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Segregated Burial Grounds Marker image, Touch for more information
By David Seibert, August 4, 2010
Segregated Burial Grounds Marker
Georgia (Morgan County), Madison — Segregated Burial Grounds
Historic burial traditions parallel both the societal structure and economic status of the period. Old Cemetery reveals racially distinct sections reflected in the notable absence of family plots and headstones on the hill’s slope, where a memorial . . . — Map (db m34983) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Diversity in a Segregated CommunityPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
The sudden rise of Old West Baltimore’s premier African American community occurred on a foundation of diversity. Even though it was segregated from many white areas, it was still made up of a variety of people. African Americans from all . . . — Map (db m101996) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — A Vibrant, But Segregated Community
In the aftermath of the Civil War, numerous former slaves came to Fredericksburg where there was already an established free black community. Many freedmen took work as laborers and servants. Others brought artisan skills they had practiced in . . . — Map (db m733) HM

Maryland (Prince George's County), Greenbelt — Greenbelt1937
Greenbelt was the first of three planned garden towns built and owned by the U.S. Government during the Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was a "new deal" experiment in community planning, of note to urban planners throughout the . . . — Map (db m41235) HM

Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birth of Montgomery Bus BoycottBoycott planned & publicized here at ASU's Councill Hall
Side 1 On Dec. 1, 1955, at Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) in a basement room in Councill Hall, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was planned and publicized after the arrest that day of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up . . . — Map (db m91279) HM

Virginia (Loudoun County), Ashburn — T-28 — Ashburn School
On this site stands Ashburn Colored School, a one-room public Schoolhouse built ca. 1892 for African American students. Virginia’s public school system, established in 1870, was racially segregated from its inception. Schools for black children . . . — Map (db m104314) HM

Louisiana (Orleans Parish), New Orleans — Civil Rights Pioneers / HistoryMcDonogh No. 19 Elementary School — Site of the Integration of Southern Elementary School November 14, 1960
Civil Rights Pioneers On November 14, 1960, four six-year-old children in New Orleans became the first African-Americans to integrate "white only" public elementary schools in the Deep South. On that day, three girls enrolled in McDonogh No. 19 . . . — Map (db m99584) HM

Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 9 — Judge Frank M. Johnson: Judicial Fairness in the Age of SegregationSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Molton and Montgomery Streets
Following two attempted marches from Selma in 1965 civil rights leaders turned to the federal courts for legal protection prior to the Selma To Montgomery March. Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr., appointed by President . . . — Map (db m91321) HM

Georgia (Fulton County), Atlanta — Slave Square
In 1852 the Atlanta City Council ruled that African Americans were to be buried in a segregated section at the rear of Oakland Cemetery, at the eastern boundary of the original 6 acres. By the beginning of the Civil war, more than 800 persons . . . — Map (db m64824) HM

Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 2 — Trailways Bus Station AttackMay 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, race relations in the South were dominated by local "Jim Crow" laws. Although in 1960 the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, local laws persisted. . . . — Map (db m106605) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Charles R. Drew and Lenore Robbins Drew3324 Sherman Avenue, NW, Apartment 1 — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC
Dr. Charles R. Drew (1904-1950), renowned for his blood plasma research, was associated with Howard University College of Medicine during most of his career. In 1941 Drew joined a national effort to set up a blood banking process but left because . . . — Map (db m65523) HM
Georgia (Glynn County), Jekyll Island — Separate But Equal?Historic St. Andrews Beach
On October 23, 1958, a coal mining disaster in Springhill, Nova Scotia trapped 174 men underground. The coverage of this disaster was the first international event to be broadcast live on television. In the hope of harnessing the media . . . — Map (db m115128) HM
South Carolina (Colleton County), Walterboro — The Tuskegee Airmen
(Top left picture): In April of 1944, Walterboro Army Airfield stopped training fighter groups and switched to advanced individual air combat training. Over 500 black airmen from the training program at Tuskegee trained at the airfield . . . — Map (db m22611) HM
Virginia (Buckingham County), Buckingham — 4 — One-Room SchoolhouseBuckingham, Virginia — Buckingham County
Union Grove School is representative of the many one-room schools for African-American students in Buckingham County and throughout the area. The African-American members of the community built Union Grove around 1925, and like most schools, it . . . — Map (db m21148) HM

Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry
In dedication to Julius Ellsberry, the first Black Alabama man to die in World War II; born Birmingham, Ala, 1922. Enlisted in the U.S. Navy, 1940; First Class Mate [sic] Attendant aboard battleship Oklahoma in the Battle of Pearl . . . — Map (db m63761) HM WM

Alabama (Dale County), Pinckard — The Mack M. Matthews School
Front The original part of this building was home to one of the oldest African American schools in Dale County. In 1949 on this site, the new building for the Pinckard Colored School was constructed and Mack M. Matthews became its . . . — Map (db m115029) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-138 — Brown v. Board of Education
Delaware remained a racially segregated society until the mid-twentieth century. Though the segregation of public schools was supported by the “separate but equal” doctrine that had been upheld by the nation’s highest court, the . . . — Map (db m3124) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 5 of 14 — Howard University Sets the StandardCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
To the north and east of the U Street corridor rises the tower of Founders Library at Howard University - an institution created in 1867 that has trained and inspired generations of African American leaders and has been a lodestar for its own . . . — Map (db m41928) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Lillie Carroll Jackson Civil Rights Museum
Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson, born in Baltimore on May 25, 1889, was a tireless freedom fighter. As an “American of African descent, “she endured the humiliation of Jim Crow segregation, but did not take this plight sitting down. Using . . . — Map (db m101626) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hagerstown — United States Colored Troops
The Robert Moxley Band was a group of African-American musicians, mostly local slaves, who formed a military-style brass band in the years before the Civil War. The band held regular concerts in what is now Jacob Wheaton Park. In 1863 the U.S. . . . — Map (db m107363) HM
Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Where do we bury our dead? Lincoln Cemetery
The first half-acre of this cemetery was purchased in 1867 by a society of Black men calling themselves the “Sons of Goodwill,” and for many years this place was called the “Goodwill Cemetery.” The minutes of the Sons of . . . — Map (db m18029) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Barrett Library/Black History Museum
The Alexandria Library's Kate Waller Barrett Branch (2 blocks north, 1 block east) and the Alexandria Black History Museum (6 blocks north) have an unusual shared history. The library building was constructed in 1938 and named for Dr. Kate Waller . . . — Map (db m115715) HM

North Carolina (Guilford County), Greensboro — Albion Tourgee
Albion Winegar Tourgee, a native of Ohio and veteran of the Union Army, moved to Greensboro in 1865 and led a campaign to secure justice for African—Americans. He was an organizer of the Republican Party in NC, a delegate to the convention . . . — Map (db m99398) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — C-91 — Tinner Hill
An early rural branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded here on Tinner Hill. In 1915, the Town of Falls Church proposed an ordinance to segregate black and white residential sections. Local African . . . — Map (db m55735) HM

Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1 — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . — Map (db m73015) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 20 — Finley's Drug Stores
John L. Finley Jr. opened Finley's Pharmacy #1 in 1950. John and his brother, James, established Finley's #2 in 1959, which was later sold to Benjamin F. Jackson, Sr. James H. Finley. Sr. eventually opened six stores, launching the first black . . . — Map (db m111305) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Southwest — 16 of 17 — Recreation and River ParkRiver Farms to Urban Towers — Southwest Heritage Trail
Washington's schools and playgrounds were legally segregated from 1862 until 1954. But that didn't stop kids of all backgrounds from playing together. "We didn't understand racial disharmony," said Southwester Gene Cherrico of his childhood on . . . — Map (db m111967) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), U Street Corridor (Shaw) — 11 of 14 — A Shared NeighborhoodCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
Although Washington, D.C., has been a racially segregated city for much of its history, black and white Washingtonians have shared parts of this neighborhood.

The modern building across 15th Street sits on the site of Portner Flats, demolished . . . — Map (db m80471) HM

Georgia (Glynn County), Jekyll Island — The Dolphin Motor HotelHistoric St. Andrews Beach
The St. Andrews Beach Corporation formed in early 1956 to build a motel and restaurant here on Jekyll Island's once segregated South End. The company included many successful black business owners from Brunswick. In partnership with the Jekyll . . . — Map (db m115139) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-1 — Mildred L. Terry Branch Library
The first public library for African Americans in segregated Columbus, the Colored/Fourth Avenue Library, opened on January 5, 1953. The existence of this facility resulted from covenants and restrictions barring the use of the city’s new public . . . — Map (db m22410) HM
Indiana (Floyd County), New Albany — 22.1998.1 — Scribner High School
In 1880, an 1822 school building on this site became Scribner High School for African-American students, under an 1869 Indiana law mandating public education for African-American children and allowing segregated schools. Modern facility completed . . . — Map (db m46624) HM
Kentucky (Jefferson County), Louisville — Dr. Rufus E. Clement(1900-1967)
Scholar and educator, Dr. Clement served as the first dean of Louisville Municipal College, the segregated branch of the University of Louisville, from 1931 to 1937. Under his leadership, Municipal attracted an extremely strong faculty and soon . . . — Map (db m115014) HM
Maryland (Calvert County), Prince Frederick — Old Wallville SchoolCA. 1880-1934
Oldest standing one-room schoolhouse for African American students in Calvert County. Offered education for grades 1-7 in the Wallville community. Illustrates the segregated educational facilities of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. . . . — Map (db m54367) HM
Maryland (Calvert County), Sunderland — Harriet Elizabeth Brown
During the period of racially segregated education, elementary school teacher Brown enlisted the N.A.A.C.P. and attorney Thurgood Marshall to challenge the inequity of seperate salary scales for public school teachers based on race. Her case was . . . — Map (db m5573) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Saints Street
“Saints Street was to Blacks ‘What's Happening now.’” — Adelaide Hall, 1995 For many decades preceding the civil rights movement, Saints Street was the commercial and social center within a segregated Frederick, boasting a . . . — Map (db m107199) HM
Mississippi (Lauderdale County), Meridian — 1 — African American Business DistrictMeridian Civil Rights Trail
The African-American Business District provided services that Meridian’s black community could not otherwise receive due to Jim Crow laws that kept the South segregated. It was the location of a hotel, restaurants, barber and beauty shops, a . . . — Map (db m111048) HM
Mississippi (Marshall County), Holly Springs — 18 — Rust College — Mississippi Freedom Trail
Front In 1960 Rust College students, under the leadership of President E. A. Smith, boycotted the segregated HollyTheater, a protest that in 1962 evolved into a Rust chapter of the NAACP. The chapter offices were installed by Medgar . . . — Map (db m116163) HM
Missouri (St. Charles County), St. Charles — 437 North Maincirca 1900
During Prohibition, Moses Bowlen O'Bannon rented the two-story brick Green Tree Tavern from former brewer Charles Schibi. O'Bannon sold soft drinks and had a license to operate two billiard tables from 1921 until 1930. O'Bannon born in 1873, the son . . . — Map (db m124883) HM
New York (Orange County), Goshen — Horace Pippin
1888-1946 home of noted Afro-American artist. Attended nearby segregated school 1902 Metropolitan Museum Exhibit 1995. — Map (db m27277) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — 102-25 — Mount Vernon Avenue
The commercial area of Mount Vernon Avenue originated in the early 1900s as a safe haven for African-American people segregated from the primarily white community of the time. Not permitted to enter many businesses in downtown Columbus during the . . . — Map (db m17471) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — 103-25 — The Lincoln Theatre
The Lincoln Theatre, originally known as Ogden Theatre Lodge, opened on Thanksgiving Day in 1929. Developer Al Jackson was spurred to build the theatre because African-Americans were segregated from the other area theatres. Among the bands that have . . . — Map (db m17378) HM
Pennsylvania (Centre County), University Park — Champions for Equality
Demonstrating that sport can be a powerful force for social change, Penn State led the way in breaking the color barrier in intercollegiate football in the south. By the players' own decision, the team refused an offer to play a segregated deep . . . — Map (db m65590) HM
Pennsylvania (Lebanon County), Jonestown — Transportation Corps Unit Training Center
A stevedore training program was established in 1942 at Fort Indiantown Gap. Soldiers were trained to load and unload cargo using three wood and concrete dry land ships. Many recruits were African Americans whose companies were segregated from their . . . — Map (db m68010) HM
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Engine Company No. 11
One of 22 fire companies established under the Philadelphia Fire Department in 1871. In 1919, it became a segregated African American unit whose members distinguished themselves through professional service. Desegregated in 1952. — Map (db m82993) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Merrifield — Luther P. Jackson High School
Luther P. Jackson High School, opened in 1954, was the first and only high school in Fairfax County created to serve the African-American community. The school was named after Luther Porter Jackson, a prominent historian, educator and founder of the . . . — Map (db m176) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — N-33 — Fredericksburg Normal and Industrial Institute
Due to the efforts of local blacks, Fredericksburg Normal and Industrial Institute (FNII) opened in October 1903 at the Shiloh New Site Baptist Church with about 20 students. In 1906 the board of trustees purchased land and a large farmhouse here, . . . — Map (db m1128) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-65 — Richmond’s First African American Police Officers
On 1 May 1946, Richmond’s first professional African American police officers were hired and assigned to the First Precinct at Smith and Marshall Streets. They were Howard T. Braxton, Doctor P. Day, Frank S. Randolph, and John W. Vann. On 16 . . . — Map (db m1896) HM
West Virginia (Tucker County), Thomas — Coketon Colored School
Segregated school located along the North Fork of the Blackwater that served Coketon, center of coal and coke empire of H. G. Davis. In 1892 teacher Carrie Williams, represented by J. R. Clifford, state’s first African Amerian lawyer, sued when . . . — Map (db m82119) HM

District of Columbia (Washington), 16th Street Heights — 2 — Mayor Emery and the Union ArmyBattleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail
The City Park across the street was once Emery Place, the summer estate of Matthew Gault Emery. A prominent builder, Emery was Washington City's last elected mayor during the period of home rule. He was succeeded in 1874 by a presidentially . . . — Map (db m72816) HM
Florida (Clay County), Middleburg — F-310 — Middleburg Methodist Church
Founded on or before July 27, 1828 by Isaac Boring, a Methodist Circuit Riding Preacher. First known as The Black Creek Methodist Church. This frontier Methodist society met in homes until the present church was built in 1847. In continuous use . . . — Map (db m102460) HM
Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — Standing Up for Their Rights

The Topeka chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) recruited 13 African American parents to file a lawsuit contesting the state law that allowed cities like Topeka to segregate students in elementary . . . — Map (db m81393) HM


Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lower Dexter Park
History Happened Here The City of Montgomery built this public park on one of the lots occupied by the Montgomery Fair Department Store. Rosa Parks was an assistant to the tailor for Montgomery Fair. On December 1, 1955, Mrs. Parks . . . — Map (db m121435) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), College Park — Lakeland at the Beginning
Lakeland at the Beginning Land developer Edwin Newman surveyed, mapped and developed what is now known as the community of Lakeland. The town was built on the banks of Lake Artemesia, a man made "beautiful lake which is to form a . . . — Map (db m115134) HM

Illinois (Cook County), Chicago — Victory, World War I Black Soldiers’ Memorial
Victory St. Mihiel, Argonne Forest, Mont de Signes, Oise-Aisne Offensive. In memory of the heroes of the old 8th Infantry, Illinois National Guard, redesignated during the World War as the 370th Infantry of the United States Army who . . . — Map (db m4683) HM
Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — Sumner School Cornerstone
This corner stone preserved by P-T-A. & Past Patrons of Sumner School Erected 1901 - Replaced 1936 Board of Education [List of names] ———————— This tree in memory of Mose . . . — Map (db m65040) HM
Maryland (Howard County), Cooksville — Cooksville High School1935-1949
Site of the first public high school for African Americans in Howard County. Original site of Warfield Academy, became Mount Gregory School in 1867 for African Americans and was the genesis of Mount Gregory Church. Was a public elementary school by . . . — Map (db m938) HM
Virginia (Northumberland County), Reedville — O-61 — Julius Rosenwald High School
Originally known as Northumberland County Training School, this institution opened in 1917, under principal John M. Ellison. Local African Americans raised more than $7,000 to build the school and received additional funding from the Rosenwald Fund. . . . — Map (db m22954) HM

Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital
The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital (VA), established in 1923, is significant as the first VA hospital in the nation to be administered by an all African American medical staff. After WWI, African American veterans found it difficult . . . — Map (db m101900) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 6 — Black Churches Provide Significant Support for the March and VotingSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Holt Street under Interstates 65 and 85
As the social and cultural epicenters of Montgomery's black communities in the 1950s and 1960s, black churches also played a political role, providing sanctuary and strength against discrimination On December 5, 1955 following the first day of . . . — Map (db m91464) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy(March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)
This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived . . . — Map (db m71232) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Nogales — Grand Ave - Frank Reed School1928 - 1952
Grand Ave. School was founded in 1928 as a grammar school, grades one through eight, for the African American children of Nogales. In 1943 the school's name was changed to Frank A. Reed in honor of a former student, Frank A. Reed, who died in . . . — Map (db m27113) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-149 — Knotty Pine Restaurant
In 1875 the Delaware General Assembly enacted legislation requiring the racial segregation of public places such as train stations, hotels, and restaurants. For most of the next century this practice was strictly enforced. Established at this . . . — Map (db m10920) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — Louis L. Redding City County Building
Named in honor of Delaware’s first Afro-American attorney, graduate of Howard High School, Brown University, and Harvard Law School, admitted to the Delaware Bar in 1929, pioneer in the struggle for equality and tireless advocate in civil rights . . . — Map (db m5526) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Dupont Circle — Todd Duncan ResidenceAfrican American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
1600 T Street, NW Internationally renowned baritone Todd Duncan (1903-1998) lived here from about 1935 until about 1960. Duncan originated the role of Porgy in George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess on Broadway. He later refused to . . . — Map (db m97801) HM
Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — F-919 — Second Missionary Baptist Church of LaVilla
The founders of Second Missionary Baptist Church worshipped at Bethel Baptist Church with their slaves masters in the 1830s. They built their first separate wooden sanctuary in 1848 in the African American neighborhood of LaVilla. The first . . . — Map (db m101663) HM
Florida (Nassau County), Fernandina Beach — F-846 — The Good Shepherd Church 1887-1966
In May 1887, the original wood frame building of St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Fernandina was given to the black congregation and called Good Shepherd Episcopal Church. The structure was moved to face east on Ninth Street. The rectors of St. . . . — Map (db m92955) HM
Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — F-773 — Mt. Carmel Missionary Baptist Church & Cemetery
Mount Carmel Missionary Baptist Church, a cornerstone of Jupiter’s African American community, was organized in 1902 by the Reverend J. A. Wannamaker and the pioneer families of Simmons, Campbell, Ford, Bush, and Davis. These early settlers arrived . . . — Map (db m95675) HM
Florida (Pasco County), Zephyrhills — Zephyrhills Depot
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Depot was built in 1927 and used for a passenger and freight services. This structure represents the architectural style of the early 1900s; large extended eaves, outdoor platforms, segregated waiting rooms. This . . . — Map (db m41501) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Tarpon Springs — F-474 — Rose Cemetery
Rose Cemetery, also known as Rose Hill Cemetery, established in the early 1900s as a segregated cemetery, is the oldest African-American cemetery in Pinellas County. Located on approximately five acres of land, the cemetery reflects the social . . . — Map (db m53993) HM
Florida (Polk County), Dundee — F-458 — The Railroad in Dundee History
The Dundee Passenger Depot, built ca. 1912, was the first depot on the Haines City to Sebring Line of The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Most of Dundee’s early growth can be attributed to the railroad. With the advent of the railroad, the . . . — Map (db m93192) HM
Georgia (Bibb County), Macon — 11-2 — Central City College/Georgia Baptist College
Founded in October 1899 by the Reverend E. K. Love under the auspices of the Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia, Central City College served as a co-educational institution of learning for African-American students at both the high school and . . . — Map (db m23065) HM
Georgia (Bulloch County), Portal — GHS 16-2 — Willow Hill Elementary School for NegroesA Georgia Equalization School
Willow Hill School was established in 1874 during Reconstruction as one of the first schools for African Americans in Bulloch County. It was privately supported until being sold to the local Board of Education in 1920. In 1954 the county built a new . . . — Map (db m107702) HM
Georgia (Chatham County), Savannah — Colored Shopmen's Locker & Lavatory
The railroad provided separate washroom facilities for whites and African-Americans. Facilities and opportunities were quite different for black and white people historically in the segregated South. Jim Crow laws required “separate but . . . — Map (db m70293) HM
Georgia (Chatham County), Savannah — 25-15 — Florance Street School
Florance Street School was designed by the firm Levy and Clarke and built in 1929 as one of the early public schools in Savannah built specifically for African-American students. It contributed greatly to Savannah’s Cuyler-Brownville community by . . . — Map (db m12088) HM
Georgia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — 56-4 — Flat Rock African Methodist Episcopal Church
Today’s Flat Rock AME Church originated in 1854 as a place of worship for slaves on nearby Spears Plantation, and it is believed to be the oldest African-American congregation in Fayette County. Originally known as Rocky Mount, the church moved . . . — Map (db m22973) HM
Georgia (Fulton County), Atlanta — 060-176 — Booker T. Washington1856-1915
Former slave, Principal of Tuskegee Institute and author of Up From Slavery, Washington delivered the Atlanta Exposition Address on September 18, 1895 at this site, the former auditorium of the Cotton States and International Exposition. . . . — Map (db m73369) HM
Georgia (Fulton County), Atlanta — Historic Fire Station No. 6
Fire Station No. 6 was one of seven fire stations built in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1890s to serve the city's bustling growth of suburban neighborhoods. One of the early means of transportation for the firemen was the horse-drawn hose wagon. . . . — Map (db m85814) HM
Georgia (Morgan County), Madison — Early Academies
Early academies were private, state chartered institutions. Only a year after the town founding in 1809, commissioners were appointed to organize Morgan County's first academy, officially incorporated as the Madison Academy in 1815. Both male and . . . — Map (db m109714) HM
Georgia (Oconee County), Watkinsville — 108-2 — E. D. Stroud SchoolA Georgia Equalization School
E.D. Stroud School was established in 1956 as part of a statewide “equalization” effort for Georgia’s African-American public schools. As part of Georgia’s massive resistance to federally mandated school integration, politicians and . . . — Map (db m108666) HM
Indiana (Floyd County), New Albany — 22.2005.1 — Division Street School
Side 'One' Because of the growing number of African-American school-age children, the New Albany School Board authorized a new elementary school for them June 1884. It opened here 1885. An 1869 Indiana law had mandated education of colored . . . — Map (db m46620) HM
Indiana (Monroe County), Bloomington — 53.2008.2 — Benjamin Banneker School
(Side One) African-American students went to “Colored School” on 6th Street, circa 1874-1915, under 1869 law. New elementary school for black students opened here December 7, 1915 with 93 students and 3 teachers. Gymnasium . . . — Map (db m74170) HM
Indiana (Monroe County), Bloomington — 53.2005.1 — The Colored School
Side A By 1874, what has been known as the Colored School opened in Center School here at Sixth and Washington Streets to serve African-American elementary students of Bloomington. An 1869 law had mandated education of colored children, with . . . — Map (db m47674) HM
Indiana (St. Joseph County), North Liberty — 71.2003.1 — Porter (Rea) Cemetery
(Front Side) This cemetery was officially created September 6, 1854 when Samuel Gard deeded land to trustees for a burial ground. Free African-American settlers from Huggart Settlement were buried here alongside their white neighbors, . . . — Map (db m61922) HM
Kansas (Franklin County), Ottawa — Main Street, 500 Block South and City ParkHistoric Ottawa Tour Stop 7
The Schools at 5th and Main: Ottawa's first school house was built at 3rd and Walnut where a city parking lot now stands. It suffered a tornado and an earthquake, and cracks appeared in the brick walls. Besides those problems, the population . . . — Map (db m67628) HM
Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — A "Separate But Equal" School?

When Monroe Elementary School opened in 1927, it was a key part of Topeka's grand, million-dollar school construction program. Topeka wanted a first-class educational system that would promote pride in the city's schools. The new Monroe School . . . — Map (db m81392) HM

Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — Pillars of the Community

Alongside the church, the schools were anchors of African American life in Topeka. With the rise of an all-black teaching force in the city's black schools in the 1880s, teachers formed the backbone of the black middle class. They believed that . . . — Map (db m81307) HM

Kentucky (Whitley County), Williamsburg — 1702 — Roy Martis Chappell1921-2002
Side 1 A Williamsburg native and Ky. State Univ. student, he was a World War II Tuskegee Airman and B-25 navigator and bombardier. He participated in the 1945 "Freemen Mutiny" where 101 black officers fought inequality by entering a . . . — Map (db m74178) HM
Louisiana (Orleans Parish), New Orleans — Homer Adolph Plessy1862-1925
On June 7, 1892, Homer Adolph Plessy defied a Louisiana law that segregated railroad trains on the basis of race. He was arrested and became the defendant in the May 18, 1896 United States Supreme Court decision of Plessy v. Ferguson, which condoned . . . — Map (db m13036) HM
Maryland (Anne Arundel County), Annapolis — Asbury United Methodist Church
Site of the oldest and most prominent African American congregation in Annapolis, MD. In 1803, seven free African Americans bought the land and established the First African Methodist Episcopal Church. It was closed in 1832 in a local reaction to . . . — Map (db m6191) HM
Maryland (Anne Arundel County), Eastport — Eastport's Soul
Many African-American families settled here more than a century ago. these families, who have lived here for four generations, are the heart and soul of this neighborhood. Their religious, educational and cultural institutions are pillars of . . . — Map (db m5653) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Community Growth and FaithPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Communities grow in direct proportion to their access to capital. Potential homebuyers and business owners in Old West Baltimore needed access to money. In 1896, Everett J. Waring, along with some of Baltimore’s most prominent African Americans, . . . — Map (db m101990) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Struggling For Equality
Slavery, segregation, discrimination, and the struggle for equality have defined the African American experience in Baltimore. At the start of the Civil War, Baltimore had 25,680 free blacks-more than any other U.S. city-and only 2,218 slaves. Over . . . — Map (db m6355) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Rockville — 8 — Jerusalem - Mount Pleasant Church and Parsonage21 & 17 Wood Lane — Rockville's African American Heritage Walking Tour
Racial tensions between African American and white church members peaked immediately before the Civil War. Pro-slavery parishioners joined the M. E. Church South in 1863. By 1868 the predominately African American M. E. Church North owned this . . . — Map (db m32146) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Rockville — 11 — Mr. T’s200 North Washington Street — Rockville’s African American Heritage Walking Tour
After being made to wait while five white patrons who came in after him were served, George “T.” Johnson opened Mr. T’s as a store catering to African American clientele. Taverns in Rockville were the only businesses that were . . . — Map (db m32141) HM
Michigan (Ingham County), Lansing — Joe Louis Barrow 1914-1981
Joe Louis learned to box as a teenager at Detroit’s Brewster Recreation Center. With power in both hands and great strength, Louis quickly rose through the amateur ranks and turned pro in 1934. He won the world heavyweight title in 1937 at the . . . — Map (db m103682) HM
Michigan (Oakland County), Royal Oak Township — L1953 — Carver Elementary School
During the early twentieth century, many African Americans migrated north to work in Detroit's automobile factories. Increased migration during World War II prompted Royal Oak Township's Clinton School District to split into two racially segregated . . . — Map (db m95364) HM
Mississippi (Madison County), Canton — 21 — Madison County Movement — Mississippi Freedom Trail
(front) CORE Activists David Dennis, Matheo Suarez, and George Raymond opened a Madison County office in 1963 to register black voters, the majority in white~controlled Canton. Co~directors Raymond and Suarez were joined by Annie Devine and . . . — Map (db m105553) HM
Mississippi (Warren County), Vicksburg — Rosa A. Temple High School
In 1959, Rosa A. Temple High School, named in honor of a beloved long-time school teacher, was built for African Americans and the old school, J. G. H. Bowman High, formerly known as Magnolia Avenue (1924) was closed. Mr. O. W. Sanders served as . . . — Map (db m104081) HM
Missouri (St. Louis County), University City — Dick GregoryBorn October 12, 1932
Born in St. Louis, Dick Gregory grew up at 1803 N. Taylor Ave. shining shoes to help feed his family. At Sumner High School, he led a march against conditions at segregated schools and set a state record in track. As a star comedian in the early . . . — Map (db m124777) HM
Missouri (St. Louis County), University City — Maya AngelouBorn April 4, 1928
Maya Angelou, born Marguerite Johnson in St. Louis, was raised in segregated rural Arkansas. Her bestselling account of that upbringing, "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," won critical acclaim in 1970. A leading literary voice of the . . . — Map (db m124764) HM
Nevada (Clark County), Las Vegas — 7 — St. James the ApostleCatholic Church 1940
St James has been a vital force in meeting the needs of this underserved, segregated but expanding community. The second Catholic Church in Las Vegas, St. James opened in 1940 in a small concrete building at H and Morgan streets (pictured . . . — Map (db m51049) HM
New York (Erie County), Buffalo — Little Harlem Hotel
In 1934 Ann Montgomery converted her ice cream parlor and Oriental Billiard Parlor on this site into the Little Harlem Hotel. Cab Calloway, Billy Eckstine, Della Reese, Sarah Vaughn and many others performed and stayed here when downtown hotels were . . . — Map (db m75351) HM
Ohio (Belmont County), Barnesville — 8-7 — Captina African Methodist Episcopal Cemetery
This cemetery stands as evidence of a once thriving African American farming community established in the 1820s. With the aid of community leader, Alexander "Sandy" Harper (c.1804-1889), Captina, originally called Guinea, became a stop on the . . . — Map (db m79263) HM
Ohio (Delaware County), Powell — 20-21 — Lucy Depp Park & The Depp Settlement
Lucy Depp Park was a 102-acre development named for Lucinda Depp (1844-1929). She had inherited the land from her father, Abraham (1791-1858), an emancipated African American man and central Ohio pioneer from Powhattan County, Virginia. Known . . . — Map (db m108066) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — 110- 25 — Hanford VillageAlthough the highway divides us, our memories are never lost
Hanford Village was founded in the early 1900s just east of Columbus proper with its own mayor, police force, fire department, businesses, and park. After World War II, a subdivision of Hanford became a segregated community for returning African . . . — Map (db m94618) HM
Ohio (Highland County), Hillsboro — 6-36 — The Lincoln School
Side A

The Lincoln School, which stood on this site from 1869 to 1956, was a segregated elementary school intended for the city's African American students, grades one through eight. Hillsboro was the site of the first Northern desegregation . . . — Map (db m121940) HM

South Carolina (Charleston County), Charleston — 10 100 — Constitutional Convention of 1868
In January 1868 delegates met to rewrite the S.C. Constitution. They convened at the Charleston Club House, which once stood near here. Before the Civil War the Club House was reserved for Charleston's planter elite, but a majority of the delegates . . . — Map (db m115228) HM
South Carolina (Richland County), Dentsville — 40-198 — Dentsville School
(side 1) Dentsville Consolidated School opened at this site in 1926. The brick building was the first school in the newly created Richland Two school district and served students who had previously attended numerous, smaller schools in the . . . — Map (db m123497) HM
South Carolina (York County), Rock Hill — 46-37 — McCrory's Civil Rights Sit-ins / "Friendship Nine"
McCrory's Civil Rights Sit-ins This building, built in 1901, was occupied by McCrory's Five & Dime from 1937 to 1997. On February 12, 1960, black students from Friendship Jr. College in Rock Hill were denied service at the McCrory's lunch . . . — Map (db m16719) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — 3A 157 — Desegregating Nashville's Lunch Counters
After the pre-dawn bombing of atty. Z. Alexander Looby's home, approx. 3000 civil rights leaders and students from Tenn. St., Fisk, Meharry, American Baptist College, and Pearl High School marched along this route on April 19, 1960, to meet with . . . — Map (db m4226) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — The Memorial PoolCasualties of Segregation
African Americans in Alexandria suffered, along with other of their race, when a segregated system prevented them from enjoying recreation facilities in their hometown. From 1926 to 1951, the city had a municipal pool for white residents only. . . . — Map (db m80843) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Drew School
In 1945 a new segregated elementary school was built for Arlington’s African American population in the Green Valley, now Nauck, neighborhood. It was the only Arlington school to be built in the Art Moderne architectural style. Originally called the . . . — Map (db m69192) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Stratford Junior High School
On February 2, 1959, Stratford Jr. High became the first racially integrated school in Virginia. The long battle to integrate Virginia's public schools followed the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which held that . . . — Map (db m55729) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Q-28a — C. B. Holt Rock House
African American Charles B. Holt owned a carpentry business in Charlottesville’s Vinegar Hill neighborhood. The son of former slaves, Holt built this Arts and Crafts-style house in 1925-1926, during the era of segregation when blacks were . . . — Map (db m30541) HM
Virginia (Clarke County), Berryville — J-43 — Lucy Diggs Slowe(4 Jul. 1883 – 21 Oct. 1837)
Lucy Slowe, educator, was born in Berryville. In 1908, while attending Howard University, she became a founding member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, the first Greek letter organization for African American women, and was elected its first . . . — Map (db m104725) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Franconia — Laurel Grove Colored School and Church
In the early 1880s, former slaves organized a congregation and held church services near a grove of laurel on Beulah Road. The trustees, including Middleton Braxton, George Carroll, Thornton Gray, and William Jasper, were focused on educating the . . . — Map (db m86181) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Springfield — The Civilian Conservation Corps
During the Depression, in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration established the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) to help unemployed men, ages 18 to 25. CCC men created state parks, improved soil conservation, conducted . . . — Map (db m64562) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Henderson House
This colonial revival bungalow (part of 1724 1,279-acre Pearson Grant) bought by Dr. Edwin B. Henderson in 1913. Henderson's ancestors include Powhattan Chief Mimetou. In 1904 he was first African-American certified to teach physical education; . . . — Map (db m4202) HM
Virginia (King George County), King George — EP-10 — Ralph Bunche High School
Ralph Bunche High School was built as a direct result of the Federal District Court case Margaret Smith et al. v. School Board of King George County, Virginia, which was filed in 1947. The judge ruled that jurisdictions should ensure the . . . — Map (db m76409) HM
Virginia (Loudoun), Leesburg — F 103 — Mt. Zion United Methodist Church
Mt. Zion, recognized as the oldest continuing African American Methodist congregation in Virginia, traces its origins to the Old Stone Church, established in Leesburg in 1766. Black members of the Old Stone Church, desiring their own church after . . . — Map (db m121642) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Q-6-19 — Abram Frederick Biggers and Biggers School
Abram Frederick Biggers (1838 - 1879), a lawyer by profession, was appointed the first superintendent of the Lynchburg and Campbell County schools in 1870. As a part of his effort to build a strong system, Biggers toured northern states to study . . . — Map (db m54467) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 17 — The QuartersDiscovering Madison
"The Negro habitations are separate from the dwelling house both here and all over Virginia, and they form a kind of village." - Journal of Sir Augustus John Foster, 1807 The Quarters, a cluster of wooden buildings segregated from the main . . . — Map (db m24047) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-73 — John Mitchell, Jr., "Fighting Editor"
Born enslaved near Richmond in 1863, John Mitchell, Jr. came of age in the tumultuous post–Civil War era. In 1883, he launched a daring journalism career, becoming editor and publisher of the black-owned Richmond Planet once located . . . — Map (db m57530) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-105 — Miller’s and Eggleston Hotels
Opened in 1904 and demolished in 2009, the hotel that stood here hosted regional and national black luminaries, celebrities, tourists, and leaders including Booker T. Washington. Built by William “Buck” Miller, Miller’s Hotel was one of . . . — Map (db m89521) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-83 — Richmond 34
On 22 Feb. 1960, 34 Virginia Union University students, 11 women and 23 men, refused to leave the segregated dining facilities here at Thalhimers department store and were arrested. Charged with trespassing, they were later convicted and fined. This . . . — Map (db m95568) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Virginia Civil Rights Memorial
On April 23, 1951, 16-year-old Barbara Johns and several fellow students led a strike to protest the deplorable conditions at their racially segregated Prince Edward County school. The Rev. L. Francis Griffin united parents in support of the strike . . . — Map (db m25310) HM
Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — JT-21 — Charles B. Smith99th Fighter Squadron — (Tuskegee Airmen)
Born in Westmoreland County, Charles Bernard Smith (1917-1991) is one of more than 140,000 African Americans who served in the racially segregated U.S. Army Air Force during World War II. Trained at Chanute Field, Illinois, in aircraft ground . . . — Map (db m22255) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Church and School
The school and mission work are inseparably interwoven with each other. Storer teacher - Kate J. Anthony The Curtis Memorial Freewill Baptist Church served as a spiritual anchor in the lives of both the students and the teachers of . . . — Map (db m70814) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Storer College
That was the happiest time of my life. Storer alumna Ruby Reeler Female students arriving here at the Cook Hall dormitory were greeted with a welcoming letter that advised them, “Here you will come as a refuge from the . . . — Map (db m70830) HM

North Carolina (Wayne County), Goldsboro — F-61 — Cherry Hospital
Opened by state in 1880 for black citizens with mental illness. Named in 1959 for R. Gregg Cherry, governor, 1945-49. Open to all races since 1965. — Map (db m65498) HM

British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — North Pacific Cannery
Salmon canning stimulated economic development on this coast. North Pacific is the oldest West Coast cannery still standing. From here the Bell-Irving family shipped high quality salmon directly to England before 1900. Typical of most canneries in . . . — Map (db m9203) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Happy Hollow
Known as Fair Road, Sixth Street from Northington Street to the big curve was called “Happy Hollow”. The road went to the Fair home place but also curved right, into Warren Circle. Here stood a small frame church where the congregation’s . . . — Map (db m70800) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Prepared to Fight and Die
Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site commemorates the contributions of the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II—and to American society afterward. The site preserves Moton Field, where the airmen trained before going to war. Their courageous . . . — Map (db m99938) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Forest Avenue's Medical Facilities / Oak Park Montgomery's First Public Park
Side A Forest Avenue's Medical Facilities With the growth of the Highland Park suburb in the 1890s, a medical community developed along Forest Avenue. In 1895, Dr. Isaac Watkins opened Highland Park Sanatorium in three frame . . . — Map (db m71264) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Side 1 On December 1, 1955, Rosa Louis McCauley Parks was arrested on this site for refusing the order of city bus driver J. F. Blake to vacate her seat under the segregation laws of the Jim Crow era. She was taken to police . . . — Map (db m91286) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs
(side 1) The Jackson-Community House In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party . . . — Map (db m71236) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier(1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice
It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?” Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of . . . — Map (db m54814) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Claymont — NC-162 — Hickman Row
The industrial expansion of Brandywine Hundred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was largely reflective of national trends in the growth and development of heavy industry. As large corporations moved to locations outside of major cities, . . . — Map (db m92286) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Claymont — NC-99 — Old Claymont High School
Constructed 1924-25. Also known as the Green Street School. Prominent in United States history as the first public high school in the 17 segregated states to be legally integrated. In January 1951, eight black students applied for admission. Due . . . — Map (db m14705) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-188 — The Community of Dunleith
The Federal Housing Act of 1949 established a goal of “a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family.” However, a segregated housing market put this goal beyond the reach of African American veterans. In that . . . — Map (db m92289) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Barry Farms — 3 of 20 — Barry Farm DwellingsAn East-of-the-River View — Anacostia HeritageTrail
Just beyond this sign is the edge of Barry Farm Dwellings, built during World War II for African American families. The war had caused acute housing shortages, so people divided large homes into rooming houses, took in boarders, or crammed . . . — Map (db m113608) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Burleith — The Evolution of Burleith
Burleith's built environment dates to the early nineteenth century. The oldest existing home, 1814 35th Street (earlier known as Fayette Street), was built in 1803. Three other structures on 35th Street were built in 1830, and about fifty years . . . — Map (db m113392) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 10 of 19 — On the HeightsCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail
In the days of legally segregated public education (1862-1954), this school building was Central High, the gem of the School Board’s white division. But by 1949, it had few students, as the post-World War II suburban housing boom had drawn whites . . . — Map (db m23608) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) ChurchThe National Cathedral of African Methodism
Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church was founded in the District of Columbia in 1838. It is the oldest A.M.E. church and the oldest continuously black-owned property in Washington, D.C. - the Nation's Capital. The church . . . — Map (db m18028) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Mount Vernon Square — 1 of 17 — Words and DeedsMidcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail
Wealthy industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build the Beaux Arts-style building you see across the street to your left, the city’s first public library. The Central Library opened in 1903 with 12,412 books by its predecessor, the . . . — Map (db m21801) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Pleasant Plains — 8 of 19 — Cleaning Up CowtownLift Every Voice — Georgia Avenue/Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail
The area west of this spot once was an Irish and German immigrant neighborhood known as “Cowtown.” That's because, before 1871, cows, pigs, and sheep roamed freely here, while those kept in Washington City, south of Boundary Street . . . — Map (db m85497) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 13 of 14 — Meridian Hill ParkCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
Just ahead of you at the corner of 15th Street and Florida Avenue is the entrance to Meridian Hill Park, a dramatic urban oasis established in 1912 and completed in 1936. Its stunning, 12-acre landscape features the longest cascading waterfall of . . . — Map (db m24149) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 12 of 17 — Reaching for EqualityMidcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail
For much of the 1900s, inexpensive entertainments lined much of Seventh and Ninth Streets, from D to U Streets. Vaudeville houses, pool halls, record shops and taverns made for a busy night life. And everyone went to the movies. Two small theaters . . . — Map (db m108652) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 1 of 14 — You Had to Wear a TieCity within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
You are standing on Washington’s historic Black Broadway–the heart of African American life in Washington, D.C. from about 1900 to the 1950s. Duke Ellington, its most famous native son, grew up, was inspired, trained, and played his first . . . — Map (db m17186) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), U Street Corridor — Living Mural: Paul Laurence DunbarBy Cory L. Stowers and Eric B. Ricks, 2015
Paul Laurence Dunbar (June 27, 1872 - February 9, 1906) was an American poet, novelist, and playwright of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born in Dayton, Ohio, to parents who had been enslaved in Kentucky before the American Civil . . . — Map (db m114774) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Century — F-988 — Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company Residential Historic District
In 1901, one of the largest and most advanced southern pine sawmills east of the Mississippi River was built here. In the tradition of the era, the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company built its own town to house and supply the families of mill workers. By . . . — Map (db m120557) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-841 — Pensacola Lunch Counter Sit-Ins
This building, once occupied by a Woolworth’s five and dime store, played a role in the struggle for civil rights in Florida. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans in segregated communities began sit-ins to protest against “whites . . . — Map (db m110472) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Dobyville
Dobyville, named for long-time resident Richard Cornelius Doby, was also known as West Hyde Park. By the 1920's, Dobyville was one of Tampa's primary African-American neighborhoods. The approximate historic boundaries went from Gray Street on the . . . — Map (db m34258) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Roberts City
In 1909, cigar manufacturer J.W. Roberts and Sons Company moved into an abandoned cigar factory on Garcia Avenue and Green Street. The neighborhood, bordered on the north and east by the Hillsborough River, on the south by Cass Street, and on the . . . — Map (db m93416) HM
Florida (Lake County), Mount Dora — F-437 — Witherspoon Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 111
The Witherspoon Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 111, is one of Florida’s oldest functioning African American lodges. Established in 1898, it followed the tradition of Prince Hall (1735-1807), who opposed racial oppression in Colonial New . . . — Map (db m72772) HM
Florida (Nassau County), American Beach — F417 — Historic American Beach
American Beach was established in 1935 under the leadership of Abraham Lincoln Lewis, one of seven co-founders of the Afro-American Life Insurance Company, and one of Florida’s first black millionaires. His vision was to create a beach resort as a . . . — Map (db m58868) HM
Florida (Pasco County), Zephyrhills — F-447 — Zephyrhills Railroad Depot
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (ACLR) Depot was built in 1927 and was used as a station/depot for passenger service and for shipping citrus, produce and other goods, thereby stimulating economic development and residential settlement. Railroad . . . — Map (db m41458) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 10 Hildreth DriveACCORD Freedom Trail
Fullerwood School was built in 1927 and is the only example in St. Augustine of the work of noted architect A. Ten Eyck Brown (1878-1940), famed for his courthouses, banks, and city halls in New Orleans, Miami and Atlanta. His name is on the . . . — Map (db m40725) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 112 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
This house was built between 1904 and 1910 on what was then called Central Avenue. The name was changed in 1986. There are many streets in America named to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but this one is special because he actually walked on it . . . — Map (db m17915) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 160 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
The southern half of Lincolnville was, in colonial times, a plantation called "Buena Esperanza" (Spanish for "Good Hope"). During the Flagler Era of the 1880s, it was bought by Standard Oil millionaire William Warden and developed as a residential . . . — Map (db m40699) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 33 Bernard StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Bernard Street is one of three historically black residential streets in the North City area, dating back to the Flagler Era. At the west end of the street were a lumber yard, steam laundry, and ice plant that provided employment. Other residents . . . — Map (db m17913) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 570 Christopher StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This was the home of Rev. Roscoe Halyard and his wife Flora, both active participants in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Rev. Halyard, who was associated with Zion Baptist Church and worked as a carpenter, made trips to both Tallahassee and . . . — Map (db m21208) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 650 Julia StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This house was built in 2008 by Habitat for Humanity for one of the Ancient City's civil rights heroes, Audrey Nell Edwards. Along with JoeAnn Anderson Ulmer, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton, she was one of the "St. Augustine Four." As young . . . — Map (db m40724) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 21 — 76 Washington StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The St. Augustine office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was located in this building from the 1970's until the early 1990's. The organization's roots in the Ancient City began much earlier. William English . . . — Map (db m21181) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 79 Bridge StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The Rudcarlie Building at 79 Bridge Street was built in the 1950's by Dr. Rudolph N. Gordon (1901-1959) and named for the members of his family. Rudolph, Carlotta, and Rosalie. It was the first medical/dental office constructed in St. Augustine . . . — Map (db m7640) HM
Florida (Santa Rosa County), Bagdad — Working for the Company
Bagdad was a thriving town. At its height, the mill employed about 1,200 mill workers and more than 60 businesses, churches, and schools operated in the village. A November 7, 1885, article in The Pensacola Commercial reported, "Bagdad has . . . — Map (db m100325) HM
Georgia (Dougherty County), Albany — C.B. (Chevene Bowers) Kingb. Albany, Georgia October 12, 1923; d. March 15, 1988
C.B. King dreamed of becoming a lawyer. He had served in the United States Navy and graduated from Fisk University. Because there was no law school for Blacks in segregated Georgia, he earned a law degree from Case Western Reserve University Law . . . — Map (db m117200) HM
Indiana (Floyd County), New Albany — Memories of Division
Enslaved blacks seeking freedom crossed the Ohio River from Louisville to New Albany almost from the founding of the Indiana town. The Indiana Constitution of 1816 prohibited slavery. Because of the large number of blacks crossing the river, the . . . — Map (db m46766) HM
Kansas (Atchison County), Atchison — Lincoln SchoolAtchison County Historic Site
"Put the children together, leave them alone, and they will work it out." Dave Carey, Sr. 1955, on integrating Atchison Public Schools The Lincoln School in Atchison, Kansas began in 1921 as the school for all African-American students . . . — Map (db m44691) HM
Kansas (Bourbon County), Fort Scott — Rank, Privilege, and Officers Row
To see evidence of the rigid military caste system in the Old Army, compare the substantial homes along Officers Row in front of you to the enlisted men's barracks behind you. A soldier's rank determined his position both professionally and . . . — Map (db m36135) HM
Louisiana (Saint John the Baptist Parish), Reserve — First Our Lady of Grace Catholic Church Sanctuary
Formerly, Our Lady of Grace Catholic Church, this sanctuary represents an important historical phenomenon in the history of the Catholic Church in southern Louisiana, the formation of separate churches for black parishioners. Prior to its founding, . . . — Map (db m85247) HM
Louisiana (Saint Landry Parish), Opelousas — J.S. Clark High School
The J.S. Clark walkway is a tribute to J.S. Clark High School, its faculty, staff, students and the people of Opelousas, Louisiana.

J.S. Clark High School was an endemic institution located at 1100 E. Leo Street in Opelousas, Louisiana. The . . . — Map (db m108010) HM

Louisiana (Washington Parish), Bogalusa — Robert "Bob" Hicks/ Robert "Bob" Hicks Street(Feb. 20, 1929 - Apr. 13, 2010)
Side 1 Fueled by discriminatory practices & violent intimidation that permeated his community, threatened his family & friends, Mr. Hicks developed an unquenchable thirst for justice & equality. He "sparked the spirits" of people & . . . — Map (db m103257) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — African American PoliticiansPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trial
In concert with many of Old West Baltimore’s civil rights organizations and leaders, African Americans entered the political arena. As far back as 1792, Thomas Brown, an African American horse doctor and veteran of the Revolutionary War, ran . . . — Map (db m101986) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — American Legion Federal Post No. 19
Since the establishment in 1930, American Legion Federal Post No. 19 has served as a faithful steward to Baltimore’s African American veterans and the larger community. Members from this post worked within the larger American Legion organization to . . . — Map (db m102337) WM
Maryland, Baltimore — Bethel A.M.E. Church
The Bethel African Methodist Episcopal congregatoin is the oldest independent black institution in Baltimore. Its origins date back to the late 18th century, when blacks withdrew from the parent Methodist Church in protest against racially . . . — Map (db m6237) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Building Community OrganizationsPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
In the 1930s, Old West Baltimore matured into a self-sustaining, thriving community that nurtured the mind, body and spirit. Old West Baltimore was home to many churches, shops, professional offices, banks and financial institutions, educational . . . — Map (db m101752) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Buy Where You Can Work Campaign & Higher EducationPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Although the Pennsylvania Avenue of the 1920s was Baltimore’s premier shopping district for African Americans, many of the businesses that served them were owned by whites who refused to hire African Americans from the neighborhood. In 1933, . . . — Map (db m102023) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Courting JusticePennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Working with the Mutual United Brotherhood of Liberty (MUBL), a small group of African American lawyers living in Baltimore were committed to erasing racism within the law. But first they had to fight for the right to practice law in Maryland, . . . — Map (db m101687) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Creating an African American NeighborhoodPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
The creation of Baltimore’s premier African American neighborhood, which began with African Americans buying houses along Druid Hill Avenue, sparked segregation battles and practices throughout the country and the world. Dramatic change from . . . — Map (db m101714) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Early Civil Rights EraPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
In pre-Civil War Baltimore, African Americans—such as Frederick Douglas, Daniel Coker, and William Watkins--- wrote some of the earliest and most important abolitionist treatises. After the Civil War, African Americans founded the Douglass . . . — Map (db m102079) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Ebenezer AME Church
This church is part of the African Methodist Episcopal congregation, the oldest independent black institution in the country. The origins of the A.M.E. church date back to the late 18th century, when blacks withdrew from the parent Methodist Church . . . — Map (db m49492) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Foundation on Which to Build a CommunityPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Churches serve as more than places of worship in Baltimore’s black communities. Led by strong clergy, African American churches have nurtured the soul, fed, clothed, and housed the poor, fought for civil rights, supported business and job placement, . . . — Map (db m101671) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Nurturing the ArtsPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Old West Baltimore helped shape some of America’s greatest African American writers, artists and performers. From novelists like Amelia Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston, to artists like Romare Bearden, to the performers who appeared at The Arena . . . — Map (db m102002) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Parren Mitchell House
This stately rowhome at 828 North Carrollton Avenue has served a number of purposes since its construction in 1880. Over the years it has been used as a private residence, office space, and briefly as a retirement home. Its most notable resident was . . . — Map (db m101638) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Take a Stroll Down the Main Street of the African American ExperiencePennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Welcome to the Pennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail – a journey through Baltimore’s premier historic African American community. Here you will meet civil rights leaders, artists and musicians, attend historic African American churches, and . . . — Map (db m101722) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Take a Stroll Down the Main Street of the African American ExperiencePennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Welcome to the Pennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail – a journey through Baltimore’s premier historic African American community. Here you will meet civil rights leaders, artists and musicians, attend historic African American churches, and . . . — Map (db m101976) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Take a Stroll Down the Main Street of the African American ExperiencePennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
Welcome to the Pennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail – a journey through Baltimore’s premier historic African American community. Here you will meet civil rights leaders, artists and musicians, attend historic African American churches, and . . . — Map (db m101974) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — The Street of RoyaltyPennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail
As the Old West Baltimore neighborhood matured, Pennsylvania Avenue became a mix of theaters, shops, pubs, beauty parlors, barber shops, lunch rooms, hotel and professional offices. By the 1910s, patrons shortened the name to the . . . — Map (db m101690) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Frederick's Carroll Creek
Frederick Town was strategically laid out along both sides of Carroll Creek in 1745 by Daniel Dulany, a prominent Annapolis land speculator. Like many colonial towns, the town creek would be the lifeblood of the community, provider of drinking and . . . — Map (db m119142) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Rockville — 12 & 14 — Rockville’s First Colored SchoolsRockville's African American Heritage Walking Tour
Rockville's First Colored School 246 North Washington Street In March, 1867, twenty African Americans pledged to support a school by taking responsibility for money "as may be necessary to pay the board and washing of the teacher and . . . — Map (db m43556) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), District Heights — Ridgeley Rosenwald School
The Ridgeley School was opened in 1927 as Colored School No.1 in Election District 13 in the African American community known as Ridgeley*. Named for a prominent local African American family, the Ridgeley School along with a church and society . . . — Map (db m91958) HM
Michigan (Wayne County), Hamtramck — S731 — Hamtramck Stadium
Side 1 After the Civil War, black and white baseball players could play on the same teams. But by 1900, black players were excluded from white professional leagues. More than 4,000 African Americans and Latinos played baseball in U.S. . . . — Map (db m104198) HM
Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Sit-Ins Led to Civil Rights Act of 1964 / F.W. Woolworth
Sit-Ins Led to Civil Rights Act of 1964 During the 1960s, F. W. Woolworth Company operated lunch counters at its "five-and-dime stores" on a "local custom" basis - meaning racially segregated seating in the Southern United States. . . . — Map (db m102846) HM
Missouri (Johnson County), Warrensburg — Welcome to Blind Boone Park

Originally built in 1954 as a segregated park with only restrooms & two BBQ grills, the park has experienced a rebirth as over 3,000 volunteers and many generous donors contributed to the 2000 - 2005 rebuilding of this 3.28 acre site & its . . . — Map (db m85378) HM

Nevada (Clark County), Las Vegas — 9 — Jackson Street Commercial District1942
Commerce on the Westside was short lived, collapsing in 1905 when rival Las Vegas Townsite opened on the east side of the railroad tracks. In 1942, the Westside defined a new commercial district to serve the ethnic population of the area. The . . . — Map (db m51051) HM
Nevada (Clark County), Las Vegas — 5 — Moulin Rouge1955
The first integrated hotel and casino in Las Vegas, the Moulin Rouge opened in May 1955. It is celebrated as a landmark of racial integration in Las Vegas and the United States. Entertainers from the Las Vegas Strip and Hollywood flocked to its . . . — Map (db m51047) HM
North Carolina (Onslow County), Swansboro — S1 — Hammocks Beach State ParkJacksonville•Onslow African-American Heritage Trail
Onslow County, with its beautiful beaches, rivers, streams and woods, was considered an ideal destination for many out of town sportsmen in the early 20th century. Dr. William Sharpe, a New York based neurosurgeon, began visiting Onslow County in . . . — Map (db m77097) HM
Ohio (Cuyahoga County), Cleveland — 90-18 — Erie Street Cemetery
Side A In 1826, when Cleveland's first cemetery closed, Cleveland village trustees paid Leonard Case Sr. one dollar for eight acres of land and dedicated it as the Erie Street Cemetery. Built on what became prime property, the cemetery . . . — Map (db m102722) HM
Ohio (Cuyahoga County), Cleveland — 60-18 — Garrett A. Morgan
Garrett Augustus Morgan was an African American businessman and prolific inventor of devices that made people's lives safer and more convenient. Born on March 4, 1877 in Claysville, the Black segregated section of Paris, Kentucky, Morgan migrated . . . — Map (db m17895) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — Working Class Neighborhoods
The history of a city is found not only in its grand old houses, but also in its neighborhoods. While Columbus has its share of grand houses, most residents did not live that lifestyle. Many working class people lived in hotels, apartments, . . . — Map (db m30002) HM
Ohio (Miami County), Piqua — 4-55 — Piqua's Early African-American Heritage
Side A: Piqua's Early African-American Heritage African-American history began in Piqua with the settlement of Arthur Davis in 1818 and expanded with the settlement of the freed Randolph slaves of Virginia in 1846. African-American . . . — Map (db m17147) HM
Oklahoma (Tulsa County), Tulsa — Tower of Reconciliation and Healing Walkway"Oklahoma - 1541 to the Present"Sculpture by Ed Dwight

Healing Walkway "Lifting as we climb-The eternal verities shall prevail" ~ B.C. Franklin ~ ———————————————————— . . . — Map (db m111663) HM

South Carolina (Anderson County), Anderson — Frierson School Houseca. 1886
Miss Sarah Jane (Janie) Frierson was a well known educator and the daughter of Dr. David Frierson, an early pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Anderson. Miss Frierson opened her one room school in the late 1880s. One room schools of this . . . — Map (db m42189) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — 4269 — Site of Rincon/Douglass School
In the aftermath of the Civil War, the resolution of issues associated with education of newly freed slaves influenced the nature of Southern education well into the 20th century. The federal government established the Bureau of Refugees, . . . — Map (db m118163) HM
Texas (Dallas County), Dallas — 18581 — Hamilton Park Community
Located ten miles north of downtown Dallas, the African American community of Hamilton Park began as the White Rock Farming Settlement. In the 1940s and 1950s, racial violence in the South Dallas community of Queen City and the discriminatory . . . — Map (db m104246) HM
Texas (El Paso County), El Paso — Fort Bliss Buffalo Soldiers Memorial
History In 1866, One year after the end of the Civil War and more than six months after the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery was enacted Congress had the need to reorganize the peacetime Regular Army. Recognizing the Military merits of Black . . . — Map (db m38367) HM
Texas (Hockley County), Levelland — 16687 — Hockley County Cemetery
The Texas Legislature created Hockley County in 1876 but the county did not formally organize until 1921; the small settlement of Hockley City (now Levelland) was named the county seat in that year. The arrival of the Santa Fe railroad in 1925 . . . — Map (db m73656) HM
Texas (Lamar County), Paris — 13688 — Union Station
Attempts to bring rail service to Lamar County began in the mid-1800s, but a line did not reach the city of Paris until one was built to the south side of town in 1875. Residents raised money to entice the St. Louis & San Francisco (Frisco) to . . . — Map (db m96916) HM
Texas (Lubbock County), Lubbock — 12968 — City of Lubbock Cemetery
In March 1892, a delegation of Lubbock residents requested five acres of pasture land from rancher H.M. Bandy for use as a cemetery. That same month, they held the first burial, that of a Cochran County cowboy, Henry Jenkins, who died of pneumonia . . . — Map (db m73584) HM
Texas (Lubbock County), Lubbock — 15653 — Migrant Labor Camps of Lubbock County
Early Hispanic residents of frontier Lubbock County included ranch hands in the 1880s. Railroad lines brought many workers to the south plains, the majority recruited from El Paso. Rail companies built row houses near construction sites, and . . . — Map (db m106351) HM
Texas (Randall County), Canyon — 16005 — The Civilian Conservation Corps at Palo Duro Canyon State Park
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal program developed under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to provide jobs to the unemployed during the great depression of the 1930s. The program was initially designed to . . . — Map (db m91527) HM
Texas (Taylor County), Abilene — 18470 — Dyess Elementary School
On January 21, 1963, Dyess Elementary was the first school in the Abilene Independent School District to integrate all students. African American military families living on Dyess Air Force Base were previously forced to send their children to the . . . — Map (db m100832) HM
Texas (Taylor County), Abilene — 12221 — Mexican-American / Americanization School
From its earliest days, education for Mexican Americans in Texas has varied from none at all to apparent equality. The Republic of Texas in 1839 and 1840 established laws governing a system of schools. As these institutions took shape, Mexican . . . — Map (db m80887) HM
Texas (Tom Green County), San Angelo — 15218 — Orient-Santa Fe Passenger Depot
The Kansas City, Mexico, and Orient Railway Company (KCM&O) built this depot in 1909-10. The KCM&O was one of three connecting railroads promoted by mining and railroad entrepreneur Arthur E. Stilwell. The proposed rail system ran 1,600 miles . . . — Map (db m71889) HM
Texas (Travis County), Austin — 15413 — Desegregation of Texas High Schools
The State of Texas instituted a public school system for African-American students during Reconstruction. This segregation of students was further established through the 1896 United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, which . . . — Map (db m42891) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — James Bland Homes
Funded by the U.S. Public Housing Administration and built by the Alexandria Housing and Redevelopment Authority (ARHA) between 1954 and 1959, the James Bland Homes was Alexandria's fourth public housing project, and it more than doubled the city's . . . — Map (db m72374) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Robert Robinson Library -1940Alexandria Black Resource Center / History Museum - 1989
Panel 1: In the summer of 1939, Attorney Samuel W. Tucker organized six youths — William Evans, Otto Tucker, Edward Caddis, Morris Murray, Clarence Strange, and Robert Strange — for a “sit-in” at the segregated . . . — Map (db m69887) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Triumph of “The Charlottesville Twelve”
Venable Elementary School. Charles E. Alexander, Raymond Dixon, Regina Dixon, Maurice Henry, Marvin Townsend, William Townsend, Sandra Wicks, Roland T. Woodfolk, Ronald E. Woodfolk. Lane High School. French Jackson, Donald Martin, John . . . — Map (db m65187) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Triumph of “The Charlottesville Twelve”
Lane High School. French Jackson, Donald Martin, John Martin. Venable Elementary School. Charles E. Alexander, Raymond Dixon, Regina Dixon, Maurice Henry, Marvin Townsend, William Townsend, Sandra Wicks, Roland T. Woodfolk, Ronald E. . . . — Map (db m64024) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Triumph of “The Charlottesville Twelve”
Venable Elementary School. Charles E. Alexander, Raymond Dixon, Regina Dixon, Maurice Henry, Marvin Townsend, William Townsend, Sandra Wicks, Roland T. Woodfolk, Ronald E. Woodfolk. Lane High School. French Jackson, Donald Martin, John . . . — Map (db m65187) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Triumph of “The Charlottesville Twelve”
Lane High School. French Jackson, Donald Martin, John Martin. Venable Elementary School. Charles E. Alexander, Raymond Dixon, Regina Dixon, Maurice Henry, Marvin Townsend, William Townsend, Sandra Wicks, Roland T. Woodfolk, Ronald E. . . . — Map (db m64024) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — Triumph of “The Charlottesville Twelve”
Venable Elementary School. Charles E. Alexander, Raymond Dixon, Regina Dixon, Maurice Henry, Marvin Townsend, William Townsend, Sandra Wicks, Roland T. Woodfolk, Ronald E. Woodfolk. Lane High School. French Jackson, Donald Martin, John . . . — Map (db m65187) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — McKenney House
The McKenney House was originally constructed as a residence for Mayor John Dodson in 1859. It was the residence of Confederate General William Mahone after the Civil War. The property was purchased by William R. McKenney in early 1911. The McKenney . . . — Map (db m17652) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — 13 — McKenney LibraryPetersburg, Virginia
Petersburg's main public library, the William R. McKenney Library, is housed in a fine dwelling constructed in 1859 by John Dodson, a prominent lawyer and mayor of Petersburg. After the Civil War, the Confederate General and railroad magnate . . . — Map (db m20609) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 27 — Beulah AME ChurchFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County
Beulah African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church was founded in 1868. Originally, it was known as The Colored Methodist Church of Farmville. The original wooden-framed building was destroyed, by fire in 1898. The cornerstone on the present . . . — Map (db m31318) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 26 — First Baptist ChurchFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County
The First Baptist Church was organized in 1866 as an outgrowth of the predominantly white Farmville Baptist Church. In 1949, following the death of the Rev. C. H. Griffin, the Church voted unanimously to call his son, L. Francis Griffin, as . . . — Map (db m31310) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maggie Lena Walker Memorial
1864 — Born July 15 to Elizabeth Draper and later works with her mother as a laundress to make ends meet 1883 — Graduates from Richmond Colored Normal School, teaches for three years before marrying Armstead Walker, Jr. 1899 . . . — Map (db m108518) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Spotsylvania — Education in Spotsylvania County
Education was the responsibility of parents and churches until after the Civil War. Wealthier families hired tutors or sent their children to private schools. Poor children often learned a trade and received a basic education as apprentices. In . . . — Map (db m3710) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Camp HillDiscover Harpers Ferry

You are in the Camp Hill area of Harpers Ferry. Explore Camp Hill's history with exhibits in front of the Morrell, Brackett, and Lockwood houses and Mather Training Center. Side trails in Harper Cemetery and in front of Mather Training Center . . . — Map (db m103584) HM


Maryland (Charles County), Port Tobacco — St. Columba Masonic Lodge
Circa 1770 Original site of St. Columba Masonic Lodge AF & AM — Map (db m24542) HM
South Carolina (Orangeburg County), Neeses — 38 37 — Rocky Swamp Rosenwald School
(front) This is the site of the Rocky Swamp Rosenwald School, a frame three-room school built here in 1920-21 for African-American students in Neeses and vicinity. An elementary school with two to three teachers in grades 1-9, it was one of . . . — Map (db m103398) HM

Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Fred David GrayCivil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History
Side 1 Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." . . . — Map (db m101898) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fred David GrayCivil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History
Side 1 Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." . . . — Map (db m80842) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 3 of 19 — A City in ItselfCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail
Columbia Heights by the mid 1920s was a center of white elite activity and commerce. The elegant, Neoclassical style Riggs Bank branch and the Italian Renaissance style Tivoli Theater opened to great acclaim. Soon after, radio station WRC . . . — Map (db m111929) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 6 of 14 — A Home Away From HomeCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
The Thurgood Marshall Center for Service and Heritage occupies the historic Italian Renaissance-style building of the 12th Street YMCA, known after 1972 as the Anthony Bowen YMCA. The 12th Street YMCA was the first African American YMCA in the . . . — Map (db m40767) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 9 of 14 — A Magic PlaceCity within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
Louis Armstrong and Sarah Vaughn were two of the nationally famous entertainers who played in the brick building on this corner, once home to the popular Club Bali, also called the New Bali. In the memory of one former customer, it was a magic . . . — Map (db m42196) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 4 of 19 — Armed Resistance"Lift Every Voice" — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail
Shortly before midnight on July 22, 1919, James Scott, a black army veteran, boarded a streetcar at the corner and nearly lost his life. A few days before, a white mob, including many veterans of World War I, had terrorized Southwest DC, . . . — Map (db m51680) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 7 of 14 — Like a VillageCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
Churches have deep roots in the life of this historic African American community. A number of congregations in this immediate area, including Lincoln Temple United Church of Christ on this corner and Vermont Avenue Baptist Church just one block . . . — Map (db m79838) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), U Street Corridor — A Place to GrowAnthony Bowen YMCA — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
You are standing at the fourth home of the Anthony Bowen YMCA, named for the formerly enslaved minister who founded the nation's first independent "colored" YMCA. As the YMCA opened in Washington in 1853, slavery was legal. Yet the majority of . . . — Map (db m112004) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Union Station — 2 — Gateway to The Nation's CapitalHub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
With its view of the Capitol and Senate office buildings, and with the Library of Congress and the Supreme Court just a short stroll away, Union Station truly is the gateway to the heart of the nation's government. The station is also where official . . . — Map (db m71679) HM
Florida (Indian River County), Fellsmere — F-766 — Fellsmere Union Church
(side 1) Fellsmere Union Church, located at 12 North Hickory Street, is the first and oldest church in the City of Fellsmere. The Reverend James A. Liggitt, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church of London, Ohio, and a property owner in . . . — Map (db m93260) HM
Florida (Orange County), Orlando — F-904 — Atlantic Coastline Station
(side 1) In 1880, the South Florida Railroad built a railway through Orlando. The small community boomed with land speculators, citrus and cattle investors, and tourists. In 1902, the larger Atlantic Coastline Railroad acquired the South . . . — Map (db m100895) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Chain GangsThe Convict Lease System
Following the Civil War and the reconstruction period the state of Florida found itself in debt. As a way to offset some of the state’s expenditures, newly elected governor George Drew put into practice the convict leasing system in 1877. . . . — Map (db m79584) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Venice — Venice Railroad and Depot
The first successful railroad into what is now Sarasota County came when the United States and West Indies Railroad and Steamship Company, a subsidiary of the Seaboard Air Line Railway (SAL), brought its first train into Sarasota in 1903. Two . . . — Map (db m4876) HM
Florida (Sumter County), Wildwood — F-700 — Royal School Site
Royal Community Park is the site of the former segregated Royal School. Founded in 1865, the community of Royal was originally known as Picketsville, which was named for the white picket fences that marked its 40-acre homesteads. It was settled . . . — Map (db m66986) HM
Georgia (Glynn County), Jekyll Island — The Beach PavilionHistoric St. Andrews Beach
The Beach Pavilion in front of you opened on September 25, 1955 to great fanfare, as St. Andrews Beach became the first public beach in Georgia to welcome African Americans. Celebrations included a motorcade, dedication ceremony, and music by the . . . — Map (db m115137) HM
Kansas (Bourbon County), Fort Scott — Gordon Parks Homecoming1912 - 2006

Homecoming [Side A] This small town into which I was born, has, for me, grown into the largest, and most important city in the universe. For Scott is not as tall, or heralded as New York, Paris or London - or other places my feet have . . . — Map (db m79845) HM

Maryland, Baltimore — A Sense of SanctuaryA Safe Place for Friendly Competition and Open Discussion for Social Change
From 1909 to 1951, in the days of an unwritten "Jim Crow" segregation policy, the Parks Commission of Baltimore maintained "separate but equal" facilities. Druid Hill became the sole park city-wide where the African-American community felt welcome . . . — Map (db m7599) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Old Dunbar High School
The striking architecture of Baltimore’s original Dunbar High School complements the school’s role in community empowerment and educational equality. Dunbar’s educators, students, and alumni worked to achieve the “equal” in the . . . — Map (db m101610) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Rediscovered Past
Originally located the edge of the city, this plot of land witnessed many changes as the neighborhood expanded around it. What is today a memorial was once a cemetery. The graves of scores of African Americans still lie beneath the surface. By . . . — Map (db m110796) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Clarksburg — A Real Field of Dreams
James “Jim” Wims, who acquired this land in 1919 operated a farm with an orchard on this land. In an effort to provide a local place for his children to play ball, Jim took acrage out of crop production and converted it into the . . . — Map (db m95723) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Clarksburg — Welcome to Froggy Hollow
This area was named in honor of the large and loud frog population around Little Bennett Creek. Before Kingsley School was built, white children living on nearby. were sent to neighboring community schools. With no bus transportation, students had . . . — Map (db m95137) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — 20-30 St. Catherine Street and EduationNatchez Trails
. Eliza Smith, an antebellum "free woman of color," purchased property on St. Catherine Street in the 1850s. Her daughters and their families built new houses on the property in the 1880s.

28 St. Catherine Street (above) was the ca. 1885 home of . . . — Map (db m108276) HM

Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — 21 — Rabbit Foot Minstrels
[front:] Rabbit Foot Minstrels. During the first half of the 20th century, the African American Rabbit Foot Minstrels entertainers played a major role in spreading the blues via tours across the South. Founded in 1900, the . . . — Map (db m35545) HM
Mississippi (Coahoma County), Clarksdale — 4 — Riverside Hotel
Front Since 1944 the Riverside Hotel has provided lodging for traveling musicians. It was home to some, including Sonny Boy Williamson II, Ike Turner, and Robert Nighthawk. Before that, the building served African Americans of the . . . — Map (db m90062) HM
Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 25 — Jackson Municipal Library Sit-In — Mississippi Freedom Trail
Front On March 27, 1961, nine African American Tougaloo students quietly sat in at the Jackson Municipal Library, which served only white patrons. Police ordered them to Carver Library, the "colored" library, and when they refused, . . . — Map (db m109294) HM
Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 12 — Summers Hotel & Subway Lounge
During the era of segregation, traveling African Americans had few options for lodging. In Jackson, many black musicians stayed at the Summers Hotel, established in 1944 by W.J. Summers. In 1966 Summers opened a club in the hotel basement that he . . . — Map (db m71513) HM
Mississippi (Hinds County), Tougaloo — 13 — Tougaloo College — Mississippi Freedom Trail
Front The courage of Tougaloo College students, faculty, and staff fueled the Jackson Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by the bravery and resolve of Medgar Evers, students and faculty attempted to integrate Jackson's main public library, . . . — Map (db m115722) HM
New York (New York County), Harlem — 369th Infantry Regiment Memorial — “Harlem Hellfighters” Monument
This monument honors the legendary 369th Infantry Regiment known as the Harlem Hellfighters. The black granite obelisk is a replica of a 1997 memorial that stands in Sechault in Northern France, where the 369th soldiers distinguished themselves in . . . — Map (db m18993) HM
Oregon (Josephine County), Cave Junction — Triple NicklesHeroes in the Sky
Triple Nickels Formed in 1943, the all-Black 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was the first opportunity for African officers and enlisted men to become paratroopers in the segregated US Army during World War II. Racial Segregation . . . — Map (db m112484) HM
Rhode Island (Providence County), Providence — Rhode Island Irish Famine Memorial
The great famine of 1845-1851 was the most important event of the Nineteenth century Ireland. In the seven terrible years between 1845 and 1851, the potato crop, on which a large majority of the Irish people depended for their survival, failed . . . — Map (db m56278) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Carver School
Just two blocks north of this location along Fayette Street (named for the Marquis de Lafayette who visited Alexandria in 1824), near the southwest corner of Queen Street, stood the Old Powder House, dating from 1791-1809. On the same spot, the . . . — Map (db m115713) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — The Hump: Open Lots For Blocks
The racially integrated working-class neighborhood known as the Hump, named for the high ground at its northern boundary, once spanned three blocks, centering on the 800 block of Montgomery Street. The Hump was first settled in the decade following . . . — Map (db m72500) HM
Virginia, Franklin — "Can't Is Not in the Camp's Vocabulary"
Paul and James Camp started P.D. Camp and Company, a lumber business, in 1877. The brothers bought R.J. Neely's sawmill in 1886 and established Camp Manufacturing Company in 1887. The original Franklin mill was steam powered and lay on a . . . — Map (db m51001) HM
Virginia (Prince William County), Brentsville — Brentsville - One-Room School
(caption of upper, left picture) The Brentsville School as it appeared ca. 1940. Lucy Walsh Phinney Collection, Gift of Steve and Cynthia Phinney in Memory of Lucy Phinney This school was built in 1928 over the original location of the . . . — Map (db m2827) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Charles Town Schools

Following the election in 1846, Jefferson County became one of the first counties in Virginia to approve free schools for white students. Prior to that time boys and girls paid to attend private academies. The county was divided into 27 . . . — Map (db m103644) HM

Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — "Buffalo Soldiers"1st Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker
right side In 1866, following the American Civil War, Congress created six all African American Army units which later merged into four (9th and 10th Cavalry - 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments). Composed of former slaves, freemen, and . . . — Map (db m95173) HM

Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park
Peace Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The . . . — Map (db m55058) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Bloomingdale — 7 of 16 — Separate SchoolsWorthy Ambition — LeDroit Park/Bloomingdale Heritage Trail
The Nathaniel Gage School for white children opened here in 1904, when Washington's public school system was segregated. By the 1930s, even though LeDroit Park was an African American neighborhood, Gage remained white only. "I had to walk . . . — Map (db m110500) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), LeDroit Park — 4 of 16 — Government GirlsWorthy Ambition — LeDroit Park/Bloomingdale Heritage Trail
To your right is Lucy Diggs Slowe Hall, a Howard University dormitory. It opened in 1942 as U.S. government housing for African American women who came to DC to take new war-related jobs or fill in for men who left to join the military . . . — Map (db m114164) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 6 — The Iceman's ArenaHub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
Uline Arena was built in 1941 by ice maker Mike Uline to present ice skating, hocky, basketball, and tennis. The Dutch immigrant, originally named Migiel Uihlein, had made a fortune patenting ice production equipment and selling ice from his plant . . . — Map (db m71683) HM
Kansas (Pottawatomie County), St. Marys — Potawatomi Pay Station & St. Marys Mission
The Native America tribe that is called the Potawatomi originally lived in the heavily forested region of the northern Great Lakes with their close relatives the Ojibwe and Ottawa tribes in what is now the state of Michigan. The rapidly expanding . . . — Map (db m34792) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — 123 — Bud Scott
(side 1) Clarence “Bud” Scott, Sr., led one of the most popular dance bands in the Mississippi-Louisiana region for several decades beginning around 1900. Scott (1876-1938), a lifelong Natchez resident, was renowned among both . . . — Map (db m70852) HM
Mississippi (Coahoma County), Clarksdale — 81 — Sam Cooke
Front The golden voice of Sam Cooke thrilled and enchanted millions of listeners on the hit recordings “You Send Me,” “Shake,” “A Change is Gonna Come,” “Chain Gang,” and many more. . . . — Map (db m90050) HM
Mississippi (Coahoma County), Clarksdale — 105 — WROX Radio
Front WROX, Clarksdale’s first radio station, went on the air on June 5, 1944, from studios at 321 Delta Avenue. From 1945 until 1955 the station was headquartered here at 257 Delta. Legendary disc jockey Early “Soul Man” . . . — Map (db m90033) HM
Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — 29 — Biloxi Beach Wade-In — Mississippi Freedom Trail
Front On April 24, 1960, Gilbert R. Mason, Sr., M.D., led about 125 volunteers in a peaceful wade-in on segregated Biloxi Beach. Trained in non-violent passive resistance, they expected to be arrested. Instead they were attacked by a . . . — Map (db m122359) HM
Mississippi (Sunflower County), Indianola — 49 — Church Street
Front Church Street catered to every need of the African American community during the segregation era, when most area residents worked in the cotton fields during the week and came to town on weekends. Church Street (also designated . . . — Map (db m77308) HM
Missouri (Jackson County), Kansas City — The Old French Cemetery
English Side Kansas City in the very early 1800s was an exclusively French-speaking community and its religious (and much of its social) life centered around its little log Catholic Church erected on a plot of ground near present 11th . . . — Map (db m86273) HM
New Jersey (Essex County), Newark — Newark & Washington Park in the 19th CenturyNewark Museum
Overview This land on which the Polhemus House was located (and where the Museum is now) is part of the James Street Commons Historic District, listed in the New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places and geographically defined by . . . — Map (db m94622) HM
New York (Monroe County), Rochester — The Founding of the River Campus
Two events that influenced the University’s expansion from Prince Street to the River Campus were the admittance of women in the university as well as the project to build a medical center. In 1910 a man named Abraham Flexner envisioned a new . . . — Map (db m70896) HM
New York (New York County), New York — Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
1908 Born November 29, in New Haven, Connecticut.

1930 Received his BA from Colgate University, Hamilton, NY. Became assistant pastor at Harlem's Abyssinian Baptist Church.

1932 Received his MA in Religious Education from Columbia . . . — Map (db m112429) HM

South Carolina (Greenville County), Greenville — Sterling High School Memorial
Civil Rights The students of Sterling High School were the driving force that promoted the change of institutional segregation in Greenville County. During the 1950s and 1960s, Sterling students held demonstrations, marches . . . — Map (db m16217) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Within Its WallsA Foundation for Education and Opportunity
Clara Shorts Adams and Robert Adams conveyed a quarter-acre to the Falls Church School District of Fairfax County in 1898 for the purpose of educating African American children. The one-room "Colored School Building at Seminary" was the first public . . . — Map (db m81515) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Virginia Union University 150th Anniversary Memorial“Creating a Bridge to Intellectual Freedom Through Its Distinguished Alumni” — 1865
In Apri of 1865, the American Baptist Home Mission Society (ABHMS) sends teaches and missionaries to Richmond, VA to educate newly freed slaves and the work of Richmond Theological School for Freedmen begins. Classes are held in several small . . . — Map (db m108983) HM

United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Memorials to the Great Irish Famine in County FermanaghIn Memory of All Buried Here — 1845 • The Great Famine • 1850
In 1836 the Poor Law Enquiry found that over one third of people in Ireland were dependent on the potato as their main source of food. The population had grown to 8.2 million by 1841, and was vulnerable to any failure of the potato crop. The . . . — Map (db m72600) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — IronmakingSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Industry That Built A City The minerals needed to make iron-iron ore, coal, and limestone-are abundant in the Birmingham area, and for ninety years men turned these materials into pig iron at Sloss. Sloss pig iron was sold to foundries, . . . — Map (db m43973) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Penn Quarter — Pennsylvania Avenue — [The Newseum Terrace]
[Panel 1] From the Capitol to the White House, Pennsylvania is “America’s Main Street,” a ceremonial avenue that for more than 200 years has provided a setting for the free expression that embodies the First Amendment. The . . . — Map (db m37255) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — District of Columbia World War Memorial
[Panel 1: northeast corner wayside.] “This monument stands for men who fought not alone for their country, but to establish the principles of justice and peace. We pay tribute here to their valor. We honor them for their . . . — Map (db m76573) HM WM
Virginia, Alexandria — Visiting Old Town
(obverse side) King Street Trolley Free Proceed directly ahead to trolley stop Welcome to Old Town Alexandria! Experience historical charm with contemporary flair from the river to the rails Plan Alexandria Visitors . . . — Map (db m115143) HM WM
Virginia, Alexandria — Visiting Old Town
Welcome to Old Town Alexandria! Experience historical charm with contemporary flair from the river to the rails Plan Alexandria Visitors Center at Ramsay House Knowledgeable staff help you create a perfect plan for your . . . — Map (db m115778) HM

Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The National Memorial for Peace and Justice
In the 17th and 18th centuries, 12 million African people were kidnapped, chained, and brought to the Americas after a torturous journey across the Atlantic Ocean. Nearly two million people died during the voyage. The labor of enslaved black people . . . — Map (db m118044) HM
Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 340 — Hunt (Camp)Minidoka Internment National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
Excluded from their west coast homes by military authorities, more than 9000 Japanese Americans occupied Hunt Relocation Camp 4 miles north of here between 1942 & 1945. Until they could resettle in other places, they live in wartime tarpaper . . . — Map (db m61972) WM
Rhode Island (Newport County), Portsmouth — Battle of Rhode Island   1778
During the American Revolution the British strategy focused on controlling American ports and blockading the coast. Because of Newport’s significance as a deep-water port and as a center of trade, British forces landed in Newport in December of . . . — Map (db m48348) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Ashland — Railroad Company Sees Potential For A Town Among The Slash PinesAshland Museum Inside Out
Railroad transportation was still new in 1836 when the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac (RF&P) Railroad Company completed a single track from Richmond to a sawmill 20 miles north in rural Hanover County. At the same time, the RF&P purchased a . . . — Map (db m92674) HM

California (Shasta County), Shasta — Southside Ruins
The Southside Ruins marker consists of 9 plaques which depict the history of these former Shasta business buildings and the history of the town of Shasta itself. The 9 plaques are in groups of three, four and two and are presented below from east . . . — Map (db m70582) HM
Louisiana (East Baton Rouge Parish), Baton Rouge — Stories of City Park
Cast Iron Columns The cast-iron columns which supported the former Picnic Hill pavilion structure were originally part of an old Baton Rouge market pavilion that was built in 1859 and razed in 1954.The columns have been salvaged and are now . . . — Map (db m99382) HM
South Carolina (Beaufort County), Beaufort — Beaufort South Carolina Tricentennial1711-2011 300
Beaufort 300 We celebrate and recognize the proud citizens who gave generously to create and erect these monuments to honor Beaufort's 300th Birthday January 17th 2011. (Plaque 1)    Prior to the founding of . . . — Map (db m67284) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — AlexandriaA Place Through Time
13,000 years ago The Paleoindian Period A Native American hunter during the Paleoindian period discards a broken spear point, on a bluff overlooking a tributary to the Potomac River at the southern edge of present-day Alexandria. . . . — Map (db m115772) HM

Kansas (Geary County), Junction City — Buffalo Soldier Memorial
Section 1 Top Tablet United States Army The Chief of Staff October 27, 2000 The Junction City - Fort Riley Community and the Buffalo Soldiers I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate the Junction City-Fort Riley community . . . — Map (db m44250) HM
New York (Monroe County), Rochester — Frederick Douglass Home Site
Underground Railroad Sites Rochester's proximity to Lake Ontario afforded runaway slaves a direct route to freedom in Canada. Hundreds of runaway slaves were "conducted" from one "station" to another along this secret network of escape routes . . . — Map (db m65156) HM

Arizona (La Paz County), Parker — Poston Memorial Monument
[ The single 30 foot concrete pillar of the monument symbolizes "unity of spirit". The hexagonal base represents a Japanese stone lantern. The 12 small pillars situated around the monument make it a working sundial. Mounted on the 30 foot pillar . . . — Map (db m32258) HM

302 markers matched your search criteria. These linguistically-based search results have been ranked by where matching words were found. Results of different rank are separated by horizontal rules. Within the same rank, results are sorted by state or province; county, parish or shire; town; and title.
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