“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Related Historical Markers

Winchester and Frederick County, Virginia Civil War Markers.
A-15 Stands along the Valley Pike image, Touch for more information
By Craig Swain, September 29, 2007
A-15 Stands along the Valley Pike
1Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — A-15 — Battle of Cedar Creek
Near this point General Early, on the morning of October 19, 1864, stopped his advance and from this position he was driven by Sheridan in the afternoon.Map (db m568) HM
2Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — A-14 — End Of Sheridan’s Ride
This knoll marks the position of the Union Army when Sheridan rejoined it at 10:30 A.M., October 19, 1864, in the Battle of Cedar Creek. His arrival, with Wright's efforts, checked the Union retreat.Map (db m577) HM
3Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — A-16 — Engagement Of Middletown
Here Stonewall Jackson, on May 24, 1862, attacked Banks retreating from Strasburg and forced him to divide his army.Map (db m578) HM
4Virginia, Frederick County, Stephens City — A-12 — Stephens City
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town on May 30, 1864; but Major Joseph Streans of the First New York Cavalry prevented it.Map (db m580) HM
5Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Battle of Cedar CreekOctober 19, 1864
General Philip Sheridan defeated General Jubal Early here for the third time in 30 days. Sheridan’s pursuit of Confederates from Fisher’s Hill halted at Mount Crawford. On his return he encamped his three corps in this immediate area. Early . . . Map (db m581) HM
6Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — A-56 — Battle of Cedar Creek
In early Oct. 1864, portions of Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s army bivouacked here on the hills and rolling farmland just north of Cedar Creek along the Valley Turnpike (present-day U.S. Rte. 11). Just before daybreak on 19 Oct., Confederate . . . Map (db m50310) HM
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7Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — A-17 — Tomb Of An Unknown Soldier
On the highest mountain top to the southeast is the grave of an unknown soldier. The mountain top was used as a signal station by both armies, 1861-1865.Map (db m586) HM
8Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Colonel Charles Russell Lowell
Commanding Reserve Brigade Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah Fell in action near this place October 19, 1864 Useful Citizen * Gallant Soldier He died too early for his country (reverse side) Cedar . . . Map (db m1868) HM
9Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownThe Beginning of “Stonewall” Jackson’s Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, fought by 10,000 Americans on March 23, 1862, was the first battle waged in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, sixteen Union cannon crowned the knolls of Pritchard’s Hill (the high ground immediately north . . . Map (db m2169) HM
10Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownMulligan’s Final Stand
Late in the afternoon on July 24, 1864, 1,800 Union soldiers led by Colonel James A. Mulligan fell back to this lane. Major General John B. Gordon’s Confederate force attacked from the ground beyond Opequon Church. Mulligan held off Gordon briefly, . . . Map (db m154718) HM
11Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownFulkerson’s Virginians Attack! Reported permanently removed
The low, marshy ground stretching from here to the distant road lay uncontested through the five-hour artillery duel that opened the First Battle of Kernstown. The scene changed dramatically at 2:00 P.M. when 900 Virginians marched toward this . . . Map (db m2195) HM
12Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownAn Unheralded Commander’s Unique Victory Reported permanently removed
At 9:00 A.M. on March 23, 1862, Confederate artillery unlimbered near the Valley Turnpike and fired on this height, called Pritchard’s Hill, to begin the First Battle of Kernstown. Union artillery rolled onto these knolls and responded by . . . Map (db m2197) HM
13Virginia, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownTwo Future U.S. Presidents Fought at Kernstown Reported permanently removed
Colonel James A. Mulligan’s Union command of 1,800 men encamped on these heights on the night of July 23-24, 1864. When Confederate cavalry drove Union cavalry back toward Kernstown on the morning of the 24th, Mulligan deployed two cannon on this . . . Map (db m154717) HM
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14Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — J-3 — Third Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan’s army at noon on September 19, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only prompt action by General Emory Upton . . . Map (db m2268) HM
15Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — J-13 — Third Battle of Winchester
On a hill, approximately one-half mile to the west, Philip H. Sheridan established his final position on September 19, 1864. General Jubal A. Early held the ground one-half mile further to the west. At 4 P.M., Sheridan advanced with massed cavalry . . . Map (db m2271) HM
16Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-3 — Capture of Star Fort
The fort on the hilltop to the southwest, known as Star Fort, was taken by Colonel Schoonmaker of Sheridan’s Army in the Battle of September 19, 1864.Map (db m2275) HM
17Virginia, Frederick County, Stephens City — NewtownBurnings and Hangings — 1864 Valley Campaign —
As the Federal army attempted to conquer and hold the Valley in 1864, its lines of supply and communication were extended and became susceptible to attack by bands of Confederate partisans. On May 24, 1864, under orders from Union Gen. David . . . Map (db m41658) HM
18Virginia, Winchester — The Pritchard HouseA Family Caught in the Midst of War! Reported permanently removed
The large brick dwelling before you is the Pritchard House, built by Steven C. Pritchard, Jr. and his son Samuel R. Pritchard. During the Civil War, Samuel, his wife Helen, and their two small children occupied the house. Fighting swirled around . . . Map (db m2295) HM
19Virginia, Frederick County, Stephenson — A-1 — Action at Stephenson’s Depot
Near this place on June 15, 1863, Confederate troops of General Edward “Allegheny” Johnson’s Division attacked and routed General Robert Milroy’s Union Army during its retreat from Winchester. The short, pre-dawn battle resulted in the . . . Map (db m2329) HM
20Virginia, Frederick County, Stephenson — Jordan SpringsHealing Springs
During the Civil War, both United States and Confederate forces used Jordan Springs resort as a hospital at different times. Wounded and sick Confederate soldiers from the Antietam and Gettysburg battlefields came to the springs—although . . . Map (db m2358) HM
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21Virginia, Frederick County, Stephenson — Third Battle of Winchester"One Moving Mass of Glittering Sabers" — 1864 Valley Campaigns — Reported missing
On September 19, 1864, Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s Army of the Shenandoah routed Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Valley Army at the Third Battle of Winchester (also called Opequon) in the bloodiest and largest battle in the Shenandoah Valley. . . . Map (db m100977) HM
22Virginia, Frederick County, Stephenson — Stephenson Depot"The Thermopylae of my campaign.”
In the spring of 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia began a march that culminated at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee chose the Shenandoah Valley for his invasion route. Ninety-six hundred Federals under Gen. . . . Map (db m41659) HM
23Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-4 — Fort Collier
Just to the east, a redoubt known as Fort Collier was built by Joseph E. Johnston in 1861. Early’s left rested here during the Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864.Map (db m2481) HM
24Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Fort Collier“I never saw such a sight”
Confederate troops constructed Fort Collier in 1861 after the evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The earthworks, which surrounded the Benjamin Stine house here, commanded the approach to Winchester on the Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike. The fort saw . . . Map (db m2492) HM
25Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Lt. Collier’s Earthworks
From the time of Virginia’s secession from the Union on May 23, 1861, until just before the Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, the Confederate government in Richmond recognized the importance of defending the Lower Shenandoah Valley. When . . . Map (db m192240) HM
26Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Fort Collier1861 - 1864
General Joseph E. Johnston commanded all Confederate forces in Virginia from 1861 until late in May of 1862. His initial post had been at Harpers Ferry, thought to be the key to the defense of the Shenandoah Valley. Johnston, however, believed that . . . Map (db m2508) HM
27Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Cavalry Charge at Fort CollierSeptember 19, 1864
The shocking impact of the great charge and capture of Fort Collier unhinged Early’s entire line of battle. Confederate troops streamed south through the streets of Winchester, Confederate artillery continued firing from Star Fort, slowing the . . . Map (db m2509) HM
28Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Third Battle of WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864
Lieutenant General Jubal Early’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign began in June of 1864. Until the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, he more than fulfilled General Lee’s hopes that the great success of 1862 could be repeated in 1864. Early’s . . . Map (db m155168) HM
29Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — 2nd Battle of WinchesterJune 13–15, 1863
General Richard S. Ewell with 14,000 Confederates defeated General Robert H. Milroy with 6,900 Federals. Prior to his second invasion of the North, Lee sent Ewell to Winchester to clear the Valley of Federals. Dividing his forces, Ewell on June 14th . . . Map (db m2518) HM
30Virginia, Winchester — Q 4f — Jackson’s Headquarters
This house was used by Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, then commanding the Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia, as his official headquarters from November 1861, to March, 1862, when he left Winchester to begin his famous Valley Campaign.Map (db m2519) HM
31Virginia, Winchester — Jackson’s HeadquartersI am quite comfortable
Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, commanding the Shenandoah Valley military district, lived in this house from mid-November 1861 through early March 1862. Here he planned a winter campaign against Union forces at Romney and . . . Map (db m2540) HM
32Virginia, Winchester — A-5 — First Battle of Winchester
On May 24, 1862, Confederate forces under Major General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson pursued Major General Nathaniel Banks’ Union Army from Strasburg to Winchester. Banks made a stand south of Winchester, posting one of two infantry brigades on . . . Map (db m2570) HM
33Virginia, Winchester — First Battle of Winchester
May 25, 1862 between Confederates under Brig. Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson and the Federals under Maj. Gen. N.P. Banks began just south of this site. The Federals were driven in retreat through Winchester’s streets with loss of stores and many . . . Map (db m2591) HM
34Virginia, Winchester — 1st Battle of Winchester
May 25, 1862 General Stonewall Jackson with 16,000 Confederates defeated General N.P. Banks and 6,000 Federals. On May 24, at Middletown, 12 miles South, Jackson attacked Banks’ army withdrawing toward Winchester, cutting off the rear guard and . . . Map (db m2594) HM
35Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-11 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and his army, early on the morning of 25 May 1862, defeated Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank’s forces during Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign. Banks, outnumbered and outflanked, hastily . . . Map (db m2596) HM
36Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-8 — Second Battle of Winchester
On June 14, 1863, Jubal A. Early moved west from this point to attack Federal fortifications west of Winchester.Map (db m2597) HM
37Maryland, Baltimore, Fells Point — Frederick DouglassAbolitionist / Orator / Author
Frederick Douglass was born into American slavery on Maryland's Eastern Shore in February 1818. In March 1826, Douglass, a slave child, was sent to live in the Hugh Auld household at this location, from 1826-1831. Douglass periodically resided . . . Map (db m2603) HM
38Virginia, Winchester — Abram’s Delight“Best wishes to all at your house”
The oldest dwelling in Winchester, Abram’s Delight experienced the passage of both Union and Confederate armies during the war. Although the property stood in the path of the First Battle of Winchester on May 25, 1862, it survived and now . . . Map (db m2606) HM
39Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — 169 — Opequon Presbyterian ChurchAmerican Presbyterian and Reformed Historical Site Reported permanently removed
Early Years This historic church was established by Scotch-Irish and German settlers who migrated from eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1730’s. William Hoge donated two acres of land for a meeting house, and an additional two acres for a . . . Map (db m122175) HM
40Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Kernstown Battles
Around this site and a mile to the west occurred two major battles of the Civil War. First Kernstown March 23, 1862 Stonewall Jackson attacked what appeared to be a withdrawing federal force led by federal Br. Gen. Shields. Desperate . . . Map (db m2632) HM
41Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — 1790 Stone Church
These native limestone steps are in their original position and mark the main entrance to a 40' x 60' stone church built on this site in 1790. The entrance was in the center of its east wall with the pulpit area against the west wall. This church . . . Map (db m2634) HM
42Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — First Battle of Kernstown
Was fought here Sunday, March 23, 1862 Confederates under Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked Federals under Gen. James Shields. The fighting was chiefly west of the road and continued from early afternoon until nightfall. When Jackson retired . . . Map (db m2635) HM
43Virginia, Frederick County, Albin — Second Battle of WinchesterLouisiana Tigers Capture West Fort — Gettysburg Campaign —
In June 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee marched his infantry from Culpeper County to the Shenandoah Valley to launch his second invasion of the North. First, however, he had to capture Winchester, the largest town on his line of communication, . . . Map (db m2645) HM
44Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Rose Hill"I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry." — 1862 Valley Campaign — Reported permanently removed
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s overmatched . . . Map (db m183304) HM
45Virginia, Winchester — Sheridan’s Headquarters
1861 hdqts. for Gen. R. H. Milroy. 1862 hdqts. for Gen. N.P. Banks who took the town for the first time. Was again used by Gen. Milroy in 1863. In the fall of 1864–1865 Gen. Sheridan used it as hdqts. Sheridan left here to rally his troops at . . . Map (db m2652) HM
46Virginia, Winchester — J-4 — Third Battle of Winchester
Near here Early, facing east, took his last position on September 19, 1864. About sundown he was attacked and driven from it, retreating south. Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley served in this engagement on the Union side.Map (db m2656) HM
47Virginia, Winchester — WinchesterThe Valley Campaigns — 1862 & 1864 Valley Campaigns —
Winchester’s location at the north end of the Shenandoah Valley made it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War. From here, roads led north and east threatening Washington, D.C., and the Valley Turnpike led south and west endangering . . . Map (db m2657) HM
48Virginia, Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester
June 13-15, 1863 took place during Gen. Lee’s advance to Gettysburg between Confederates under Gen. Ewell and Federals under Gen. Milroy. The Federals occupied positions on the hills north and west of Winchester now called Milroys and Star Forts . . . Map (db m2658) HM
49Virginia, Winchester — Frederick County CourthouseWitness to War
During the Civil War, the Union and Confederate armies each used the Frederick County Courthouse as a hospital and a prison. Cornelia McDonald, a local citizen, nursed the wounded here after the First Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862. She . . . Map (db m2659) HM
50Virginia, Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(The Battle of the Opequon) September 19, 1864 The decisive assault in the campaign set in motion by General Grant to free the Shenandoah Valley from the control of the Confederacy took place here. This high ground was part of Winchester’s . . . Map (db m2660) HM
51Virginia, Winchester — Glen Burnie"Winchester is a very pleasant place to stay in, sir."
This historic Shenandoah Valley home, known as Glen Burnie, is the homestead of Col. James Wood, who founded Winchester on a portion of his land in 1744. Wood’s son, Robert, began the present house in 1794, but the estate was home to the Wood-Glass . . . Map (db m2665) HM
52Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — B-19 — Second Battle of Winchester
Here Jubal A. Early, detached to attack the rear of Milroy, holding Winchester, crossed this road and moved eastward in the afternoon of June 15, 1863.Map (db m2666) HM
53Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — J-16 — Defenses of Winchester
The fort on the hilltop to the north is one of a chain of defenses commanding the crossings of the Opequon. It was constructed by Milroy in 1863.Map (db m80324) HM
54Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — B-16 — Colonel John Singleton Mosby
This road, along which many of his skirmishes took place, is named for Colonel John Singleton Mosby, commander of the 43rd Battalion of the Confederate Partisan Rangers. Their activities in this area helped keep the Confederate cause alive in . . . Map (db m2668) HM
55Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Third Battle of WinchesterA Gathering of Future Leaders — 1864 Valley Campaign — Reported permanently removed
The Third Battle of Winchester, fought here on September 19, 1864, was a proving ground for several men on both sides who shaped post-war America. They included two future presidents, two senators, a state governor, and several military leaders. . . . Map (db m155042) HM
56Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Reported permanently removed
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on . . . Map (db m158714) HM
57Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterConfederate Horse Artillery
"A more murderous fire I never witnessed..."Col. Thomas Munford, C.S.A. In an effort to protect the Confederate left flank, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee placed a detachment of cavalry and six pieces of horse artillery, lighter cannons made . . . Map (db m3091) HM
58Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Attack of the Eighth Corps
"The order was to walk fast, keep silent, until within about one hundred yards of the guns, and then with a yell to charge at full speed." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. At noon on September 19, Union General Sheridan's Sixth and . . . Map (db m153559) HM
59Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-9 — Battle of Kernstown
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson late in the afternoon of March 23, 1862 attacked the Union force under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the . . . Map (db m3150) HM
60Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterFording Red Bud Run
"To stop was death. To go on was probably the same; but on we started again." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. Red Bud Run is as wide and boggy today as it was in 1864. During their attack, the men of the Eighth Corps sank into the . . . Map (db m3159) HM
61Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterHackwood House Reported permanently removed
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the . . . Map (db m159334) HM
62Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterConfederate Defense Reported permanently removed
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, . . . Map (db m159220) HM
63Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Second Woods Reported permanently removed
You are standing at the site of what is known as the Second Woods. The fighting in and around the Second Woods was so rapid and chaotic that many participants disagreed on the details and order of the events. But this is much clear: at 11:40 a.m., . . . Map (db m159864) HM
64Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Confederates Reform Reported permanently removed
"Unless this force were driven back, the day was lost." General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A. Standing here about noon during the battle, you would have seen Union troops under Gen. Henry Birge pursuing Gen. Clement Evans' Georgians from right . . . Map (db m159187) HM
65Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe West Woods Reported permanently removed
You are standing near the center of General Early's infantry line at what has come to be called the West Woods. Although these particular trees were not here during the Battle of Third Winchester, some are in the same location as those that stood on . . . Map (db m159425) HM
66Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Middle Field - Bloodiest Encounter in the Shenandoah Valley Reported permanently removed
You are standing in the Middle Field - perhaps the bloodiest place in the Shenandoah Valley. After hours of preparation, Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah was ready to advance against the Confederate position east of Winchester at 11:40 a.m. . . . Map (db m159603) HM
67Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe First Woods - A Perfect Slaughterhouse Reported permanently removed
As Confederates drove Union Gen. Grover's 2nd Division back across the fields in front of you, the 1st Division of the Nineteenth Army Corps was moving up to the edge of the First Woods behind you, (the tree line was then some 400 yards further . . . Map (db m161525) HM
68Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Reported permanently removed
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a . . . Map (db m163866) HM
69Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterCamp Averell Reported permanently removed
In the months after the Third Battle of Winchester, this area became home to Camp Averell, named after Union cavalry gen. William Woods Averell. Elements of six cavalry and "mounted infantry" regiments from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia . . . Map (db m163955) HM
70Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Union Rear Reported permanently removed
The First Woods saw little combat, but areas near the front lines were bustling with activity. Here, men of Grover's, Dwight's, and Thoburn's Union divisions formed for their attacks across the Middle Field. Union Generals rallied the broken . . . Map (db m164088) HM
71Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterUnion Victories in the Valley Reported permanently removed
After the successful attack of the Union Eighth Corps, it was only a matter of time before the Confederates lost the battle. As Confederate Gen. Early consolidated his lines closer and closer to Winchester, his men faced coordinated infantry . . . Map (db m167715) HM
72Virginia, Winchester — Shawnee Springs Hospital
Clearing and Evacuation Facility Valley Campaigns Federal medical authorities established the largest temporary hospital of the Civil War in the aftermath of the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, 1864. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's . . . Map (db m3200) HM
73Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Heater House
Probably built around 1800, this clapboard-covered log house was once the center of a prosperous 600 acre farm owned by Solomon and Caroline Wunder Heater. Although two of her sons died in Confederate service, Mrs. Heater, a native of Pennsylvania, . . . Map (db m155785) HM
74Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Battlefield Center
From this position (Belle Grove Mansion is west of here) most of the VI and XIX U.S. Corps camps were visible on 19 October 1864. The XIX Corps camped close to their earthworks along the ridge to the south. VI Corps units were placed along the . . . Map (db m3363) HM
75Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Ramseur Monument
Esse Quam Videri Northwest of this tablet, 800 yards, is the Belle Grove House in which died, October 20, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek October 19, 1864, Maj.-Gen. Stephen Dodson Ramseur, C.S.A. A native of North Carolina, he . . . Map (db m18684) HM
76Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — The Battle of Cedar Creek
Fought on these hills and fields, Oct 19, 1864. Gen. Jubal A. Early's 22,000 Confederates attacked Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's 60,000 Federals. The first assault a surprise flank movement by Gen. John B. Gordon, was a Confederate success. This . . . Map (db m3380) HM
77Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — 128th New York Volunteer Regiment
Dedicated on 15 October 1907, this monument is adjacent to the original Valley Pike right of way. It marks the eastern limit of the XIX U.S. Corps positions occupied on 19 October 1864 and is at the approximate point where U.S. Generals Horatio G. . . . Map (db m3397) HM
78Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Union Trenches
The main portion of the XIX U.S. Corps earthworks began here and extended one mile westward. Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade, a part of Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, occupied them with the 128th New York and 38th . . . Map (db m3399) HM
79Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — 1st Maine Battery
Captain Eben D. Haley's 1st Maine Light Artillery occupied a knoll behind the contact point of Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade and Brigadier General Henry W. Birge's 1st Brigade. The battery quickly came under Confederate artillery fire and . . . Map (db m3427) HM
80Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Molineux's 2nd Brigade
The westernmost brigade of U.S. Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, XIX U.S. Corps, the 2nd Brigade first came under pressure when C.S. Major General Joseph B. Kershaw's Division attacked its front and left. Then C.S. Major General John . . . Map (db m3428) HM
81Virginia, Frederick County, Middletown — Union Withdrawal
Elements of Brigadier General James W. MacMillan's 1st Division, XIX U.S. Corps, left their part of the earthworks to fight C.S. Major General John B. Gordon's men closer to the Valley Pike. When Colonel Edward L. Molineux's and Brigadier General . . . Map (db m3429) HM
82Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — War in the Backyard Reported permanently removed
At the beginning of the Civil War, the third generation of the Scots-Irish Glass family lived at Rose Hill. The household consisted of Thomas Glass (age 67), and his wife Margaret (age 51), his son William (age 25) and fifteen slaves, most of them . . . Map (db m185092) HM
83Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — How To See the Battlefield
On March 23, 1862, the opening conflict of the famous Valley Campaign began on the adjoining Glass and Pritchard farms. You are visiting the Glass Farm called Rose Hill. The neighboring Pritchard Farm is 1½ miles to the southeast (right) of where . . . Map (db m154721) HM
84Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Fight for the High Ground
The Shenandoah Valley's strategic location and rich farmland caused it to be the scene of two major Civil War campaigns that comprised hundreds of battles and skirmishes. Many Valley farms, like Rose Hill, became battlefields or campgrounds . . . Map (db m3498) HM
85Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Advance of Tyler’s Brigade
Northern Colonel Nathan Kimball saw the position of his troops on nearby Pritchard's Hill (1.5 miles left and in front of you) becoming indefensible. Southern artillery recently placed on the higher elevation of Sandy Ridge (just in front of you) . . . Map (db m3501) HM
86Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Defense of the Stone Wall Reported permanently removed
Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only . . . Map (db m185120) HM
87Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Order for Retreat
Northern commander Colonel Nathan Kimball 1.5 miles away (over the hill on your right) on Prichard's Hill faced the threat of defeat. He decided to seize the initiative and order a second assault against the Southern artillery atop Sandy Ridge. At . . . Map (db m3504) HM
88Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Northern Victory, Southern Defeat
As Southern units retreated and resistance fell apart, Northern victory was assured. Jackson found himself surrounded by a disorderly retreat of his soldiers. In the growing dark, a few fresh Southern units made gallant attempts to cover the . . . Map (db m3507) HM
89Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — 3rd Battle of WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864
In the late summer of 1864 General Philip H. Sheridan with 41,000 Federals was ordered to take the vital Shenandoah Valley. Opposing this force was a Confederate army of 18,000 under General Jubal A. Early stationed north and east of Winchester. On . . . Map (db m155165) HM
90Virginia, Winchester — Catherine B. Conrad1836–1902
This house was built for Kate Conrad in 1889. Member of a prominent Winchester family, she devoted her life to educational and religious activities. She was an administrator for the Slater Trust of Boston, which sought to educate former slaves . . . Map (db m5599) HM
91Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThoburn's Attack Reported permanently removed
As the Nineteenth Corps tried to reorganize its lines, Union Col. Joseph Thoburn's division of the Eighth Army Corps came up from reserve and took position at the edge of the First Woods behind you. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan soon arrived and . . . Map (db m167487) HM
92Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Gen. Russell Hastings
23rd Ohio Inf Wounded 19 Sept. 1864Map (db m6316) HM
93Virginia, Winchester — A-7 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Stonewall Jackson, in the early morning of May 25, 1862, halted his advance guard and observed the union position.Map (db m7341) HM
94Virginia, Winchester — Braddock Street Methodist Church Reported permanently removed
"To Serve the Present Age" - Charles Wesley From Court House to Church Thirty-two charter members met July 24, 1858, in the Frederick County Court House and were organized as a congregation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, . . . Map (db m7342) HM
95Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Star FortGuardian of Winchester Reported missing
Three times during the Civil War, Star Fort played a major role in the defense of Winchester. Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s troops began constructing the fort in January 1863 on the site of artillery emplacements Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . Map (db m117368) HM
96Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-38 — Hackwood Park
One mile east is the site of Hackwood Estate House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. Documents reveal that the Hackwood House caught fire during the Third Battle of Winchester. Union troops used the buildings on the site for a hospital, . . . Map (db m168409) HM
97Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — A-2 — Action of Rutherford’s Farm
Near here, the Confederate General Stephen D. Ramseur was attacked by General William W. Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20, 1864.Map (db m12091) HM
98Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Battle of Rutherford's FarmUnion Victory Reported damaged
Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the defenses of Washington, D.C., in July 1864, then retreated to the Shenandoah Valley. Union Gen. Horatio G. Wright pursued him, and after a sharp fight and Confederate victory at Cool Spring on July 18, . . . Map (db m13988) HM
99Virginia, Frederick County, Winchester — Rutherford's FarmIn the Path of Battle Reported damaged
In addition to the action of July 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, two other significant events occurred on or near John Rutherford’s property here. The first took place on June 14-15, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign, as . . . Map (db m154051) HM
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Mar. 22, 2023