks went unarmed. Most cannons at Valley Forge were kept in the Artillery Park near the center of the encampment. From here guns could be rushed to the point of attack. The Artillery Park gave the Americans a flexible . . . Map (db m5674) HM
11Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Commander in Chief’s GuardsAn Elite Security Force — Valley Forge National Historical Park —
Always present, Washington’s guard occupied huts here. This special detachment was created to protect the Commander in Chief, his official family, and his equipment, supplies, and papers. Washington required that each life guard, as they called . . . Map (db m28888) HM
12Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — DeKalb’s DivisionContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Major General Baron DeKalb Patterson’s Brigade Brig. General John Patterson commanding 10th Massachusetts Infantry     Col. Thomas Marshall 11th Massachusetts Infantry     Col. Benjamin Tupper 12th Massachusetts Infantry     Col. Samuel Brewer 14th . . . Map (db m28838) HM
13Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — DeKalb's Division (Learned's Brigade)
Continental Army — Valley Forge December 19 1777 June 18 1778 — DeKalb’s Division Major General Baron DeKalb Learned’s Brigade Major General Baron DeKalb Learned's Brigade Brig. General Ebenezer Learned Commanding 2nd . . . Map (db m41166) HM
14Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Delaware MonumentValley Forge National Historic Park
The State of Delaware erects this marker in memory of her gallant sons who endured the hardships and privations of the memorial winter of 1777-1778 on the hills of Valley Forge.Map (db m84847) WM
15Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Did You Know?
Who owned and lived in the building when Washington arrived? The house was built for Isaac Potts, and iron master who was one of the owners of the Valley Forge. At the time of the winter encampment in 1777, he was not living there but had . . . Map (db m77124) HM
16Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Freemasons of Pennsylvania
“In remembrance of the Continental Army led by George Washington, a member of the Masonic Fraternity, and in honor of the many Freemasons who were part of the encampment at this site, the Freemasons of Pennsylvania place this monument so . . . Map (db m28919) HM
17Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Gen. Lachlan McIntosh1727-1806 — Georgia State Marker —
"an officer of great worth and merit" George Washington During the winter of Valley Forge, Gen. Lachlan McIntosh of Georgia commanded the first brigade of the Continental Amy. The Brigade which was composed of North Carolina regiments, was . . . Map (db m66069) WM
18Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Glover’s BrigadeContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Division -------------------- Glover’s Brigade Brig. General John Glover commanding 1st Massachusetts Infantry   Col. Joseph Vose 4th Massachusetts Infantry   Col. William Shepard 13th Massachusetts Infantry   Col. Edward Wigglesworth 15th . . . Map (db m28843) HM
19Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Greene’s DivisionContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Major General Nathaniel Greene Muhlenberg’s Brigade Brig. General J. Peter G. Muhlenberg commanding “German Regiment” Pennsylvania Line   Lieut. Col. Lewis Weltner (Raised July 12 1776 – Mustered out January 1781) 1st Regiment . . . Map (db m28839) HM
20Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Greene’s DivisionContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Major General Nathaniel Greene Weedon’s Brigade Brig. General George Weedon commanding 13th Regiment Infantry Pennsylvania Line   Col. Walter Stewart (Raised as “State Regiment of Foot” March 1 1777 attached to Pennsylvania Line as 13th . . . Map (db m28841) HM
21Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Gulph Mills Village
This house, built about 1780, was the old Bird-in-Hand General Store. Originally this area was named "Bird-in-Hand" for sign of a tavern that stood nearby. A building just SW of here was a forge. Like the store it later was converted into a . . . Map (db m84846) HM
22Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Headquarters Complex
The headquarters house overlooking the confluence of Valley Creek and the Schuylkill River was the hub of military activity. It was from here that General Washington, with the assistance of his staff, conducted the daily routine of the army. Often . . . Map (db m28903) HM
23Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Huntington’s BrigadeContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Division -------------------- Huntington’s Brigade Brig. General Jedediah Huntington commanding 1st Regiment Connecticut Infantry   Lieut. Col. Samuel Prentice 2nd Regiment Connecticut Infantry   Col. Charles Webb 5th Regiment Connecticut . . . Map (db m28848) HM
24Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Huntington’s Brigade
Occupied this groundMap (db m28852) HM
25Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Innerline Defense
The low mound in front of you is part of the original earthworks of the fortified encampment of Valley Forge. They extended about one mile from Mount Joy on the south to the Schuylkill River to the north.Map (db m132337) HM
26Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Innerline Defense
The low mound in front of you is part of the original earthworks of the fortified encampment of Valley Forge. They extended about one mile from Mount Joy on the south to the Schuylkill River to the north.Map (db m132343) HM
27Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — King of Prussia Volunteer Fire Company #1 Charter MembersFounded 1950
Dedicated to the Charter Members of the King of Prussia Volunteer Fire Company #1- June 29, 1991 Charter Members - May 1950 William Anderson • Edward A. Mathis John W. Brennan • Salvatore Mazzerle Lewis S. Granger, Jr. • Norman . . . Map (db m126749) HM
28Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Log City
Following their arrival December 19, 1777, the men immediately set to work building huts for shelter. General orders the preceding day specified the size and design of the huts: 14 x 16 feet each, 6½ feet high, a door next to the street and a . . . Map (db m6149) HM
29Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Loyal Patriots of Valley Forge
In Honor of All Loyal Patriots Who Served under the Command of General George Washington In the Winter Encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania December 19, 1777 - June 19, 1778 and in Honor of Donald G. Cronan, Founder of the . . . Map (db m22167) HM
30Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Maine
To commemorate the officers and men from that part of New England now known as the State of Maine who served in Massachusetts regiments in the Continental Army under Washington at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777 – 8 sharing the hardships . . . Map (db m28837) HM WM
31Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Major General Friedrich Wilhelm Baron von Steuben
Erected by the National German American Alliance,   1915Map (db m28860) HM
32Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Massachusetts Monument
This monument is erected by a grateful Commonwealth in memory of the soldiers of Massachusetts who served at Valley Forge 19 Dec 1777       19 June 1778 Ense Petit Placidam Sub Libertate Quietem < Back of Monument > Massachusetts soldiers who . . . Map (db m28965) WM
33Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — National Patriots Bell Tower(Formerly known as the Valley Forge Memorial Bell Tower)
This tower is dedicated by the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution to those Patriots of the Revolutionary War whose faith and courage won and established American Freedom and to those Heroes of World Wars I and II who defended and . . . Map (db m22158) WM
34Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — New Jersey BrigadeContinental Army
Erected by The State of New Jersey upon the site occupied by the New Jersey Brigade Infantry – Line – Continental Army Brigadier General William Maxwell First Regiment   Col. Mathias Ogden Second Regiment   Col. Israel Shreve Third . . . Map (db m28831) WM
35Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — North of the RiverSupporting the Winter Camp
The land just across the Schuylkill River played a vital role in the winter encampment. Provisions and armaments from throughout the region were brought there, and the army built a bridge for access across the river just downstream of this point. . . . Map (db m77123) HM
36Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — On the Lookout
The five redoubts were positioned on high points, each visible to each other. Officers used telescopes to observe and communicate visually. The frame is aimed toward Redoubt 3 on Mount Joy. Redoubt 3 anchored the southwest end of the inner . . . Map (db m132297) HM
37Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Patriots of African Descent
who served, suffered and sacrificed during the Valley Forge encampment, 1776-1778 "Throughout these historic and hallowed campsites were courageous Black patriots who participated in the nation's bitter fight for independence." Charles L. . . . Map (db m6808) HM
38Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Protection from AttackBuilding the Redoubt
Troops originally built this redoubt by hand using shovels and picks. A redoubt was cleverly designed so that every part strengthened its defensive role or provided an obstacle to attack. Soldiers appreciated how these pieces fit together and . . . Map (db m132296) HM
39Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Remembering Valley ForgeThe People’s Park — Valley Forge National Historical Park —
The perseverance of the soldiers at Valley Forge is a beloved American story. Long-discussed ideas for commemoration of their sacrifices were implemented after the disruption of the Civil War, when the centennials of both the Declaration of . . . Map (db m29110) HM
40Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Schoolhouse
This one room stone structure was built about 35 years after the encampment when the village of Valley Forge was expanding with industry. It served as a school until a new and larger building was constructed directly across Gulph Road. It then . . . Map (db m28880) HM
41Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Site of the Marquee
On this spot General Washington erected his campaign tent (marquee) when he entered Valley Forge December 19, 1777. He occupied this tent until December 24, 1777, when he moved his headquarters to the Potts House at the junction of Valley Creek and . . . Map (db m28882) HM
42Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Soldiers’ Huts
On original street of Muhlenberg's BrigadeMap (db m28976) HM
43Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Sullivan’s DivisionContinental Army — Valley Forge December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Major General John Sullivan Maxwell’s Brigade Brig. General William Maxwell commanding 1st. New Jersey Infantry     Colonel Mathias Ogden 2nd. New Jersey Infantry     Colonel Israel Shreve 3rd. New Jersey Infantry     Colonel Elias Dayton 4th. New . . . Map (db m28832) WM
44Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — The Camp’s Road System
Adapting to the terrain, the arriving army used peaceful farm roads as lines of communication within the sprawling encampment. Livestock, commissary wagons, and troops dragging firewood quickly turned roads into rivers of mud. After Sullivan’s . . . Map (db m28966) HM
45Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — The Grand Parade
Cannon smoke clouds the fields below. A roar of muskets crisscrosses the Grand Parade as thousands of double-ranked troops perform a feu de joie (“fire of joy.”) To celebrate the signing of the French Treaty of Alliance, General . . . Map (db m5701) HM
46Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — The National Arch at Valley Forge
George Washington, Valley Forge and Freemasonry represent patriotism, freedom and brotherly love to all Freemasons. Washington served as Master of his Masonic Lodge at the same time he was President of the United States. Through the preservation of . . . Map (db m11884) HM
47Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — The Village of Valley ForgeOrdinary Place, Extraordinary History — Valley Forge National Historical Park —
An iron forge was established in this remote place in the early 1700s, as there was ample water power from Valley Creek, limestone for processing iron ore, and timber to make charcoal to fuel the furnaces. Soon, dams and mill races, charcoal houses, . . . Map (db m29010) HM
48Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — To Build a Redoubt
The earthworks today appear to be giant molehills. But it took complex engineering to construct them. A deep ditch was excavated in front, to slow an attacking enemy. The dirt was heaped into gabions - baskets of interwoven branches. Bundles . . . Map (db m11887) HM
49Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Training for Victory
Like a drill sergeant, Inspector General Friedrich von Steuben trains eyeball to eyeball with a company of Continentals. This model company must serve as an example to the rest of Washington’s army. The Grand Parade, here at the center if the . . . Map (db m5698) HM
50Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Transformation of the American ArmyDiscipline and Training
The large protected valley in front of you is the Grand Parade. Extending from where you are standing to the ridge almost a mile away, it served as the centerpiece of camp. When units from the various states arrived at Valley Forge in December . . . Map (db m132279) HM
51Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Valley CreekMeandering through History — Valley Forge National Historical Park —
Valley Creek flows through the historic Village of Valley Forge to its confluence with the Schuykill River, just downstream of this point. Once the primary source of water and power for a bustling town, it now is one of the park’s most important . . . Map (db m29113) HM
52Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Varnum’s BrigadeContinental Army — Valley Forge   December 19 1777   June 18 1778 —
Division -------------------- Varnum’s Brigade Brig. General James M. Varnum commanding 1st Regiment Rhode Island Infantry   Col. Christopher Greene 2nd Regiment Rhode Island Infantry   Col. Israel Angell 4th Regiment Connecticut Infantry   Col. . . . Map (db m28847) HM
53Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Varnum’s Quarters
When he moved in, General James Varnum used one room as both living quarters and brigade headquarters, and even held general courts martial. The owners, David and Elizabeth Stephens and their family, were allowed to remain in the rest of the . . . Map (db m28862) HM
54Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — War Comes to Valley ForgeThe British Raid
Just upstream is the site of the Valley Forge, for which this area was named. The Continental Army used the forge to store foods and weapons. Three months before the winter encampment, the British swept through on September 18, 1777 and burned the . . . Map (db m28835) HM
55Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Washington’s Headquarters
For six months this quiet path was a congested thoroughfare. Express riders from Congress, civilians requesting passes, guards posted around the house, couriers rushing out with new orders, foreign officers seeking employment, continually jammed . . . Map (db m5668) HM
56Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Washington’s Headquarters
”We had engaged in the defense of our injured country and we were determined to persevere.” Private Joseph Plumb Martin Valley Forge: An American Symbol Welcome to Washington’s Headquarters, site of General . . . Map (db m77122) HM
57Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Waterman's Monument
This 50 foot granite obelisk was erected in 1901 by the Daughters of the Revolution. It marks the site of the only identified grave at Valley Forge, that of Lieutenant John Waterman of Rhode Island, who died on April 23, 1778.Map (db m22169) HM
58Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Why Valley Forge?
Location Matters Just 20 miles outside Philadelphia, Valley Forge was close enough to monitor British army activities but far enough away to prevent a surprise attack. Washington used this hilly country to his advantage, building . . . Map (db m77120) HM
59Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — William White1748 - 1836
Rector of Christ and St. Peter's Churches in Philadelphia. Chaplain to the Continental Congress. First Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Pennsylvania. Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church.Map (db m136043) HM
60Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Upper Merion Township — Winter EncampmentDecember 19, 1777 – June 19, 1778
The countryside was stripped of trees. All available wood went to build and heat the city of huts that crowded this ridge. When the Continental Army wintered here, every acre was heavily used – for entrenchments, stock pens, an artillery . . . Map (db m8828) HM
Apr. 20, 2021