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MARKER DATABASE
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Historical Markers

Markers associated with the canal from Washington, DC, to Cumberland, Maryland, now a national park.
 
A Canal to the West - Tide Lock Marker (Panel 1) image, Touch for more information
By Richard E. Miller, February 12, 2011
A Canal to the West - Tide Lock Marker (Panel 1)
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — A Canal to the West - Tide Lock
[Panel 1:] A Canal to the West For years it was a dream – a canal to open a trade route from local commercial centers to the rich Ohio country across the Allegheny Mountains. Business would thrive as mule-drawn barges carried . . . — Map (db m46939) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Godey's Lime Kilns1833 - 1908
These kilns were used as late as 1908, supplying Washington with a fine grade of lime. The limestone was brought from quarries just beyond Seneca, Maryland over the C & O Canal. — Map (db m136875) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — An Industrial GeorgetownChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
If you could have walked along the towpath here in the 19th and early 20th century, your senses would have been overwhelmed by industrial pollution. The dust from coal being unloaded from canal boats fogged the air. The stench of animal fat being . . . — Map (db m113411) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — At All HoursChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
“It shall be their duty, at all hours, by night as well as by day, to pass all boats and floats presenting themselves at their locks.” —Charles Mercer, President, C&O Canal Company. Every time his boat passed through a lock, a . . . — Map (db m128) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Canal House
The original Canal House was built in 1878 to store the feed and horses of the Georgetown Railroad Company. In the 1890's it was converted into a power generating plant for public transit. Today the Canal House stands as another example of the . . . — Map (db m121206) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Chesapeake & Ohio Canal
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. Commenced at Georgetown. July 4th 1828. Chief Engineer Benjamin Wright. Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Company, 1850. President James M. Coale. Directors William A. Bradley, Henry Daingerfield, Wm. Cost Johnson, John . . . — Map (db m118) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Chesapeake and Ohio CanalNational Historical Marker
One of the best preserved and least altered of old American canals, the Chesapeake and Ohio grew from Washington's vision of linking the valleys of the early west with the east by “ties of communication.” The Potomac Company fostered by . . . — Map (db m97477) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Creating a National ParkChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
“It is a refuge, a place of retreat, a long stretch of quiet and peace at the Capital's back door . . .” —William O. Douglas Look around you. The park you stand in exists because people cared. In January 1954, Justice William O. . . . — Map (db m129) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Francis Scott Key ParkA Place With It Own History
Before 1620 the area of the Francis Scott Key Park was inhabited by members of the Algonquian, Nacostine, Nacotchatank, Piscatoway and Patawomeke tribes. In 1634 it became part of the English Colony of Maryland. Beginning in the 18th Century, . . . — Map (db m119) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Georgetown and the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal
Left panel: Georgetown became a port city soon after its 1751 founding. Located on the Potomac River, it was the logical choice for the canal’s terminus. Canal activity further spurred Georgetown’s economic growth. By the late 1800s, it was . . . — Map (db m97762) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Mule PowerChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Mules were the "engines" for the canal boats. Normally, a boat captain had four mules. Two worked while two rested in their stall in the front of the boat. Captains usually cared for their mules as if they were part of the family. In the canal's . . . — Map (db m113416) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — The Duvall Foundry1050-30th Street, N.W.
Built between 1856 and 1866 as a machine shop by William T. Duvall, the Foundry is typical of commercial structures of that period. Duvall purchased the land from Thomas Beall, a grandson of Ninian Beall who was one of Georgetown's first settlers . . . — Map (db m147329) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — The Georgetown House
The Georgetown House is closely linked with the history of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. The building was constructed about 1830 by the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Co. for use as a storage room. Later it became a tavern but shortly thereafter turned into . . . — Map (db m111008) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — The History of Canal Square
Canal Square has seen more than century and a half of change in Georgetown. It is a typical brick and fieldstone industrial structure built to facilitate barge traffic on the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) Canal. Necessary for westward expansion, canals . . . — Map (db m113418) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Georgetown — Tide Lock and Rock Creek BasinChesapeake and Ohio National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The 184.5-mile-long Chesapeake and Ohio Canal begins at the Tide Lock and ends at Cumberland, Maryland. Here canal boats entered the canal to bypass mountains, swift currents, and shallows. Boats exited the Tide Lock into the Potomac River to . . . — Map (db m144180) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Palisades — Abner Cloud HouseChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
This house witnessed the building of the C&O Canal. Abner Cloud, a miller who had come here from Pennsylvania, built the house in 1801. Cloud's mill was about 200 yards upstream. The basement of the house was used by Cloud to store grain and flour, . . . — Map (db m722) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Palisades — Abner Cloud MillEchoes of Millstones — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, National Park Service —
Baking bread, frying cornbead and eating "stick to your ribs" oatmeal, all have one thing in common; their ingredients started out at a grist mill. Decades before the sounds of lockhorns and mule hooves clopping by, mills were popping up along the . . . — Map (db m129837) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Palisades — Georgetown Incline PlaneChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Here, in 1876, an engineering marvel was built. The largest incline plane in the world and the first built in the United States, carried canal boats to and from the Potomac River. The incline plane was used to help clear heavy boat traffic in . . . — Map (db m129838) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Lock Keeper’s HouseFormerly the Eastern Terminal of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal — Erected about 1835 —
The canal passed along the present line of B Street in front of this house emptying into Tiber Creek and the Potomac River. — Map (db m111529) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — The Canal Connection
President George Washington commissioned Pierre L'Enfant to design the Capital City in 1790. The L'Enfant Plan included a system of canals to transport heavy goods at a time when roads and streets were few and muddy. The Washington City Canal . . . — Map (db m211) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — A Canal Boat Replica—The Cumberland
The Cumberland is a full scale replica canal boat, measuring approximately 93 feet long and 14.5 feet wide. It was constructed in 1976 as a Bicentennial project the C&O Canal of Cumberland, Maryland, Inc. (COCCM), a non-profit organization . . . — Map (db m140080) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — A Home on the Boat—The Captain's Cabin
For the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal boatmen and their family or crew, the captain's cabin was their living quarters on the boat. About 10 feet by 14 feet in size, the cabin served as the eating and sleeping area for as few as two and as many as 8-10 . . . — Map (db m140155) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Alteration of the Site — Fort Cumberland Trail —
Many changes have been made to the landscape on which Fort Cumberland stood. The street behind you was cut from the hillside and the earth removed used by the canal company. the bluff to your left in front of the church once extended on a nearly . . . — Map (db m18757) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Boat Building at the Cumberland BasinChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Cumberland, the western terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, was the location where the George's Creek coal from western Allegany County was transferred from the short line railroads to canal boats for shipment east. Cumberland was also the . . . — Map (db m67484) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — C&O Canal TerminusC&O Canal N.H.P., Maryland — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was planned to link the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay with Pittsburgh and the Ohio River Valley. Construction began at Georgetown in 1828; by 1850 only 184 of the 365 miles were complete. Financial . . . — Map (db m140078) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Civil War in Allegany CountyStrategic Location
During the Civil War, thousands of United States soldiers were stationed here in Cumberland and Allegany County to guard against raids and incursions by Confederate forces. Located only about 130 miles from the capital at Washington. . . . — Map (db m1049) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Crossroads of America Mural
About this sign The outline drawing above represents the heritage-themed mural to your right. The mural is organized chronologically into sections. Each section is described here, with accompanying historic images.. . . . — Map (db m140048) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — CumberlandStrategic Center
In 1860, Cumberland was a small town of 7,302 residents, most of whom lived in the valley of Will’s Creek. The town was an important stop on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the western terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. When the Civil . . . — Map (db m14038) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — CumberlandStrategic Center
In 1860, Cumberland was a small town of 7,302 residents, most of whom lived in the valley of Will’s Creek. The town was an important stop on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the western terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. When the Civil . . . — Map (db m17674) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — CumberlandTown Map and Directory — Cumberland - The Place To Visit, The Place To Live —
Downtown The Downtown Cumberland Mall is the main shopping and dining district for the city. The brick street is lined with large multi-story commercial buildings, which were built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings . . . — Map (db m139110) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — CumberlandTown Map and Directory
Downtown Cumberland The Flood of March 29, 1924 inflicted almost $5 million worth of destruction in the City of Cumberland. Telephone, telegraph, roads and electric wires were washed away. Though not as bad, another flood occurred on May 12th . . . — Map (db m139111) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Cumberland
In 1749 Christopher Gist, an agent for the Ohio Company, arrived at the junction of the Wills Creek and the North Branch of the Potomac River to erect a trading post. In anticipation of the French and Indian War a fort was constructed in 1754 upon . . . — Map (db m139113) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Cumberland Gateway Westward — Fort Cumberland Trail —
Will's Creek Settlement, later known as Cumberland, served as a major gateway for trade, military campaigns against the French, and settlement beyond the mountains in our growing nation. "The New Storehouses" of the Ohio Company were across the . . . — Map (db m17783) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Cumberland Terminus: Yesterday and TodayChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Independence Day, July 4th, 1828, would be an important day for Cumberland, Maryland. On that day, far to the east, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad both broke ground. The finish line of these companies' race was the . . . — Map (db m67478) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Cumberland Terminus: Yesterday and TodayChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Independence Day, July 4th, 1828, would be an important day for Cumberland, Maryland. On that day, far to the east, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad both broke ground. The finish line of these companies' race was the . . . — Map (db m140083) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Explore a Trail NetworkChesapeake & Ohio Canal Towpath Cumberland Maryland — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, National Park Service —
Hike and bike from Pittsburgh to the Chesapeake Bay. You are standing on part of the Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail. Explore the Potomac River, Chesapeake Bay, and the Allegheny Highlands on this trail network that includes both land and . . . — Map (db m140084) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Irish Laborers
This monument was erected in memory of the Irish laborers who died building the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1828 – 1850 — Map (db m140190) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — Life on the CanalChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal ran from Georgetown in Washington, D.C. (Mile 0) to Cumberland, MD (Mile 184.5), paralleling the Potomac River. Most of the heavy shipping originated from the western terminus at Cumberland. Boatmen carrying coal, . . . — Map (db m67482) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Cumberland — McNeill’s RaidCapture of Crook and Kelly
In the predawn darkness of February 21, 1865, Confederate Lt. Jesse McNeill and his partisan (guerrilla) rangers rode into Cumberland from the west on this road. Unlike most raiders who targeted the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for attack, McNeill . . . — Map (db m716) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Keifers — Breaking Through a MountainChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The Paw Paw Tunnel stands as a monument to the ability and daring of 19th century canal builders. By building the mile-long cut through the mountain, including the 3,118-foot tunnel, the canal avoided six miles of river bends and steep, rocky . . . — Map (db m25098) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Keifers — Paw Paw Tunnel Hill TrailChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
Walk in the footsteps of the Irish and German laborers who built the Paw Paw Tunnel. Follow a portion of the access road they travelled to get to labor housing and work camps near the vertical shafts on the top of the mountain. Enjoy Potomac River . . . — Map (db m140024) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Oldtown — Oldtown and Lock 70Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The basin before you, above Lock 70, provided a landing for canal boats. A general store was built adjoining the original lockhouse. Across the lock a feed store was built. Boatmen could leave the hustle and bustle of Cumberland and tie up here to . . . — Map (db m140010) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Aqueduct Stones
Because so many aqueduct stones were lost over the years, replacement stones were needed for the restoration in 2010-11. Beside this panel are an original stone and a new stone to be seen and touched. Note the tooled finish on the stone . . . — Map (db m101015) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Berlin
First called Berlin, later Barry, and finally named Brunswick in 1890, the town's fortunes fluctuated with the times. The canal was built here in 1834 and a large gristmill, powered by canal water, was built on the canal across from the towpath. . . . — Map (db m4333) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — BrunswickFormerly Berlin — Gettysburg Campaign —
Union troops pursuing the Confederate army to Virginia after the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 crossed the Potomac River here. Called Berlin at the time of the Civil War, this town truly experienced the challenges of life on the border. Both the . . . — Map (db m1863) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Catoctin AqueductChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Today towpath hikers and bikers need a bridge to cross the Catoctin Creek here. Many decades ago canal boats needed a bridge too. The Catoctin Aqueduct, completed in 1834, served the canal until 1924. Imagine the scene here in the late 1800s - the . . . — Map (db m101305) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — One Time RivalsB&O Railroad and C&O Canal
The Brunswick Railroad Museum and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park Visitor Center exist side by side today, just as the transportation modes did when first arriving here in 1834. However, the early relationship between canal and . . . — Map (db m60881) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — The Beautiful Aqueduct
The Catoctin Aqueduct, or "Aqueduct No. 3," ranks as one of the premiere stone structures on the C&O Canal. Aqueducts carried the canal's waters over creeks and rivers, allowing boats to float safely above the sometimes turbulent waters below. . . . — Map (db m101016) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Water Power
Canal water was an important ingredient in the production of "C.F. Wenner's Choice Family Flour." Brunswick businessman Charles F. Wenner drew surplus water from the canal near Lock 30 to power the wheels and turbines of his flour mill. Wenner was . . . — Map (db m4334) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Myersville — C&O Canal
The 184-mile C&O Canal, where mule-drawn barges once lumbered alongside the Potomac River, provides a serene waterway for paddling and a towpath for hiking, biking and horseback riding. — Map (db m116495) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — A Lockkeeper's Life
Lockkeepers were available anytime of the day or night to operate this lock. Tending lock was often a family venture and the canal company preferred family men. Lockkeepers were paid as much as $600 a year, and were provided a lockhouse with a . . . — Map (db m100999) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Battle at Point of Rocks
This [railroad] company was met by the most decided and inveterate opposition, on the part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. Philip E. Thomas, President, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company The proximity of railroad tracks by the . . . — Map (db m7661) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Point of RocksPoint of Rocks During the War
The rail line immediately before you served as an important means of supply and communication during the Civil War (the station, and tracks to Washington, D.C., on the southern or right side of the station were built later). Here at Point of Rocks, . . . — Map (db m744) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Point of Rocks
In 1832, Point of Rocks served as the western terminus for the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad. This was not deliberate, but the result of competition as the transportation pioneers wrangled in court for rights to the narrow passage between the . . . — Map (db m59743) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Bethesda — A Way for FishChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
If you walk down the short path to the water's edge and look upriver to your right, you can see Snake Island in the middle of Little Falls Dam. Just behind the island, hidden underwater, is a fishway—a passage that enables fish to swim beyond . . . — Map (db m136927) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Bethesda — Inlet LocksChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Seven dams and one steam pump were built along the river to funnel water into the canal. In times of drought or low water, usually during the height of summer, river levels dropped dramatically. The canal could not get enough water from the river . . . — Map (db m136925) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Bethesda — Lockhouse 6Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
From its inception the vision of the C&O Canal has evolved, constantly finding ways to be relevant. Built in 1829, Lockhouse 6 stands a mile upstream from Little Falls, site of the canal's July 4th groundbreaking the previous year. Lockhouse 6 . . . — Map (db m112119) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Brookmont — A Canal HomeChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
“When I was 7, we moved [to the] lock, and we were very happy. My mother was so happy to have a home; she was just about wild. And we did love it here, as a locktender, you know?” —Lavenia Cross Waskey The . . . — Map (db m112121) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Cabin John — Cabin John
[ Panel 1] “... in our midst exists one of the most imposing and wonderful structures which engineering skill could devise ...” --William T.S. Curtis, November 1, 1897, from a paper read before the Columbia Historical Society. . . . — Map (db m22636) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Cabin John — Lockhouse 10Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
After being neglected for nearly a decade, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal received new life with the New Deal programs in the late 1930s. Two African American Civilian Conservation Corps camps were setup at nearby Cabin John and Carderock to restore . . . — Map (db m105328) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Cabin John — The Lock-Keepers
A long blast on a tin horn followed by the boatman's shout of "Hey-ey-ey! Lock! Aw, Lock!" summoned the lock-keeper to duty. Lock-keepers were hired to "attend constantly and diligently by day and night," during the nine month boating season. They . . . — Map (db m125189) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Darnestown — DarnestownConfederate Visit — Gettysburg Campaign —
On June 25-27, 1863, the Federal Army of the Potomac used two temporary pontoon bridges to cross the Potomac River from Virginia back into Maryland at Edwards Ferry. On the evening and morning of June 27-28, Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart led 5,000 . . . — Map (db m1684) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Darnestown — Darnestown: A Strategic Point of DefenseThe Civil War
By the summer of 1861, the Union recognized Darnestown as an ideal location for establishing a major division headquarters. The town was strategically situated at the intersection of roads leading to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and to Washington, . . . — Map (db m69731) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Darnestown — The Origins of DarnestownDarnestown
Darnestown Road is one of the oldest roads in Montgomery County. Once an old trail, the route dates back to 1600 when it was used by the Seneca Indians. Native Americans Established villages, planted maize, and fished along the Potomac Palisades. . . . — Map (db m69645) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — Chesapeake & Ohio Canal
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park. The canal and towpath are dedicated to Justice William O. Douglas of White Ferry. — Map (db m810) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — Chesapeake and Ohio AqueductAcross the Monocacy River
Largest of eleven C&O aqueducts. Finished 1833, Alfred Cruger, Principal Engineer. Constructed of quartzite from Sugarloaf Mountain. It served until 1924, when after a flood, commercial operations ceased. Administered by the National . . . — Map (db m15016) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — Monocacy AqueductToo Tough To Crack — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
Confederate Gen. D. H. Hill’s division crossed the Potomac at Point of Rocks on September 4, 1862, and marched south to clear Union forces from the area. His men breached and drained the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at several places, burned canal . . . — Map (db m65210) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — Springing Over the Monocacy / The Enduring AqueductChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Springing Over the Monocacy Captain William McNeill of the U.S. Topographical Engineers called this aqueduct “...a work which, while it is highly ornamental, unites...in its plan and execution, ‘the true principles of economy, usefulness . . . — Map (db m714) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — White’s FerryChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Before you is the last operating ferry on the Potomac River. Early settlers recognized these relatively still waters would provide an ideal location for a ferry. The first known ferry operation here was Conrad’s Ferry in 1817. After the Civil War, . . . — Map (db m741) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — White’s FerryInvasion or Liberation? — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
The serenity of the Maryland countryside was shattered on September 4-6, 1862, as 35,000 Confederate soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia waded across the Potomac River. Gen. Robert E. Lee, hoping to rally support in the divided state, sent . . . — Map (db m807) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — White’s FordCrossing the Potomac — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
A wing of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia commanded by Gen. James Longstreet, as well as part of Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry, crossed into Maryland just south of here on September 5-6, 1862. Other parts of the 40,000-man force, . . . — Map (db m812) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Dickerson — White's FordA Civil War Crossing and a Desperate Escape — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
During the Civil War, White's Ford on the Potomac River was employed by Confederate troops on three separate occasions. Lee's troops crossed here in their invasion of Maryland, September 4-7, 1862. General Jubal A. Early's II Corps, after an . . . — Map (db m10145) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Great Falls — A Lift LockChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
When a river, such as the Potomac, was too swift or shallow for navigation, shippers built canals with lift locks along the river course. The C & O Canal consists of flat stretches of water connected by lift locks. The use of locks enabled the canal . . . — Map (db m100771) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Poolesville — An Ideal Crossing
The Potomac River is calm and narrow here, making it an ideal location for a ferry crossing. In 1791 Edwards Ferry began to operate here, connecting Maryland farmers to the Goose Creek Canal in Virginia and to the Leesburg markets. The ferry closed . . . — Map (db m78350) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Poolesville — At the Junction of War and Peace:Lockhouse 25 and Edwards Ferry — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
In the mid-nineteenth century, Lockhouse 25 and the surrounding community of Edwards Ferry, Maryland, reaped the advantages of their locations. With the nearby river lock, the area served as the bustling entry point to the C&O Canal for agricultural . . . — Map (db m78348) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Poolesville — Edwards FerryStrategic Crossing — Gettysburg Campaign —
Gen. Joseph Hooker’s 75,000-man, seven-corps Army of the Potomac crossed the Potomac River here, June 25-27, 1863, on the way to Gettysburg. The army crossed on two 1,400-foot-long pontoon bridges. Heavy rains during those three days made the single . . . — Map (db m33741) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Potomac — Creating a National Park[Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park]
“It is a refuge, a place of retreat, a long stretch of quiet and peace at the Capital …”William O. Douglas. Look around you. The park you stand in exists because people cared. In January 1954, Justice William O. . . . — Map (db m49848) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Potomac — Great Falls of the Potomac
One of the most picturesque spots in Maryland. George Washington came here many times and built canal locks on the Virginia side to make the river navigable for his "Potomac Company." — Map (db m70177) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Potomac — Great Falls Tavern — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
Panel 1 - plaque on the C&O tow path: Life was very different around the Great Falls Tavern during the canal era. The building before you began as a small lockhouse and was added onto twice until it became what you see today. The area . . . — Map (db m71604) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Potomac — Lockhouse 22
If walls could talk then Lockhouse 22 could tell some tales. One might hear about President Grover Cleveland who sought refuge from the pressures of the White HOuse by coming here on fishing trips. Or perhaps the lockhouse would tell of one . . . — Map (db m28302) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Potomac — Potomac River— Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
Human habitation in the Potomac River Basin has existed for 9,000 years, according to archeological evidence. The name "Potomac" derives from the Algonquian word "patawomeke," which means "trading place." The first English settlement, St. Mary's . . . — Map (db m61574) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Seneca — Rowser’s Ford5,000 Confederate Cavalrymen Crossed — Gettysburg Campaign —
On June 24, 1863, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, leaving 3,000 cavalrymen in Rectortown, Virginia, to monitor Federal activity, led three Confederate cavalry brigades to Haymarket. Encountering Union Gen. Winfield S. Hancock’s corps marching north, Stuart sent . . . — Map (db m761) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Seneca — SenecaChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
Eleven aqueducts were built from Georgetown to Cumberland to carry water over water. The aqueducts, literally “water bridges,” carried the canal over large streams and rivers flowing into the Potomac River. This aqueduct enters directly . . . — Map (db m96115) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Seneca — Seneca Mill
Sitting near the junction of the Potomac River and the Great Seneca Creek, the Seneca Mill had a long tradition at this pivotal location.

By 1725, a grist mill functioned here as a commercial staple for the small village. Early proprietors . . . — Map (db m96104) HM

Maryland (Montgomery County), Seneca — The Seneca Aqueduct
Canal engineers build aqueducts to bridge canal boats over rivers and large stream such as Seneca Creek. Eleven aqueducts were needed between here and the canal’s western terminus at Cumberland, Maryland; all required skilled quarrymen and . . . — Map (db m760) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Seneca — Watering the Canal
Why are there two locks here? While they may look similar, the two locks played very different roles in the operation of the canal. The lock in front of you is Inlet Lock 2. The lock behind you is Lift Lock 23. Lift locks raised and lowered boats to . . . — Map (db m22039) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Silver Spring — A Downtown is BornLocal Institutions — Silver Heritage Georgia Avenue —
The Establishment of Silver Spring's first bank and Newspaper, traditional institutions required for a community to grow and prosper, occurred on this corner with the opening of the Silver Spring National Bank in 1910 and publication of The Maryland . . . — Map (db m62165) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Silver Spring — Finding a NicheEarly Family Businesses — Silver Heritage Georgia Avenue —
“…A Full Line of Dry Goods and Clothing” was available at Moses Sclar's Grand Leader Store (8221 Georgia Avenue), which opened in 1926 and adjoined John and Joseph Dolan's project (see opposite side) to the south. In operation for . . . — Map (db m79236) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Silver Spring — Spirited EntertainmentWest Side Development — Silver Spring Heritage - Georgia Avenue —
Silver Spring's First Movie Theater, the 500-seat SECO (Suburban Electric Company), which opened on November 7, 1927 with the silent film "Fireman Save My Child," was located at 8242-8244 Georgia Avenue. The theater, renamed Roth's Silver . . . — Map (db m125279) HM
Maryland (Montgomery County), Silver Spring — Springing UpMasonic Temple — Silver Heritage Georgia Avenue —
At three stories, this was Silver Springs tallest building. Occupying the prime corner lot at 8435 Georgia Avenue was the Masonic Temple, home of the Silver Spring Lodge No. 215 A.F. & A.M. of Maryland. (Ancient and Free Accepted Mason). About three . . . — Map (db m62102) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Antietam — Lock 34, Harpers Ferry
Lock 34 was often referred to as "Goodheart's Lock". Willard Goodheart was the last locktender at this location. Like nearby Lockhouse 33, the lockhouse at Lock 34 was destroyed in the great flood of 1936. Of the 1936 flood, Mr. Goodheart as quoted . . . — Map (db m23872) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Pool — Fort FrederickA Witness to War
Built by the Maryland colony in 1756 during the French and Indian War, Fort Frederick’s stone walls surrounded three large buildings. The colonists abandoned the frontier fort in 1759, when the threat of Indian raids subsided. During the . . . — Map (db m821) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Pool — Four Locks
Here the Potomac River makes a meandering four-mile loop around Prather’s Neck. To avoid the bend in the river, the canal engineers cut the canal one-half mile across the neck. Because of the rapid elevation change, these four locks were necessary . . . — Map (db m15285) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Pool — Mule Power
“Here at Four Locks mule barn, mules rested during the winter months. Boat captains left their mules here, paying a mule tended to care for them. Often the mules grew thin because the keeper did not feed the mules as well as their owners did. . . . — Map (db m15278) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Spring — Four Locks
Four Locks – locks 47 through 50 – were built between 1836 and 1838, all within a half-mile stretch of the canal. Nestled amongst these four locks, a close-knit community thrived while the canal was in operation. Businesses prospered, . . . — Map (db m36716) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Protecting Cultural Resources
Floods occur at regular intervals in the Potomac Valley. Between 1829 and 1998 there have been 144 recorded floods or high water occurrences. repairing flood damage was a continuing battle for the C&O Canal Company and is still a problem for the . . . — Map (db m25142) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Stonewall Jackson at Dam 5
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Maryland became a border between the Confederacy and the Union. The Confederacy knew that the canal and railroad were important Union supply lines. Stonewall Jackson’s Brigade made several attempts to destroy Dam 5 . . . — Map (db m23561) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Vital CrossroadsClear Springs in the Civil War
This was a lively Unionist community on the important National Road during the war. In nearby Four Locks on January 31, 1861, local residents raised a 113-foot-high “Union Pole” with a streamer proclaiming the “Union . . . — Map (db m60553) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hagerstown — Bench Mark "A"
"In October 1877, Bench Mark "A" was cut on the water table of the recently rebuilt courthouse in Hagerstown, Maryland", reads the report of the coast and geodetic survey to President McKinley. This was the beginning point of a . . . — Map (db m6529) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — A Work of ArtChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
Looking at the remaining iron railings and graceful arch of the Tonoloway Aqueduct, it is easy to see why canal company officials referred to the eleven aqueducts along the canal as “works of art.” Built between 1835 and 1839, Aqueduct 7 . . . — Map (db m61165) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — Discover the TrailWestern Maryland Rail Trail
1. Big Pool Junction The Big Pool Train Station was constructed in 1892 to make a connection with the B&O Railroad across the river at Cherry Run, WV. The Western Maryland Railroad was in a boom stage of growth with the 18 miles of rail . . . — Map (db m96131) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — HancockChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Situated on the Potomac River at the narrowest point in the state of Maryland the town of Hancock is rich in history. The town is named for Joseph Hancock, Jr., who ferried travelers, traders, and commerce across the Potomac. In 1818, the . . . — Map (db m96126) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — Hancock in the Canal EraChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
Construction of the C&O Canal was completed through Hancock by the late 1830s. The network between the coal mines, dealers, merchants, canal company, and tidewater shipping became economically strong. As a result of the increasing prosperity in . . . — Map (db m96128) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — Round Top Cement MillChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park
Across the canal bed are the remains of the once prosperous Round Top Cement Mill. The abundance of high calcium limestone drew cement manufacturers to this area in 1838. A useful material, limestone can be cut into building blocks or burned and . . . — Map (db m96123) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — Round Top GeologyChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The layers of red sandstone, siltstone, shale and limestone beneath the limekilns on the other side of the canal are like pages in a book to geologists. These folded, even rock layers indicate that millions of years ago this area was covered by a . . . — Map (db m96125) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — St. Thomas Episcopal ChurchUnintended Target
Before you, at the top of Church Street, stands St. Thomas Episcopal Church, which became an unintended target of Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s artillery on January 5-6, 1862. Jackson had led his force from Winchester, Virginia to . . . — Map (db m832) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — The C&O Canal: Serving the Potomac ValleyChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was a crucial strand in an economic web stretching from the mountain town of Cumberland to the tidewater ports of Georgetown and Alexandria. The canal depended on the prosperity of the nearby towns, businesses and . . . — Map (db m96127) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Hancock — The Historic Bowles HouseHancock Visitor Center — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
Built in the 1780’s this farm house witnessed the arrival of the C&O Canal in the mid-1830’s. Located at the east side of Hancock, the house residents catered to canawlers who passed through Lock 52 and the Tonoloway Aqueduct, selling goods and . . . — Map (db m61164) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sandy Hook — Lift Lock 33Chesapeake and Ohio National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Here, the forces of nature created a natural corridor for commerce. The Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers carved a notch in the mountains, providing passage west. Communities grew up on both sides of the river and later a turnpike, railroad, and canal . . . — Map (db m4978) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — A View into the Past
This Civil War era photograph offers a glimpse into the two Shepherdstown communities that grew up along the river. The stone pilings in this photograph were all that remained of the covered bridge burned by Confederate troops led by Stonewall . . . — Map (db m60705) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — Ferry HillFarm, Ferry and Freedom
The brick home in front of you (Picture included) once stood at the heart of a Western Maryland plantation called "Ferry Hill." Built between 1812 and 1820, the plantation consisted of nearly 700 acres of land, a tavern, and a ferry. An enslaved . . . — Map (db m58252) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — Ferry Hill PlaceChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
John Blackford, in 1810, built the Ferry Hill Plantation House standing before you. Blackford owned 25 slaves and managed the farm by himself. The slaves and hired laborers worked with minimum direction. Two slaves, Ned and Jupe, ran the river ferry . . . — Map (db m1971) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — Packhorse Ford
A day after the Battle of Antietam, Confederate General Robert E. Lee retreated to the safety of the West Virginia (then Virginia) bluffs across the river from here. This was the only good crossing on the river for many miles upstream or downstream. . . . — Map (db m6983) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — ShepherdstownA Town on the Crossroads of History
History passed through the town of Shepherdstown for centuries. Native Americans cross the Potowomack River at the ford below the bluffs. German settlers crossed at Packhorse Ford as they emigrated from Pennsylvania into Virginia's Shenandoah . . . — Map (db m60706) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — At All HoursChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
It shall be their duty, at all hours, by night as well as by day, to pass all boats and floats presenting themselves at their locks. Charles Mercer, President, C&O Canal Company Every time his boat passed through a lock, . . . — Map (db m131798) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — C & O Canal AqueductStonewall Changes Course — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
On September 10, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee ordered Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and a detachment of 15,000 men, about two-thirds of the Army of Northern Virginia, to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry and secure Confederate . . . — Map (db m1118) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — Conococheague Creek AqueductChesapeake an Ohio Canal National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Eleven aqueducts were built from Georgetown to Cumberland to carry water over water. The aqueducts, literally “water bridges,” carried the canal over the large streams and rivers flowing into the Potomac River.

The Conococheague . . . — Map (db m60571) HM

Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — Creating a National ParkChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
It is a refuge, a place of retreat, a long stretch of quiet and peace at the Capital’s back door…William O. Douglas.

Look around you. The park you stand in exists because people cared. In January 1954, Justice William O. Douglas of the Supreme . . . — Map (db m60585) HM

Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — Springfield Farm(Circa 1755)
Home of Brig. Gen. Otho Holland Williams, Revolutionary War hero and founder, 1786, of Williamsport, and of Col. Elie Williams, president of commission to lay out National Road and chief surveyor Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. President George . . . — Map (db m3909) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — WilliamsportA Town on the Edge of History — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park —
William’s Port lay on the edge of the Maryland frontier in 1787 when founded by Revolutionary War hero General Otho Holland Williams. In 1790 this river town nearly became capital of the United States when President George Washington personally . . . — Map (db m60583) HM
Virginia (Alexandria), Old Town North — Alexandria Canal (1843 - 1886)Lock #3
Buried beneath this canal stone lies Lock #3 of the Alexandria Canal, which connected the Harbor of Alexandria with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in Georgetown, D.C. between 1843 and 1886. After Crossing the Potomac on an aqueduct bridge near the . . . — Map (db m80668) HM
Virginia (Alexandria), Old Town North — Alexandria Canal Turning Basin(1843-1886) — Alexandria Heritage Trail, City of Alexandria, Virginia —
The Alexandria Canal officially opened on December 2, 1843. The seven-mile long canal extended from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in Georgetown to Alexandria's ports on the Potomac River. Boats brought coal, limestone, iron ore, port and . . . — Map (db m147123) HM
Virginia (Alexandria), Old Town North — Remnants of Lock #4 of the Alexandria Canal
These stones are remnants of Lock #4 of the Alexandria Canal which once occupied this site. Completed in 1843, the canal linked the Alexandria waterfront with the C & O Canal in Georgetown. — Map (db m131390) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithDefending the Capital
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in early 1863 as part of the expansion and strengthening of the capital’s defenses that continued throughout the Civil War. With Forts Strong, Morton and Woodbury, Fort C.F. Smith formed the outer perimeter of the . . . — Map (db m5099) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington, 1861-1865 —
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in 1863 on farmland appropriated from William Jewell. The fort was named in honor of Gen. Charles Ferguson Smith, who was instrumental in the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Tennessee in 1862. The fortification was . . . — Map (db m5101) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Rosslyn
Rosslyn traditionally has served as a principal gateway to Arlington and to Virginia. Captain John Smith explored this area in 1608. Awbrey's Ferry carried travelers across the Potomac for more than a century in the 1700s and 1800s. The Aqueduct . . . — Map (db m82493) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Additional Area Civil War Sites
1. Sugarloaf Mountain - This was the site of a Union Signal Corps station that remained in operation throughout much of the war. 2. White's Ferry - Originally called Conrad's Ferry, this crossing was established in 1817 about four miles . . . — Map (db m27839) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Edwards FerryAn Eighty-Mile-Long Column — Gettysburg Campaign —
After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m63737) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — Mill to Market
Beginning in the 1730s, Waterford's residents developed productive farms, a series of mills, and a transportation network. By the early 1800s, Thomas Phillips, an enterprising Quaker, farmed the land in front of you. To ensure access to the . . . — Map (db m143137) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Government IslandGovernment Island Orientation
Welcome to Government Island. This 17-acre historic site is an early American quarry originally named Brent’s Island or Wiggington’s Island. As early as 1694, stone was quarried from this site for use as architectural trim in Colonial America. . . . — Map (db m39550) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney In The Civil WarStrategic Location on the Turnpike
Romney experienced many troop movements and skirmishes during the course of the war because of its location on the vitally important North Western Turnpike The road linked Winchester, near the northern end of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, with . . . — Map (db m58654) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Rutherford House“Go in!” — 1864 Valley Campaign —
<Preface:> The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley began in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Washington Raid in July. Union General Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, . . . — Map (db m41661) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Discover Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry National Historical Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Enjoy over 3,000 acres of rivers, trails, and battlefields in historic Harpers Ferry Near the Visitor Center: Battlefields and Trails Experience Harpers Ferry's tumultuous past. Pick up park trail maps and guides at the visitor . . . — Map (db m143936) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Shenandoah Canal
In 1806, workmen with hand tools widened and deepened this channel for cargo boats to bypass, or "skirt," the rapids in the Shenandoah River. Linked with many other skirting canals" en route to Washington, D.C., this passage became part of the . . . — Map (db m18988) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church
Construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad produced an influx of Irish laborers into the Harpers Ferry area during the early 1830's. St. Peter's Catholic Church, completed in 1833, symbolizes America's melting . . . — Map (db m18789) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Iron Horse Wins
Work on the railroad and canal progressed slowly at first, but by 1834 both companies had completed construction to a point opposite Harpers Ferry. The canal had won the race to this point and it continued up the Maryland side of the Potomac. The . . . — Map (db m12062) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Mule Falters
As the railroad streaked westward from Harpers Ferry, the C&O Canal fell hopelessly behind in the race for Ohio. Burdened by a lack of building supplies and a scarcity of skilled labor, the canal encountered serious financial problems and did not . . . — Map (db m12064) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Race to the Ohio
Rail transportation in the United States began in Baltimore, Maryland on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll, the only living signer of the Declaration of Independence, laid the cornerstone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the same day . . . — Map (db m12060) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — River Crossing
Shepherdstown was established near a natural ford used by American Indians and early settlers to cross the Potomac River. A ferry service, begun in 1775, reliably connected Shepherdstown with communities throughout Maryland and Pennsylvania for . . . — Map (db m60701) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — ShepherdstownBlending the past and the present....
Shepherdstown, the oldest town in what is now West Virginia was incorporated as Mecklenburg in 1762, but was renamed Shepherd's Town in 1798 in honor of its founder Thomas Shepherd. From the French and Indian War to the Civil War the town has been . . . — Map (db m143927) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Waterfront Commerce and the Mecklenburg Warehouse
An inspection of tobacco shall be...established on the lands of the said Abraham Shepherd to be called and known by the name of Mecklenburg warehouse. – Act of the Virginia Assembly, passed November 29, 1788. You are standing . . . — Map (db m143930) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — Lovers' Leap
Beautiful panorama of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. It overlooks the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal which was started by George Washington and associates in order to improve communication with the west. — Map (db m97341) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — Panorama OverlookWashington Heritage Trail
Today's View Panorama Overlook marks the north end of Cacapon Mountain's 30-mile march. Composed of Oriskany sandstone, it plunges nearly 1000 feet into the Potomac River which bends along the base of the Overlook as it heads downstream . . . — Map (db m13155) HM

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Jun. 4, 2020