Native American photographer, artist and writer Osjetea Briggs was born on December 14, 1917, to Simeon Singleton Briggs (1877-1974) and Docia Augusta (Gant) Briggs (1894-1969) in Groesbeck, Limestone County, Texas. Following her high school . . . — — Map (db m186131) HM
In 1690, when Spain's Franciscan Fathers founded Mission San Francisco de los Tejas in East Texas, they found a young Indian girl living with her people beside a stream. The priests found her a willing ally for carrying the Catholic Faith to the . . . — — Map (db m27249) HM
In the mid-1700s, Indians of this region met at a trading ground near this site with Frenchmen who brought them manufactured goods, sometimes including guns and ammunition - products denied them by the Spanish who held sovereignty, but could not . . . — — Map (db m187195) HM
After living 1854-58 on the reservation set aside by State of Texas near Camp Cooper (30 mi. SW), the Comanche Indians with their goods were removed to Oklahoma. Near this spot on a head branch of Kickapoo Creek (so named, 1830) the . . . — — Map (db m187150) HM
Led by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado, this trail-blazing expedition set out from Mexico City in 1541 in search of Cibola, fabled 7 Cities of Gold. Finding only Indian pueblos, Coronado changed his course for Quivira, a supposedly wealthy Indian . . . — — Map (db m96835) HM
Although most Indians had left the Texas Panhandle by the 1880s, fear of Indian attacks was still prevalent among settlers who arrived in the next decade. On Jan. 29, 1891, rumors of approaching Indians spread throughout the entire region. For three . . . — — Map (db m96838) HM
In the opening battle of the U.S. Army's 1874 Indian campaign against the Southern Plains Indian Tribes, a force of 744 soldiers under Col. Nerlson A. Miles fought a 5-hour running battle with the Cheyenne, Comanche and Kiowa 10 mi. E. of this . . . — — Map (db m100514) HM
In Jan. 1831 Charles Fordtran, a German of Huguenot descent, joined the colony of Stephen F. Austin. His first work was to survey land for Austin's partner, Samuel May Williams. He was given a league (4,428.4 acres) as his fee. Soon he brought in . . . — — Map (db m146168) HM
One of numerous natural salt lakes in the Texas Panhandle. Its waters, although brackish, have been welcome enough at various times to Indians, buffalo hunters, and thirsty cattle on hot, dry days. The lake, having a shoreline of over six and a . . . — — Map (db m153245) HM
Celebrated Indian pass known from the earliest days of Spanish settlement · Identified with many a frontier fight and many a hostile inroad · Old ranger trail from the Medina to the Guadalupe River and the United States Army route between frontier . . . — — Map (db m24384) HM
The town of Bandera was named by Indians. In 1870, a young boy, Herman Lehman, was captured by the Apaches and later lived with the Comanches. At the age of 65 he told this story to Bandera historian J. Marvin Hunter: Lehman said the Comanches . . . — — Map (db m175888) HM
A Bandera County Deputy Sheriff, Capt. Jack Phillips, set out alone on Dec. 29, 1876, on an official visit to Sabinal Canyon. Indians attacked him at Seco Canyon Pass, 22 miles southwest of Bandera. Phillips raced for the nearest settlement. When . . . — — Map (db m117712) HM
This winding, 100-mile trail from San Antonio to Kerrville was, during the 19th century, a strategic patrol road traveled by Texas Rangers to protect the surrounding area from hostile Indian attacks.
During uneasy pioneer days roads such as . . . — — Map (db m117711) HM
During the mid-1800s the Texas Hill Country was the site of many hostile encounters, some deadly, between pioneer immigrants whose permanent settlements ran counter to area Native Americans accustomed to unrestrained hunting and gathering. One . . . — — Map (db m155608) HM
Long before white men arrived, this region was inhabited by Tonkawa and Comanche Indians. In 1691 the first Spanish explorers crossed this territory en route to east Texas. From their route, parts of “El Camino Real” (the King's . . . — — Map (db m126751) HM
Originated in 1820s. Crossed the present counties of Austin, Washington, Fayette, Lee, Bastrop; joined San Felipe, capital of Stephen F. Austin's colony, with Bastrop. Marked by James Gotier, a settler who (with several in his family) died in an . . . — — Map (db m126807) HM
The bluff stands 80 feet above the Colorado River at Wilbarger Bend. Josiah Wilbarger was an early settler whose family owned the land on the opposite side of the river during the 1800s. Josiah was one of a few Texans who were scalped and lived to . . . — — Map (db m79096) HM
Signer of the Texas
Declaration of Independence
Aide-de-camp to Gen. Houston at
Commander of a regiment of Rangers
Here his widow
Mrs. Elizabeth Coleman
and son, Albert V. Coleman
were killed by Indians
and . . . — — Map (db m82688) HM
Break in mountain chain from Lampasas River to Nolan Creek. Route to one of oldest Indian trails in Southwest, and escape point for Comanches after last raid in Bell County. On March 14-16, 1859, the Indians killed four settlers, including John . . . — — Map (db m174960) HM
Salado was officially establish in 1859 when Col. E.S.C Robertson donated land for a townsite and for a college. Col. Hermon Aiken drew a plat for the town, which developed along its main street. However, there had been activity here long before . . . — — Map (db m79922) HM
According to archeologists, human occupation of the Helotes area dates to about 7000 years before present, when small bands of Nomadic Indians who migrated seasonally in search of food and game camped in this vicinity.
Early Texas Pioneer John . . . — — Map (db m46922) HM
At an elevation of 1340 feet, Comanche Hill is the fourth highest point in Bexar County. The hill lies on the southeastern edge of the Edwards Plateau and makes up the western edge of the Blackland Prairie. Throughout history this site has provided . . . — — Map (db m157297) HM
Here stood the early Court House, City Council Room, etc., and where occurred the Indian Massacre in 1840, and where the Court was captured in 1842. De Zavala Daughters of the Heroes of Texas. 1924. — — Map (db m142413) HM
The San Antonio de Padua Mission was founded in San Antonio in 1716 by the Franciscan Father, Antonio Olivares, and after merging with the San Francisco Solano Mission in 1718, it was officially founded as the San Antonio de Valero Mission. The . . . — — Map (db m9228) HM
In the early years, mission Indians lived in small detached houses called jacales. In 1755, eighty-four of these jacales lined "streets" in what is today the plaza. But after 1768, as conflicts with Apaches and Comanches increased, the . . . — — Map (db m32738) HM
Jefferson (Jeff) Davis Smith, son of Henry M. and Fanny (Short) Smith, was born in Kendall County, Texas. Jeff, age 9, and his brother Clint, age 11, were kidnapped by Lipan and Comanche Indians while herding sheep near their home in 1871. Jeff . . . — — Map (db m177107) HM
Captain Toribio de Urrutia and Fray Santa Ana now determined to do their best to establish a permanent and lasting peace with the Apache nation. ...This was a great day for San Antonio. After thirty years of depredations, the harassed settlement was . . . — — Map (db m188838) HM
More than a church, Mission Concepción was also a village, fort, school, farm, and ranch.
At the missions the Franciscans gathered the native peoples together, converted them to Catholicism, taught them Spanish culture, and sought to . . . — — Map (db m164052) HM
Mills were used to grind grain such as corn or wheat into meal or flour for use as food. The grain was poured into the hopper which funneled it through the eye in the top millstone. Water drove the waterwheel which turned the top millstone. The top . . . — — Map (db m30749) HM
First founded 1718 c 1 mile to west, moved to a new site c 600 ft. to south of present site in 1719, a 1724 tornado destroyed the mission. Moved to present site 1724, for 20 years it was a cluster of thatched houses of wood posts. A small pox . . . — — Map (db m164427) HM
Apache attacks caused a new stone wall to be built to enclose the Mission. A new unfinished stone church was started to replace the collapsed church of 1744.
Mission population: 149 Indians.
George Nelson Artist Phil Collins Sponsor
1. . . . — — Map (db m164428) HM
After 72 years of being Mission San Antonio de Valero the site was secularized (closed as a Mission to train nomadic local Indians to become Christian Spanish citizens with farming and craft skills) in 1793. A town called Pueblo de Valero was . . . — — Map (db m164429) HM
This wall foundation of adobe bricks formed part of the Indian quarters built during the construction of the west wall of Mission San Antonio de Valero (the Alamo) in about 1750. During the Siege of the Alamo, February 23 to March 6, 1836, some of . . . — — Map (db m164441) HM
Established in 1722 • Its Indian neophytes, few in number, passed into the care of the missionaries at San Antonio de Valero in 1726 • The land was later granted to the Mission Nuestra Señora de La Purísima Concepción de Acuña • Reestablished in . . . — — Map (db m163845) HM
"It is truthfully the best of the Americas, and not in the like of the others; nor in all the frontier does the King have an outpost better constructed and easier to defend..."
Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 1777-78
Mission San José and its . . . — — Map (db m33997) HM
No one knows why this intricate carving is now called "the Rose Window." Possibly dedicated to Saint Rose, its baroque beauty is entangled in many San Antonio legends that whisper of its mystery.
The artistry lavished on the church wall . . . — — Map (db m34069) HM
This is the ruins of the habitations of the friars and Indians; refrectory, kitchen and other regular offices. In the second patio there was a gallery with weaving rooms and rooms for storing materials and utensils.
The habitations of the . . . — — Map (db m30742) HM
The missions of San Antonio were far more than just churches, they were communities. Each was a fortified village, with its own church, farm, and ranch. Here, Franciscan friars gathered native peoples, converted them to Catholicism, taught them to . . . — — Map (db m33990) HM
The exceptional and historic rural atmosphere, vistas, waterways, wildlife, and natural features which are area treasures prompted the 82nd Texas legislature in 2011 to pass House Bill 1499, bestowing historic designation to the Scenic Loop, . . . — — Map (db m163359) HM
The Texas A&M University-San Antonio Campus was built on land that once was conveyed by Spanish and Mexican land grants and traversed by several branches of El Camino Real de Tierra Afuera del Oriente (also known as El Camino Real de los Tejas . . . — — Map (db m98241) HM
When these buildings were built, Texas was part of the Spanish colony of New Spain. The buildings were part of the Mission San Antonio de Valero, established by Franciscan missionaries in order to convert the Native Americans living in the vicinity . . . — — Map (db m30774) HM
This is the Long Barrack, the oldest building in San Antonio. It was built in 1724 as a convento or residence for priests and was originally part of the Mission San Antonio de Valero, now known as the Alamo. Since then it has been used as a . . . — — Map (db m30743) HM
In Oct. 1835, 4 local Mexican troopers of the Parras de Alamo Co. were sent to Gonzales to retrieve a loaned cannon. They were seized and killed, then c 90 of the Alamo Co. were sent to retrieve the cannon and were fired on. This started the Texas . . . — — Map (db m164431) HM
Following the Battle of The Alamo on March 6, 1836, the Mexican Army left 1,001 troops (some wounded) to clean up battle damage and refortify the Alamo. On May 19, 1836 orders arrived to demolish the fortifications and leave. 19 soldiers of the . . . — — Map (db m164433) HM
Alamo City Subdivision
Samuel Maverick was a S. Carolina land speculator who had arrived in San Antonio in 1835 just at the start of the revolution. Sent as a delegate to form a new government, he barely missed being in the Battle of the . . . — — Map (db m164434) HM
Former Mission San Antonio de Valero has seen many uses, the most famous of which was as a Texan fort during the Texas Revolution in 1835-36. The point where you are standing marks the southwest corner of "Fortress Alamo.” From this location . . . — — Map (db m164442) HM
"The church...is a large, beautiful gallery of three vaults with a very pretty cupola...for its size and good taste, it could be the parish church of a great town."
Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 1777-78
The church was central to the . . . — — Map (db m34077) HM
There is something in the nature of man that will not tolerate the unexplored. Always he finds his perimeter of ground too small, and restless stirrings prod his feet until he has gazed from every peak.
Following this elusive music hundreds of . . . — — Map (db m30215) HM
"From this roof one can hunt without risk, in comfort and with good success. I saw so many ducks, geese, and cranes in a nearby field that, as I said, they covered the ground, and so close to the house that it would be impossible to miss the . . . — — Map (db m34065) HM
This region was inhabited by native peoples from early times. Among them were the Payayas, who lived along a river they called Yanaguana. On June 13, 1691, Franciscan Father Damián Massanet arrived and christened the river San Antonio de Padua in . . . — — Map (db m31015) HM
This quarry was the source of stone for building Mission Concepción and portions of Mission San José. Indian and Mestizo laborers used picks and axes to cut grooves in the limestone rock, and bars and wedges to pry up the rough blocks. . . . — — Map (db m164050) HM
The San Antonio River begins four miles north of here, fed by springs that rise from the Edwards Aquifer deep below the Texas Hill Country. The river is also fed by tributaries along its winding, southeasterly course to join the Guadalupe River . . . — — Map (db m119617) HM
Born in Tennessee in 1836, Thomas C. Felps came to Texas in 1850 and to this area in 1856. He earned a living by freighting and joined the Blanco County Rangers during the Civil War. In 1863 he married Eliza V. White (b. 1846), a native of Ohio. . . . — — Map (db m131395) HM
Shown on maps as Mucha Que, Mucha Kowa, Muchakooga, de Cordova, or Signal Hill, this peak rises to an elevation of 2862 feet. Its name is of Native American origin. About 1872, it was the site of a village where Apaches and Comanches traded with . . . — — Map (db m127256) HM
Fought by Texan army of 23 men under Capt. Randal Jones (1786-1873), sent out 1824 by Stephen F. Austin to the Lower Brazos to fight cannibal Karankawa Indians. Scouts found the camp here. Attack at dawn found Indians ready with spears. Jones’ . . . — — Map (db m90241) HM
The newly formed Republic of Texas faced many problems. With
no credit and no resources other than land, the republic had a
debt of 1.25 million dollars. Hostile Indians plagued the population. The new government appropriated $20,000 to . . . — — Map (db m164574) HM
Called San Lorenzo by Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, 1684. Later Charco de Alzate in honor of an Apache chieftain. After Civil War given name of Burgess' water hole honoring John W. Burgess, pioneer freighter, who here outwitted the Apaches. The . . . — — Map (db m26390) HM
1475 CE* 1492 - Columbus lands on San Salvador Island in the Caribbean West Indies 1497 - John Cabot, first known English party to land in North America, northeast Canada 1521 - Hernán Cortés conquers the Aztec Empire 1528 - Panfilo de Narváez . . . — — Map (db m160836) HM
1683 – Juan Domínguez de Mendoza leads first expedition to La Junta de los Rios in 95 years
1693 – Juan Fernández de Retana leads expedition to protect native Jumano Indians from Apache Indian raids at La Junta . . . — — Map (db m160837) HM
You are now traveling the Comanche Trail blazed by Comanche Indians, en route from
the western plains to Mexico, and traveled later by emigrants and soldiers. It
extended south from the Horse Head Crossing of the Pecos by Comanche Springs . . . — — Map (db m53931) HM
When J.O. Langford homesteaded this section in 1909, he was moving into an area that had long been inhabited by native Americans. Walk this trail to view pictograph and petroglyphs created by prehistoric people hundreds or even thousands of years . . . — — Map (db m53936) HM
A natural watering place in prehistoric time, as evidenced by artifacts found here. Used later by Indians and Spaniards on roads from northern Mexico. As Maravillas Creek developed from a draw into water channel, old water hole vanished. About . . . — — Map (db m53933) HM
Fort Peña Colorado, the last active fort in this area, on the old Comanche Trail, about 4 miles to the southwest was established in 1879.
Marathon was founded in 1881. Named by an old sea captain, A.E. Shepard, for the Plain of Marathon, in . . . — — Map (db m26436) HM
Mercury, or Quicksilver, is derived from a red-colored ore known as cinnabar.
Cinnabar (sample at left) was used by Native-Americans as a durable pigment, and there are many places in Big Bend where traces of ancient drawings . . . — — Map (db m111500) HM
In an effort to establish a western trade route and expand Texas jurisdiction, Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar sent an expedition of merchants, along with a military escort, to Santa Fe in 1841. The group left Brushy Creek north of . . . — — Map (db m155171) HM
Indians had probably visited these clear, cool springs for centuries when, in 1847, Henry E. McCulloch established a Ranger camp here, on Hamilton Creek. A year later, Samuel E. Holland (1826-1917), a Georgian, decided while visiting the camp that . . . — — Map (db m27533) HM
Rich in history and folklore. A young geologic formation, only a few million years old. Bones of elephant, bison, bear, deer, other animals have been found here. When white men came to area in 1840's, Indians knew the caverns; Rangers once found and . . . — — Map (db m27594) HM
Jacob Wolf (1812-1874) and wife Adeline Faulkner Wolf (1814-1870) came from Tennessee to Texas about 1850. Obtaining land grant in Burnet County, they settled at Dobyville, and were pioneers, supplying their own provisions, buildings, medicines, and . . . — — Map (db m27738) HM
The harsh anti-Indian policies of President Mirabeau B. Lamar and Mexican efforts to weaken the Republic of Texas stirred Indian hostilities. Hatred increased after the Council House Fight in San Antonio, March 19, 1840, where 12 Comanche chiefs . . . — — Map (db m64063) HM
In 1791, Spaniard priests Manuel De Silva and Joseph Francisco Mariano Garza endeavored to spread the doctrines of Christianity among the native tribes along the Gulf Coast, now called Karankawa, with the added benefit of giving Spain a foothold . . . — — Map (db m117448) HM
Planted on April 26, 2003, this oak tree is a direct offspring from the famous Treaty Oak in Austin, Texas where Stephen F. Austin is reputed to have signed the treaty establishing the boundary between the Native Americans and the first Anglo . . . — — Map (db m80851) HM
This Indian trading route to Arkansas and Oklahoma was laid out by Cherokees. A tribesman with a keen sense of direction pulled buffalo hides behind his horse to press down the tall grass. Groups of Indians followed blazing the trail, removing . . . — — Map (db m160947) HM
French trader Joseph Blancpain established a trading post in this vicinity in August 1754. He had been living in Natchitoches, Louisiana, where he was the owner of a mercantile store.
With a small group of men, Blancpain arrived in August and . . . — — Map (db m117185) HM
Two of the most misfortune-ridden outposts of Spain in Texas, “Our Lady of the Light” mission and its auxiliary fort, were founded near here in 1756 to guard against French encroachment from the east.
The two friars who were to . . . — — Map (db m117186) HM
In 1836, General Sam Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokees in Texas allowing possession of the lands they occupied in east Texas. The leading figure among the Cherokees at that time was Duwali (also known as Bowl, Chief Bowles and Bold . . . — — Map (db m40654) HM
Bulging out of the earth a few yards from this point, three prehistoric Indian mounds interrupt the prevailing flat terrain. Long overgrown with grass, the mounds and adjacent village (covering about 100 acres) constitute one of the major aboriginal . . . — — Map (db m121333) HM
Originally established as Mission San Francisco de los Tejas in 1690 by Franciscan missionaries for the purpose of Christianizing and civilizing the Neches and other Indians of the region. Reestablished in 1716. Abandoned temporarily due to French . . . — — Map (db m121257) HM
Here at the opening of the 18th century stood a village of the Neches Indians. Their name was given to the river and later to a mission, San Francisco de Los Neches, established near by. With the Cherokees, the Neches Indians were expelled from . . . — — Map (db m121335) HM
Noted as interpreters and messengers of peace, the Delawares were chiefly instrumental in bringing other tribes to the General Treaty at Bird's Fort (in the present county of Tarrant) in 1843. — — Map (db m121258) HM
On this nine mile long ridge there are two historic lookout points which command a view of 30 to 35 miles. Between this site, with an elevation of 713 ft., and Point Lookout (1/4 mi. NW), lies a narrow valley. An Indian trail and later a pioneer . . . — — Map (db m31698) HM
Cherokee County has a rich and varied history. Spanish and French explorers of the seventeenth century found Tejas and Hasinai Indians living in this area, and Spanish missions were established in the region.
Driven out of the United States, . . . — — Map (db m40634) HM
In the winter of 1819-1820 Chief John Bowles led about sixty Cherokee families from Arkansas to East Texas. Near this site a small settlement of about six families was established by a Cherokee leader named Little Bean. They remained until 1839, . . . — — Map (db m128988) HM
Throughout this area during the last several centuries, rock ledges gave protection to Lipan, Kickapoo, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians. In one typical shelter archeologists found evidence of 3 periods of occupation, plus numerous intricate petroglyphs . . . — — Map (db m77615) HM
Archeological findings at an overhanging rock ledge on Walnut Creek show that the spot, midway between the Colorado and North Concho Rivers, was for hundreds of years campsite or village of nomadic Indians who sought the shelter, running water, . . . — — Map (db m95932) HM
On site of prehistoric Indian camps, in area where in 1850's Fort Chadbourne soldiers often skirmished with Indians.
One of the first settlements and second pioneer post office (established 1888) in county.
Named for the Comanche Chief . . . — — Map (db m82994) HM
Malissa (Dodson) Sides became the first person to be buried on this site in March 1891. Believed to have been half Native American, Mrs. Sides and her Cherokee half sister Ellen Murphy survived the U.S. government relocation of the tribe during . . . — — Map (db m163156) HM
The land surrounding this historic cemetery was part of a grant obtained by John McGarrah, a member of the Peters Colony who arrived in this area in 1843. McGarrah founded a trading post near this site, and soon the Fort Buckner settlement was . . . — — Map (db m162269) HM
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