“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Idaho State Historical Society Historical Markers

Markers of the Idaho Highway Historical Marker Program administered by the Idaho State Historical Society in cooperation with the Idaho Transportation Department.
265 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 65
Airmail Service Marker at BSU image, Touch for more information
By Rebecca Maxwell, September 24, 2009
Airmail Service Marker at BSU
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 72 — Airmail Service
U.S. commercial airline service began with a Varney Airlines flight from Pasco to Boise which landed here on April 6, 1926. Army planes had delivered airmail before that time. After Varney Airlines was merged with newer companies to become United . . . — Map (db m22734) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 376 — Arrowrock Dam
Higher than any other dam from 1915 until 1934, Arrowrock Dam still is an essential part of Boise Valley's irrigation system. Located six miles upstream from here, Arrowrock is 350 feet high and 1,150 feet wide. Built at a cost of $4,725,000 to . . . — Map (db m22597) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 379 — Basque Country
Idaho has a large Basque community that preserves it's ancient European traditions in a new land of opportunity. Coming here originally to herd sheep on mountain and desert ranges, they shifted into other occupations as quickly as possible, making . . . — Map (db m31680) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 359 — Beaver Dick's Ferry
In 1863 and 1864, overland packers hauling supplies from Salt Lake City to Idaho City crossed here and took a direct route northward to More's Creek. They cut a steep grade from the Oregon Trail down to Beaver Dick's Ferry, which served a . . . — Map (db m22641) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 402 — Boise State University
Expanding from a two-year community college (1932-1965) to a campus with a graduate program, Boise State was designated as a university in 1974. Originating as an Episcopalian academy founded in 1892, this institution was located a mile north of . . . — Map (db m22735) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 343 — Diversion Dam
Diversion Dam was completed in 1909 to lift water into an already constructed New York canal system, greatly expanding its irrigated farmlands. After a quarter century of failure to dig a large canal above Diversion Dam, United States Reclamation . . . — Map (db m22586) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 318 — More's Creek
More's Creek is named for J. Marion More, leader of the party of miners who founded Idaho City, October 7, 1862. Like most of Idaho's early miners, he came originally from the South. Unlike most of them, he struck it rich. During the Idaho gold . . . — Map (db m22595) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 375 — Oregon Trail
Indians, trappers, and emigrants who came this way before 1900 used a more direct route to get between Boise and Glenns Ferry. Their road still can be seen at Bonneville Point 5 miles from here. Following close to a line of hills bordering a . . . — Map (db m22181) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 151 — The Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail is still clearly visible coming off the rimrock across the river. Here the west bound emigrants after 1840 came gratefully down into this green valley. The first cart passed here with Spalding and Whitman, pioneer missionaries, . . . — Map (db m22639) HM
Idaho (Ada County), Meridian — 193 — Initial Point
All Idaho land surveys refer to a beginning point --"Initial Point"-- 16 miles directly south of here. When he began surveying Idaho in 1867, Lafayette Cartee, first surveyor general of Idaho Territory, established the initial point on a . . . — Map (db m53439) HM
Idaho (Adams County), Council — 420 — Old Railroads
An ambitious railroad project to a high Seven Devils copper mine (elevation 6800 ft.) created a lot of excitement here in 1898-1899. This would have been Idaho's highest mountain railroad if funding had been available to complete it. Construction . . . — Map (db m23226) HM
Idaho (Adams County), Meadows — 183 — Packer John's Cabin
John Welch -- always known as Packer John -- hauled supplies from Lewiston to Idaho City during a major Boise Basin gold rush of 1863-1864. He built a cabin (1/4 mile north of here) that immediately became an historic Idaho landmark. Territorial . . . — Map (db m37957) HM
Idaho (Adams County), Mesa — 374 — Mesa Orchards
For more than half a century, after 1910, an apple orchard of nearly 1400 acres, thought to be the largest in the United States under one management, covered this area. Investors, mostly from the eastern U.S., bought 10-acre shares to finance the . . . — Map (db m23222) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Downey — 171 — Red Rock Pass
You are standing in the outlet of ancient Lake Bonneville, a vast prehistoric inland sea, of which Salt Lake is modern remnant Covering over 20,000 square miles when it overflowed here about 14,500 years ago, its winding shoreline would have . . . — Map (db m105831) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Inkom — 17 — Idaho's 1st Railroad
Through this canyon once puffed the wood-burning locomotives of the narrow-gauge Utah and Northern Railway. Construction, undertaken by a Mormon Co-op, came northward from a junction with the transcontinental line, but stopped in 1874 at . . . — Map (db m108284) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Lava Hot Springs — 13 — Lava Hot Springs
Long before white men discovered these springs, Sept. 9, 1812, Indians gathered here to use the free hot water. Except wheen they found hot springs, pre-historic Indians had a hard time getting hot water. The wove watertight baskets into . . . — Map (db m124585) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Pocatello — 503 — Chief Pocatello
In an era of emigrants, Mormon settlers and the military, Pocatello emerged as a strong leader of the the Hukenduka Shoshone. Born after 1810, Pocatello claimed this area and surrounding territories as his homeland. He soon watched his . . . — Map (db m108286) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Pocatello — 289 — Idaho State University
This great institution began here on Sept. 22, 1902, with 4 teachers and 40 students. Originally the Academy of Idaho, it became Idaho Technical Institute in 1915, the Southern Branch of the University of Idaho in 1927, and Idaho State . . . — Map (db m108306) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Bloomington — 319 — British SettlersBear Lake — LDS Church —
Most early Bear Lake settlers came from Britain. One was the first woman convert to the LDS church in Europe.

Born in Preston, England, Aug. 24, 1806. Ann Elizabeth Walmsley Palmer was baptized July 30, 1837. An invalid, she was carried into the . . . — Map (db m99318) HM

Idaho (Bear Lake County), Fish Haven — 384 — Bear Lake
Discovered in 1812 by trappers returning home from Astoria, Oregon, this valley and its large lake soon became an important fur trade center. Donald Mackenzie, Jim Bridger and a host of famous beaver hunters operated here. Two major summer . . . — Map (db m105867) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Georgetown — 499 — First Public Building
In 1870, Brigham Young appointed Ezra T. Clark, David Hess, and Nicholas Barkdull to colonize this area. Originally known a Twin Creeks, Joseph C. Rich surveyed the site in 1871. In 1872, the new settlement was named Georgetown in honor of . . . — Map (db m140244) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Montpelier — 446 — Bank Robbers
On Aug. 13, 1896, Butch Cassidy and his infamous Wild Bunch of gunmen invaded Montpelier's bank and scooped up more than $16,500 in gold, silver and currency. Leaving a surprised cashier and his terrified customers, they calmly rode away. A . . . — Map (db m90806) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Montpelier — 335 — Big Hill
On their way west to Oregon and California, emigrant wagons often crossed high ridges in order to avoid gullies and canyons. When he came here in 1843, Theodore Talbot noted that he "had to cross a very high hill, which is said to be the . . . — Map (db m90807) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Montpelier — 456 — McAuley's Road
Coming west with Ezra Meeker in 1852, Thomas McAuley decided to build a road to let emigrants bypass Big Hill. Worst of all Oregon Trail descents, Big Hill needed replacement. Eliza McAuley reported that her brother Tom "fished awhile, . . . — Map (db m90808) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Montpelier — 159 — Smith's Trading Post
In 1848, Pegleg Smith established a trading post on the Oregon Trail at Big Timber somewhere near here on the river. Some travelers called it "Fort Smith", though it had only four log cabins and some Indian lodges. Packing a plow and tools . . . — Map (db m90805) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Montpelier — 157 — Thomas Fork
A bad ford gave trouble to wagon trains crossing this stream on the trail to California and Oregon in 1849. In that year, gold-seeking 49'ers developed a shortcut that crossed here. Then emigrants built two bridges here in 1850. But an . . . — Map (db m90804) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Paris — 275 — Paris
This pioneer Idaho town was founded Sept. 26, 1863 when a wagon train brought more than 30 families of Mormon colonizers. More pioneers soon followed, some living in huts of quaking aspen and others building log cabins for the mild first . . . — Map (db m105836) HM
Idaho (Bear Lake County), Paris — 386 — Paris Tabernacle
Designed by one of Brigham Young's sons, this imposing Romanesque tabernacle was built between 1884 an 1889 by skilled local craftsmen. Swiss stone masons cut and carved red sandstone that horse and ox teams hauled from a canyon 18 miles . . . — Map (db m105848) HM
Idaho (Benewah County), DeSmet — 248 — DeSmet Mission
When their annual Montana plains buffalo hunt proved futile in 1876, North Idaho's Coeur d' Alene Indians needed to move from Cataldo to a better farming area.  So in 1877 their Jesuit mission was relocated here.  After their community grew . . . — Map (db m122035) HM
Idaho (Benewah County), DeSmet — 425 — McCroskey Park
Dedicated in memory of pioneer women, Mary Minerva McCroskey State Park has a forested skyline drive that offers spectacular views of forest, farms, and distant mountains. Virgil T. McCroskey devoted his life to preserving trees and . . . — Map (db m122036) HM
Idaho (Benewah County), Saint Maries — 286 — John Mullan
Was the Army officer who in 1859-1862 surveyed and built the Mullan Road from Walla Walla, Washington to Fort Benton, Montana. The road was to connect the Missouri and the Columbia, and Congress approved in 1855. Indian troubles and lack . . . — Map (db m110031) HM
Idaho (Benewah County), St. Maries — 42 — Saint Joseph Indian Mission
Established November 4, 1842, by Father Nicolas Point, S.J. Eagerly sought by the Coeur d'Alene Indians, the Black Robed missionaries supervised the building of a log cabin, and in the spring, began to teach "the mysteries of plowing and . . . — Map (db m122109) HM
Idaho (Benewah County), St. Maries — 285 — The Mullan Road
Designed to connect the Missouri and the Columbia, this military wagon road was constructed past here in 1859. Swamps in the St. Joe valley has to be corduroyed with logs, and 70 men spent a week digging out sidehills south of here and . . . — Map (db m122114) HM
Idaho (Bingham County), Blackfoot — 436 — Big Butte
Big Butte Towering 2500 feet high, two over lapping rock domes form a 300,000 year-old butte that dominates this lava plain. After a hot flow of molten rhyolite (acidic rock) boiled up through older lava, a second rhyolite dome pushed up a . . . — Map (db m103820) HM
Idaho (Bingham County), Blackfoot — 287 — Lava Formations
Molten rock, forced upward for 30 to 50 miles through fissures in the earth, has cooled into the hard lava found here. Continued pressure from below has made great cracks in the contorted surface. This lava solidified only a few thousand . . . — Map (db m108346) HM
Idaho (Bingham County), Blackfoot — 428 — Three Buttes
Three Buttes Rising above this level plain of lava flows and windblown soils these high landmarks are recent additions to Idaho’s landscape. East Butte (farthest east) flowed up and cooled quickly about 600,000 years ago, while Big Southern . . . — Map (db m103818) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Bellevue — 413 — Magic Reservoir
Water from deep snow that falls on high mountain ridges north of here is stored each Spring in this reservoir to irrigate farm land near Shoshone and Richfield. Big Wood River flows past some hills that separate this valley from a broad plain . . . — Map (db m110116) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Bellevue — 154 — Wood River Mines
Rich strikes in 1879 led to a rush in the lead and silver mines of this valley. The famous Minnie Moore Mine alone produced a total of $8.4 million worth of ore. Mining quickly brought a railroad and prosperity. The Ketchum smelter pioneered . . . — Map (db m110115) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Carey — 305 — Goodale's Cutoff
An old emigrant road headed west across Camas Prairie and then descended to the valley below on its way to rejoin the Oregon Trail 28 miles west of here. This route, discovered by Donald Mackenzie's fur trade party in 1820, came into use for . . . — Map (db m125602) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 302 — Alexander Ross
Searching the mountain wilderness for beaver, Alexander Ross came up Wood River and discovered this summit, Sept. 18, 1824. Leading a large brigade of Hudson's Bay Company trappers, he wondered whether he ever could get through unknown . . . — Map (db m110051) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 484 — Galena
After Warren P. Callahan located a rich lead-silver mine here, April 26, 1876, thousands of eager treasure-hunters joined in a rush to Wood River in 1880 Successful prosectors discovered valuable lodes from here to Bellevue. Galena has a . . . — Map (db m110052) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 292 — Salmon River
Rising as a small stream in the valley to the south, the Salmon winds 420 miles across Idaho before flowing into Snake River. Discovered in 1895 by Lewis and Clark, and explored with great difficulty by fur traders and prospectors, the . . . — Map (db m110050) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 364 — Sawtooth City
Gold discoveries on Beaver Creek in 1879 led to mining activity near here that summer, but major production was delayed until 1886. By 1885, Sawtooth City had three saloons, two restaurants, a meat market, a store, a Chinese laundry, and . . . — Map (db m110045) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 329 — Ski Lifts
When Sun Valley Lodge was built in 1936, Union Pacific engineers developed chair lifts to transport skiers uphill. Starting with two modest ski slopes on Dollar Mountain and Proctor Mountain, chair lifts were used for all Sun Valley ski . . . — Map (db m110054) HM
Idaho (Blaine County), Ketchum — 235 — Vienna
Levi Smiley found gold on Smiley Creek in 1878, and E.M. Wilson discovered a still richer lode 8 miles above here near Vienna, on June 4, 1879. Before shutting down in 1886, Vienna was a thriving mining camp with a $200,000 twenty-stamp . . . — Map (db m110048) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Grandjean — 435 — Emile Grandjean
An immigrant from Denmark where he had studied forestry, he came to this part of Idaho in 1883 to mine, hunt and trap. Before Idaho became a state in 1890, he built a winter cabin below Grandjean Peak on a site later occupied by Grandjean Ranger . . . — Map (db m22638) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Horseshoe Bend — 278 — Horse Shoe Bend
Gold was struck in Boise Basin (over the ridge to the east) in 1862, and the rush to these new mines came through here. Traffic came by steamer up the Columbia to Umatilla, and thence overland. At first there were only pack and saddle trains, but . . . — Map (db m23235) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 188 — Grimes' Creek
Named for George Grimes who, with Moses Splawn, led the party which on August 2, 1862 made the strike that started the Boise basin gold rush. The party was searching for a rich basin described to Splawn a year earlier by an Indian. Farther up . . . — Map (db m22600) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 186 — Idaho City
This roaring metropolis was founding early in October, 1862, about ten weeks after gold was discovered in Boise basin. By the next summer, this was the largest city in the Northwest, with 6,275 people -- 5,691 of them men! Families followed, and . . . — Map (db m22601) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 266 — The Old Toll Road
The Old Toll Road to Idaho City crossed the ridge from Boise through the lowest point you can see in the skyline across the valley. Climbing the More's creek canyon wall, it crossed this highway about here and swung north. The road was built and . . . — Map (db m22599) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Lowman — 442 — Emma Edwards
A talented artist, Emma Edwards went to work in 1890 to to design Idaho's state seal when she was only 18 years old. Although her father had moved to California after serving as governor of Missouri (1844 to 1848), Emma preferred to spend much of . . . — Map (db m22637) HM
Idaho (Boise County), Lowman — 444 — Lowman
In 1907, Nathaniel W. Lowman settled here, and four years later, when he started a post office in his large log house, this community was named for him. Only a few scattered settlers lived here then. Lowman got all its supplies once a year from a . . . — Map (db m22616) HM
Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — 148 — Kullyspell House
Idaho’s fur trade began in the fall of 1809 when David Thompson built a trading post 2.5 miles southwest of here. Kullyspell House (Thompson spelled “Kalispell” that way) was the earliest fur trade post in the American . . . — Map (db m112927) HM
Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — 320 — Lake Pend Oreille
When the last of the continental ice sheets blocked this valley, a great lake extended over 200 miles into Montana. Ice about as high as the mountain ridges held back water as deep as 800 to 1000 feet at Missoula, ten to twenty thousand . . . — Map (db m73490) HM
Idaho (Bonneville County), Idaho Falls — 224 — Eagle Rock Ferry
On June 20, 1863, Bill Hickman started a ferry 9 miles up Snake River for thousands of gold hunters headed for mines that now are in Montana. Named for an eagle that had a nest on a rock there, his ferry flourished until James Madison . . . — Map (db m70584) HM
Idaho (Bonneville County), Idaho Falls — 223 — Taylor's Bridge
Idaho’s earliest toll bridge spanned Snake River at this rocky site in 1865, replacing Eagle Rock Ferry, 9 miles upstream. James Madison Taylor (a relative of Presidents Madison and Taylor and a founder of Denver, Colorado) settled here in . . . — Map (db m70583) HM
Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — 165 — Bonner's Ferry
Gold miners rushing to Wild Horse in British Columbia in 1863 were paddled across this river by Indians; in 1864 E.L. Bonner established a proper ferry here. This ferry and its trading store served the Wild Horse packtrains for many years. . . . — Map (db m122203) HM
Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — 160 — David Thompson
Coming from Canada, the famous map maker and trader for the North West Company explored this area and river in 1808. On May 8 somewhere near here, Thompson's famished party, all sick from eating a "much tainted" antelope, met ten lodges of . . . — Map (db m122201) HM
Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — 321 — Glacial Lakes
Moving from the north down this valley, the edge of the continental ice sheet blocked rivers and formed glacial lakes. Then as the ice gradually melted, a lake rose here behind the receding ice dam, and extended up Kootenai valley into . . . — Map (db m122174) HM
Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — 491 — Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho has lived in their aboriginal homeland of Idaho, Montana and British Columbia for thousands of years. A unique culture, the Kootenais are known for their distinctive sturgeon-nose canoe and their linguistically . . . — Map (db m122202) HM
Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — 150 — Wild Horse Trail
Thousands of eager miners came by here in an 1864-65 gold rush to Wild Horse, BC. Parts of their pack trail still can be seen. An extension of North Idaho's earlier gold excitements, Wild Horse was served by a pack trains that hauled . . . — Map (db m122176) HM
Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 152 — Atoms for Peace
An important page in atomic history was written here on July 17, 1955, when the lights of Arco were successfully powered from atomic energy. Chosen by the Atomic Energy Commission as an experiment in the peaceful use of atomic power, Arco, Idaho . . . — Map (db m68916) HM
Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 304 — Lost River
When its water is not diverted for upstream irrigation, Lost River flows past here into a sink 14 miles to the northeast. Lava flows in the Snake River plains buried old channels of Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. No longer able . . . — Map (db m70448) HM
Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 297 — Nuclear Reactors
Since 1949, more nuclear reactors – over 50 of them – have been built on this plain than anywhere else in the world. This 900-square-mile Idaho National Laboratory is the birthplace of the Nuclear Navy. Commercial power reactor . . . — Map (db m70447) HM
Idaho (Butte County), Howe — 227 — John Day’s River
John Day’s River Fur traders named this stream for John Day, a pioneer trapper who died in the valley north of here, Feb. 16, 1820 John Day had started west with John Jacob Astor’s Pacific Fur Company that discovered Snake River . . . — Map (db m103827) HM
Idaho (Camas County), Fairfield — 277 — Bannock War
Angered by white encroachment on Camas Prairie lands which had been guaranteed to the Bannock Indians by treaty, Buffalo Horn's band went to war May 30, 1878 Trouble had been brewing on the reservation for years, and the government had . . . — Map (db m110141) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Caldwell — 455 — Emigrant Crossing
After reaching Boise River, emigrant wagons had to travel 30 miles to find a good crossing about 1/4 mile north of here. They had to avoid a wide zone of shifting channels, so they descended Canyon Hill where the route is still visible. In . . . — Map (db m22326) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Caldwell — 291 — The College of Idaho
Planned by the Presbyterians of southern Idaho in 1884 and opened with 19 students in 1891, this is Idaho's oldest college. William Judson Boone, the founder, remained president 45 years. From a modest beginning with a faculty of 8 (including two . . . — Map (db m26193) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Givens Hot Springs — 358 — Givens Springs
Natural hot water available here has been a popular attraction for thousands of years. A winter village site for about 5000 years, these hot springs had large pit houses typical of plateau communities northwest of here from 4,300 to about . . . — Map (db m47336) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — 75 — The Ward Massacre
Only 2 young boys survived the Indian attack on Alexander Ward's 20 member party, Oregon bound on August 20, 1854. Military retaliation for the slaughter so enraged the Indians that Hudson's Bay Co. posts Fort Boise and Fort Hall had to be . . . — Map (db m22328) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Nampa — 415 — Northwest Nazarene University
In 1913, Eugene Emerson started a Christian school that his church developed into an accredited college on a campus he donated. The college, located on a campus 2 mile southwest of here, moved to university status in 1999. Northwest Nazarene . . . — Map (db m73204) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Notus — 361 — Lower Boise
Confederate refugees from Missouri started farming in this area in 1863 and 1864, when gold and silver mining camps created a great demand for flour and cattle. Driven out from their Missouri River homes below Kansas City by extremely bitter Civil . . . — Map (db m21988) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Parma — 78 — Marie Dorion
An Iowa Indian who came through here with Wilson Price Hunt's fur trappers in 1811, Marie Dorion spent an incredible winter in this region in 1814. She and her two infant children were sole survivors of a mid-January Bannock Indian clash at John . . . — Map (db m21995) HM
Idaho (Canyon County), Parma — 85 — Old Fort Boise
An important Hudson's Bay Company fur trade post was established in 1834 four miles west of here on the bank of the Snake River. Fur trading declined, but this British post became famous for its hospitality to American travellers on the Oregon . . . — Map (db m21992) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Bancroft — 337 — Chesterfield
In 1879, Mormon farmers from Utah settled Chesterfield, 16 miles north of here. Based on Joseph Smith's Zion Plat, Chesterfield was laid out on an orderly grid of large blocks separated by wide streets with the Meeting House on the highest . . . — Map (db m106773) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Bancroft — 161 — Hudspeth's Cutoff
In the summer of 1849, the California Gold Rush was diverted this way in search of a more direct route to the mines. Stampeding 49'ers would try anything to save miles and time in their rush for California's gold: the regular Oregon and . . . — Map (db m106774) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 220 — Bear River Lava
Until about 28,000 years ago, Bear River used to flow northwest from here through Portneuf Canyon into Snake River. Then these lava eruption blocked that route, diverting Bear River south into what now is Salt Lake. At that time a large . . . — Map (db m106728) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 218 — Camp Connor
Col. P.E. Connor set up the old town of Soda Springs, now mostly flooded, and an adjacent army post near here May 20, 1863. The gold rush to Idaho had greatly increased traffic on the Oregon Trail, and the post was needed to protect travelers . . . — Map (db m105972) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 385 — Hooper Spring
Free clear sparkling soda water still is available in a beautiful Soda Springs city park located 2 miles from here. A prime attraction for more than 160 years, soda water from these springs was marketed nationally after rail service reached . . . — Map (db m106256) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 219 — John Bidwell
In 1840, John Bidwell began to assemble emigrants from Missouri to open a road to California; and a year later, he set out with a party of 69 Pacific Coast pioneers. When they reached here, August 12, 1841, half of this group decided to go . . . — Map (db m106729) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 158 — Soda Springs
In this area are a group of springs famous to Oregon Trail travelers, most of whom stopped to try the "acid taste and effervessing gasses" of the waters. Earlier, fur traders often -- less elegantly -- called the place "Beer Springs" after . . . — Map (db m105967) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Wayan — 433 — Cariboo Mountain
Rising to an elevation of more than 9,800 feet, Cariboo Mountain -- visible north of here -- has two of Idaho's highest gold camps. Jesse "Cariboo Jack" Fairchild discovered gold high on Cariboo Mountain in August, 1870, and a mining rush . . . — Map (db m105965) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Wayan — 362 — John Grey
Discovered this valley in 1818 or 1819 while hunting beaver for Donald MacKenzie's Northwest Company trappers. An Iroquois leader -- he also explored Grey's River nearby in Wyoming. Aside from his trapping skills, he was noted for his unusual . . . — Map (db m105964) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Albion — 490 — Albion State Normal School
Established in March, 1893, by the Second Idaho State Legislature. Residents of Albion erected and furnished a two-story stone building on five acres of donated land, and the very successful teacher-training school opened on September 11, . . . — Map (db m138484) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Albion — 306 — Diamondfield Jack
J.L. Davis... Diamondfield Jack... spent most of 6 years in the Cassia County jail while the courts and pardon board were trying to figure out what to do with him. By far the best known of the gunmen who fought in Idaho's sheep and cattle wars, he . . . — Map (db m31639) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Burley — 208 — Milner Dam
When completed in 1904, Milner Dam raised Snake River 38 feet to divert water into major north and south side canals. A gravity system unmatched in size in national reclamation development, this project irrigates 360,000 acres of land. Twin Falls, . . . — Map (db m31636) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Burley — 28 — Starrh's Ferry
In 1880, George Starrh, a Snake River placer miner, started a ferry across Snake River one mile north of here. From 1880-2, freighters hauling supplies for a mining rush to Wood River used Starrh's ferry (powered by river current when stiff winds . . . — Map (db m31635) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Delco — 449 — Idahome
After wheat crops flourished in the dry farm area, Idahome sprang up here in 1916 as a railroad terminal. Irrigation projects boosted its Economy. When wheat farms disappeared and highway traffic replaced rail service here, Idahome became . . . — Map (db m123849) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Malta — 169 — Hudspeth's Cutoff
This shortcut to the California goldfields, followed by most of the 49'ers, came out of the hills to the east and joined the old California trail just about here. Opened by "Messrs. Hudspeth & Myers, of the Jackson County, Missouri, Company," who . . . — Map (db m31638) HM
Idaho (Cassia County), Oakley — 344 — City of Rocks
A vast display of towering granite rocks (16 miles southeast of here) attracted emigrants who were on their way to California. A gold rush visitor, July 14, 1849, reported that "you can imagine among these massive piles, church domes, spires, . . . — Map (db m31637) HM
Idaho (Clark County), Dubois — 427 — Nez Perce War
When General O.O. Howard tried to get more than 600 Nez Perce Indians to settle on a North Idaho reservation in 1877, he ran into a lot of trouble here. On their way to Yellowstone Park, Chief Joseph's Nez Perce people reached Hole in the . . . — Map (db m124339) HM
Idaho (Clark County), Spencer — 222 — Beaver Canyon
After Montana's Gold Rushes began in 1862, thousands of miners came past here and a Beaver Canyon stage station was built here. Freighters and travelers on stage lines from Salt Lake to Montana stopped at this station until Utah and . . . — Map (db m124337) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Lenore — 316 — Indian Houses
Indians have lived here next to this good fishing hold for 10,000 years. As long as 3,000 years ago, they had large oval houses, 28 feet long by 24 feet wide. To build these houses, they put a bark and mat covering over a frame of 50 or so . . . — Map (db m121416) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Lenore — 486 — Lenore Tram
In 1898, after rail service from Lewiston reached Lenore, a tramway was begun to ship grain from Camas Prairie (1600 feet above) to a new freight stop directly across the river. Previously, grain wagons descended a long steep hill from the . . . — Map (db m109760) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Lenore — 250 — SlatervilleServed as the steamboat port for the Clearwater Gold Rush — which followed mineral discoveries at Pierce in 1860 —
Founded by Seth S. Slater, May 6, 1861, Slaterville (permanent population, 50) had 5 edifices – built mainly of colored blankets – 2 stores, 2 houses, and a saloon. When the Colonel Wright “snapped her tow-line on the Grand Rapids . . . — Map (db m110703) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Orofino — 249 — Lewis and ClarkOn their way West, in 1805 — Lewis and Clark descended into Clearwater Canyon on an old Indian trail across from here —
After more than a month’s search, they finally had reached a westward river where they could use canoes. From here they continued another 16 miles with their pack horses before they found a campsite with trees suitable for making canoes. But at . . . — Map (db m109757) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Pierce — 153 — Canal Gulch
The fabulous Gold Rush days of Idaho began on September 30, 1860, when W.F. Bassett struck gold just about here. E.D. Pierce, who knew the country, had led twelve prospectors, including Bassett, out from Walla Walla in August. After news of . . . — Map (db m121518) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Pierce — 307 — Chinese Hanging
Charged with hacking a prominent local merchant to pieces, five Chinese were hanged here by vigilantes Sept. 18, 1885. They were just setting out on a long, hard 240 mile trip from Pierce to face trial at the county seat in Murray when the . . . — Map (db m121442) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Pierce — 156 — Oro Fino City
Commercial center of Idaho's earliest mining district in the great days of 1861. It flourished here for more than a year. Pierce City was only 2 miles away but another town sprang up near some rich gold strikes. In its first few weeks, Oro . . . — Map (db m121517) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Pierce — 346 — Pierce Courthouse
Shoshone County's original courthouse -- and Idaho's earliest public building -- still stands in Pierce., where it was built in 1862. Although Pierce gained a large population for a year after gold was discovered here in 1860, most of the . . . — Map (db m121520) HM
Idaho (Clearwater County), Weippe — 261 — Lewis and Clark
Journeying toward the Clearwater, 6 men under Clark met the Nez Perce Indians not far from here, September 20, 1805. Clark first saw 3 frightened Indian boys who hid in the grass. Finding two, he reassured them with small presents and "Sent . . . — Map (db m121439) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Challis — 434 — Bison Jump
Before settlers came to Idaho in 1860, Buffalo used to roam through this valley. Most of them had left here by 1840. After they acquired Spanish horses, eighteenth century Shoshone buffalo hunters could drive a small herd over a cliff to make . . . — Map (db m109766) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Challis — 303 — Michel Bourdon
This Valley was discovered in 1822 by an expedition of Hudson's Bay Company trappers led by Michel Bourdon. Bourdon had come to the Northwest with David Thompson, who had started the Idaho fur trade in 1808-9. Trappers searched everywhere for . . . — Map (db m59949) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Clayton — 416 — Clayton Smelter
Lead-silver mineral discoveries 12 miles north of here on Bayhorse Creek in 1864 and 1872 led Joel E. Clayton to locate a large smelter here in 1880. Doubled in size in 1888, Clayton's smelter has enough variety of ores from local mines to . . . — Map (db m110016) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Mackay — 356 — Earthquakes
On October 28, 1983, a major earthquake fracture, 26 miles long and 7 miles deep, surfaced as Lost River Valley slid away from Mount Borah. During that rock shift, Mount Borah’s ridge front rose about 6 inches, while this valley subsided 9 . . . — Map (db m109704) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Mackay — 509 — Ghost Town of Mackay Idaho
Cliff City and White Knob were bustling mining towns established west of Mackay in the late 1800s. After copper was discovered in the White Knob Mountains in 1879, Cliff City and White Knob sprang up to support the mines. The boomtowns . . . — Map (db m140071) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Mackay — 229 — Goodin's River
Known as Goddin's River in the days of the fur trade. This stream originally was named for the trapper who discovered it. Thyery Goddin, a prominent Iroquois who explored this river in 1819 or 1820, had come here with Donald Mackenzies fur . . . — Map (db m109705) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Mackay — 45 — Mount Borah
Idaho’s highest peak, 12,662 feet, is named for William E. Borah, who served in the United States Senate from 1907 until his death in 1940. Ten or a dozen large but shallow inland seas have covered this area in the past billion years. They . . . — Map (db m109703) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Mackay — 508 — Mount McCaleb
Mt. McCaleb, named for the Civil War veteran and local merchant, Jesse McCaleb, is the prominent 11,683 ft. peak visible north of MacKay. In 1878, while helping escort supply wagons and arms to Challis, McCaleb and 13 others were attacked by . . . — Map (db m140070) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Stanley — 328 — Bear's "Ploughed Field"
Long before miners and ranchers settled Stanley Basin, bears dominated this area. When Alexander Ross and his Hudson's Bay Company trappers stopped here, September 20, 1824, they "observed at some distance the appearance of a ploughed field, . . . — Map (db m110042) HM
Idaho (Custer County), Stanley — 406 — Stanley Ranger Station
When Challis National Forest was established in 1908, this site became an administrative center. Early log Ranger Stations stood here from 1909 to 1932. Expanding Forest Service responsibilities led to construction of a larger ranger . . . — Map (db m110043) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Glenns Ferry — 198 — Oregon Trail
A perilous ford at Three Island State Park was a formidable Oregon Trail barrier. Those who could not cross here faced a longer, more difficult southern route. No other ford between Missouri and Oregon troubled them so much. This was their largest . . . — Map (db m31677) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 353 — Castle Rock
Up toward Camas Prairie, a road goes by Castle Rock and other eroded granite outcrops that were landmarks on Goodale's Cutoff, an Oregon Trail route that came this way. Emigrants generally had not seen large granite rock formations of this . . . — Map (db m110143) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 400 — Gold Mines
More than a century ago, Rocky Bar, Happy Camp, and a number of other South Boise mining towns flourished in a remote mountain wilderness 30 miles northwest of here. Discovered early in 1863, they were so hard to get to that the could not be . . . — Map (db m110142) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 305 — Goodale's Cutoff
An old emigrant road headed west across Camas Prairie and then descended to the valley below on its way to rejoin the Oregon Trail 28 miles west of here. This route, discovered by Donald Mackenzie's fur trade party in 1820, came into use for . . . — Map (db m125603) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 195 — Rattlesnake Station
At the junction of the Rocky Bar Road with the Oregon Trail, this was a major stage line stop for 20 years. Stage service commenced in 1864, and a road to the Rocky Bar mines was opened 2 months later. In 1878 the station owners thought it . . . — Map (db m70449) HM
Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 197 — Toll Gate
An 1868 Toll Road to Rocky Bar provided better access to early gold mines 40 miles north of here. Julius Newberg's South Boise wagon road had reached Rocky Bar in 1864, but a route through this canyon was needed to avoid steep Syrup Creek . . . — Map (db m110154) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Franklin — 388 — Hatch House
In 1874, Bishop L.H. Hatch built a mansion that has been preserved as a fine example of pioneer Idaho architecture. Idaho's only railroad serving Montana's thriving mining camps, reached here that year -- a time of depression between gold . . . — Map (db m105694) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Franklin — 23 — Idaho's Oldest Town
Franklin was settled April 14, 1860 by Mormon pioneers. The free local museum exhibits a large collection of tools and relics of pioneer days. The founding of Franklin was part of a well organized plan of Mormon expansion. Church . . . — Map (db m105556) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — 216 — Bear River Massacre
Very few Northwestern Shoshoni survived a battle here that turned into a massacre by Col. P.E. Connor’s California Volunteers.

In 1863, Conner and his force set out from Salt Lake City on a cold January campaign in response to friction between . . . — Map (db m44461) HM

Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — 432 — Old Delta Sediments
Diverted into this valley by lava flows, the Bear River deposited a huge, mostly red clay delta here where it entered a vast inland sea that covered much of Utah. About 14,500 years ago , its shoreline suddenly went down about 80 feet . . . — Map (db m105834) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — 257 — Utah & Northern Railway
One mile south and directly west of this highway, an old 1878 railway grade is still visible, although trains have not used it since 1890. Jay Gould -- a nationally prominent financier and Union Pacific owner -- extended Utah and Northern . . . — Map (db m105708) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Thatcher — 431 — Range Wars
Armed cattle ranchers delayed farm settlement here for six years before a permanent farm community was organized in 1872. This kind of conflict occurred in widely scattered western areas when farm crops displaced rangeland. Families of early . . . — Map (db m105835) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Ashton — 391 — Caldera Lookout
High on Island Park Caldera's west rim, a 72-foot forest service lookout tower affords an excellent view of this large volcanic feature. No other steel tower has been preserved in this part of Idaho. When it was erected in 1936, lookouts . . . — Map (db m72955) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Ashton — 396 — Volcanic Calderas
Volcanic Calderas Some 2,000,000 years ago, massive eruptions of hot rock boiled for 60 miles from this high rim on across Yellowstone Park. An exceptionally large crater remained when that lava surface collapsed. Another smaller caldera . . . — Map (db m103937) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Island Park — 462 — Harriman State Park
Harriman State Park Started in 1902 as a large cattle ranch, Railroad Ranch soon became a summer retreat for wealthy easterners and eventually Idaho’s largest state park. Railroad magnate and diplomat W. Averell Harriman and his brother . . . — Map (db m103938) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Island Park — 461 — Harriman Wildlife Refuge
Henry's Fork meanders through an 16,000 acre wildlife refuge that retains diverse habitats for many kinds of birds and animals. Lodgepole pine forests and open meadows provide many opportunities to enjoy wildlife here, and fly fishing still . . . — Map (db m108979) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Island Park — 389 — Sawtell's Ranch
In 1868, Gilman Sawtell started a dude ranch and Henry's Lake fishery that did much to develop this natural resort area. Sawtell did everything from supplying swans for New York's Central Park zoo to building a network of roads for tourists . . . — Map (db m108978) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Macks Inn — 452 — Pierre J. DeSmetJesuit leader
Roman Catholic Missionary services began in Idaho on Sunday July 10, 1840 in Teton Valley, followed by a mass held near here at Henry's Lake, July 23. Pierre J. DeSmet a Belgian Jesuit leader accompanied a Pend Oreille - Flathead band on their . . . — Map (db m31214) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Newdale — 345 — Teton Flood
When Teton Dam suddenly was washed away, June 5, 1976, a large reservoir (280 feet deep) was dumped on farms and towns below. Houses floated away and crop land was ruined as water surged into Snake River and American Falls Reservoir, which . . . — Map (db m108351) HM
Idaho (Fremont County), Saint Anthony — 135 — Fort Henry
In 1810, Andrew Henry and a party of trappers from Saint Louis established a winter outpost about 6 miles west of here. Driven from their upper Missouri beaver camp by hostile Blackfeet, they expanded their operations from United States . . . — Map (db m108993) HM
Idaho (Gem County), Emmett — 377 — Black Canyon Dam
Constructed in 1924, this $1,500,000 concrete gravity dam has a 1,039 foot crest and a 183 foot structural height. A 29 mile canal, along with lesser ditches, serves 58,250 acres of Boise and Payette valley farms. A power plant at Black Canyon . . . — Map (db m23237) HM
Idaho (Gem County), Emmett — 295 — Freezeout Hill
In 1862 Tim Goodale opened an Oregon Trail Cutoff which descended a steep ridge just west of here into the valley below. Later that year a gold rush to Boise Basin came up Payette Valley, and the next summer farmers along the river started . . . — Map (db m119238) HM
Idaho (Gem County), Emmett — 447 — Pearl
Gold mines high on a ridge above here maintained an industrial community at Pearl from 1894 to 1910 when ore ran out. Now a silent reminder of Gem County's major gold rush, Pearl once boasted of 3 mercantile stores, a butcher shop, 4 . . . — Map (db m119237) HM
Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — 300 — Fossil Beds
Fossil bones of zebras, beaver, otter, pelicans and other water birds are found in sediments left from a 3,400,000 year old pond on the bluff across the river. Lava flows, pouring out over the plains on this side, met and dammed up sedimentary . . . — Map (db m31598) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Cottonwood — 488 — Lewis and Clark
On May 31, 1806, Sgt. John Ordway and Pvts. Frazer and Weiser began the return trip from Lewis’s (sic) River (Snake River) with salmon for Camp Chopunnish (Kamiah). The men crossed the Camas Prairie near here on their way to rejoin the Corps . . . — Map (db m121141) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Cottonwood — 38 — Nez Perce War
Following the Battle at White Bird Canyon on July 4, 1877, U.S. cavalrymen, entrenched nearby at Cottonwood, resisted attacks by Nez Perce warriors. East of here on July 5, 1877, Nez Perce warriors created a strategic diversion by surrounding . . . — Map (db m121140) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Cottonwood — 500 — Nez Perce War - Foster''s Gravesite
“I will not hide anything. That part of the fight was not long.” Yellow Wolf, Nez Perce warrior. On July 3, 1877, 2nd Lt. Sevier M. Rains, civilian scout William Foster, and ten 1st cavalrymen rode from Norton’s ranch . . . — Map (db m121142) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Elk City — 370 — Buffalo Pit
An exceptionally large hydraulic pit, left by massive placer mining in this area, still can be seen 1 mile from here. Buffalo company miners using hydraulic giants -- large metal hoses with nozzles that could direct a stream of water under . . . — Map (db m121285) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Elk City — 168 — Elk City
Twenty-two prospectors from Pierce discovered the Elk City mines in May, 1861 and a gold rush followed that Summer. Through July the houses were "nice and airy, being constructed of brush." with bars for doors "to keep out the cayuse horses." . . . — Map (db m121287) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Elk City — 369 — Nez Perce Trail
An old Indian trail connected Elk City with mines in Montana when Idaho's gold rush spread in 1862. Following a route developed by Nez Perce buffalo hunters, a host of miners and packers ascended a series of ridges overlooking deep Salmon and . . . — Map (db m121289) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — 100 — Camas Prairie
Named for the blue flowering camas -- an important root food for all interior Northwestern Indians -- Camas Prairie is a traditional Nez Perce cultural center. Tolo Lake -- visible below -- provided a campground for Joseph’s Wallowa band and . . . — Map (db m121138) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — 294 — Nez Perce War
Near the base of this hill, over 100 cavalrymen and volunteers met disaster in the opening battle of The Nez Perce War. Rushing from Grangeville on the evening of June 16, 1877, Captain David Perry planned to stop the Indians from crossing Salmon . . . — Map (db m4643) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Harpster — 485 — Elk City Wagon Road
A scenic 1895 wagon road from Harpster to Elk City gave freighters and travelers better access across high ridges and rugged terrain to isolated mining camps Sections of the steep, narrow road run close to a much older Nez Perce trail that . . . — Map (db m123511) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Harpster — 441 — Harpster
During the mining boom Harpster boasted a hotel, a livery barn, a harness shop, four saloons, two general stores, a a drug store, and a blacksmith shop. William Jackson built a toll bridge here across the South Fork of the Clearwater to meet . . . — Map (db m121318) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Kamiah — 309 — Asa Smith MissionA Massachusetts Congregationalist, Smith spent two years here — learning the Nez Perce language and starting a mission —
Coming here May 10, 1839 to study with Lawyer, an important Nez Perce leader, he stayed to work on an Indian dictionary and to hold daily religious classes each spring and winter. After spending six months in a “mere hovel,” he finished . . . — Map (db m109774) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Kamiah — 310 — Long CampIn 1806, Lewis and Clark waited six weeks — for snow to melt from the high ridges of the Lolo Trail east of here —
In May and June, they camped across the river from present-day Kamiah near the railroad bridge. With their Nez Perce friends, they hunted, traded and played games. They showed the Nez Perce “the power of magnetism, the spye glass, compass, . . . — Map (db m109771) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Kooskia — 347 — Looking GlassDuring General O. O. Howard's 1877 Nez Perce Campaign — Looking Glass and his band were camped up Clear Creek here —
Looking Glass told army authorities: “Leave us alone. We are living here peacefully and want no trouble.” But after a military attack, July 1, that destroyed his village, ruined his gardens and captured 750 Nez Perce horses, Looking . . . — Map (db m109790) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Lolo — 334 — Lolo Trail CrossingWhen Lewis and Clark came up this ridge June 29, 1806 — they ran into "a shower of rain, with hail, thunder and lightning, that lasted about an hour" —
But they got out of deep Lolo Trail snow after they reached Rocky Point (directly across from here) and descended to Crooked Fork, below this turnout. They reported that then they “ascended a very steep acclivity of a mountain about 2 . . . — Map (db m109787) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Lolo — 333 — Whitehouse Pond
On their westbound journey, Lewis and Clark crossed here, September 15, 1805 after camping 4 miles upstream at Powell. Their Shoshoni guide had brought them down an old trail from Lolo Pass to a Lochsa fishery he knew about. To continue west, . . . — Map (db m109782) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Lolo Summit — 247 — Lolo Summit
The Lewis and Clark party crossed this pass Sept. 13, 1805, westbound for the Pacific after a long detour to the south. From the headwaters of the Missouri they had crossed the mountains to the Salmon. Finding that river impassable, they traded . . . — Map (db m27120) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Lucile — 174 — Fabulous FlorenceMillions in gold – mined mostly in one big year — came from the high mountain basin around Florence 14 airline miles east from here —
Early prospectors, fanning south from Pierce – Idaho’s first gold camp – came unexpectedly upon rich ground in August 1861. Their secret leaked, golden rumors started an eager rush that fall, and winter famine followed. Next spring, . . . — Map (db m109650) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Lucile — 175 — Hydraulic MiningVisible directly across the river — is a pit left by large scale hydraulic mining for gold deposited in ancient gravel beds —
Big nozzles, called “hydraulic giants,” shot powerful streams of water against a pre-historic river bed (now the bank of the stream) to expose and wash down gold-bearing gravel, which then was sluiced to recover the gold. This . . . — Map (db m109642) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Mount Idaho — 352 — Mount Idaho
In 1862, a noted Western scout, Mose Milner, started Mount Idaho on his gold rush trail. But when civic leaders resisted farm efforts to organize a grange there in 1874, Grangeville grew up as a better located town. Although Mount Idaho . . . — Map (db m121317) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Stites — 259 — Nez Perce War
After the Clearwater Battle on the heights above here, July 11-12, 1877, the Indians crossed the Lolo Trail to Montana. Advancing northward along the high ground with 600 troops and artillery, General Howard found the Indians camped on the . . . — Map (db m121319) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), White Bird — 298 — Salmon RiverA vast mountain wilderness, cut by the mile deep Salmon River Canyon — stretches across Idaho south and east of here —
Travel through the Salmon River Mountains always was hard in the early days. An 1872 railroad survey showed the Salmon River Canyon to be too expensive a route to build. Until a highway was finished down the White Bird Hill in 1921, only some . . . — Map (db m109667) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), White Bird — 313 — Salmon River CanyonSome 15 million years ago, Salmon River ran across great Miocene lava flows — above here and started to carve this deep canyon —
Then this part of the earth’s surface gradually rose. As the mountains were rising, the river cut down into the older rock below. Many other northwestern rivers cut similar gorges. The Snake flows through Hell’s Canyon – deepest of them . . . — Map (db m109662) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), White Bird — 327 — White Bird Grade
For 60 years after construction was completed in 1915, White Bird Grade (Across the Valley) served Idaho’s only north-south highway. Many tortuous curves and switchbacks -which, if placed together, made 37 complete circles - let the old road . . . — Map (db m119507) HM
Idaho (Jefferson County), Roberts — 323 — Market LakeThe flat irrigated fields that stretch to the next interchange — used to be a great Indian and trappers' hunting ground in an old lake that came and went —
In historic time Market Lake was formed during the great Snake River Flood of 1853. When a new railroad grade blocked the overflow channel leading from the river, the lake disappeared for a time after 1887. Later irrigation seepage restored . . . — Map (db m109685) HM
Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 340 — Hunt (Camp)Minidoka Internment National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Excluded from their west coast homes by military authorities, more than 9000 Japanese Americans occupied Hunt Relocation Camp 4 miles north of here between 1942 & 1945. Until they could resettle in other places, they live in wartime tarpaper . . . — Map (db m61972) WM
Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 276 — Prehistoric Hunters
Bone fragments of extinct species of ground sloth, horse, camel, and elephant found in a nearby cave mingle with weapons and radiocarbon dates from Idaho’s earliest hunters.

Archaeologists have confirmed that people camped here at least 10,000 . . . — Map (db m62963) HM

Idaho (Jerome County), Twin Falls — 326 — Emigrant Road
More than a century ago, fur trappers and emigrants followed an old Indian trail that crossed here on its way to Oregon. Hudson's Bay Company traders preferred this route between Fort Hall and Fort Boise, but early emigrant wagons had to . . . — Map (db m31500) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Athol — 351 — Pen d'Oreille City
A gold rush to Montana brought steamboat service to lake Pen d'Oreille in 1866, with its dock at Pen d'Oreille City 5 miles east of here on Buttonhook Bay. Traffic to British Columbia's Wild Horse mines also used this route. The trip . . . — Map (db m122152) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Bayview — 422 — Bayview Limekilns
Large kilns that produced line from 1904 to 1932 still can be seen by visiting Bayview, two miles from here. Production of lime f0r nearby mines and Spokane buildings commenced in this area as soon as rail transportation and markets became . . . — Map (db m122170) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Bayview — 350 — Farragut State Park
In 1942, a large United States Naval training station, with facilities for 40,000 sailors, opened here. Then, from 1946 to 1949, it became Farragut College. When postwar college enrollments slacked off, Farragut State Park was developed here, . . . — Map (db m122155) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Cataldo — 144 — Old Mission of the Sacred Heart
Opened for services in 1853, this is the oldest building in Idaho. Black-robed Jesuits founded the mission on the St. Joe River in 1842, but moved here in 1846 and raised this imposing building in a complete wilderness. Dwellings and . . . — Map (db m110802) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Coeur d'Alene — 170 — Coeur d'Alene Lake
Look to the north: blocking the northward passage of the rivers which form this lake, a great dam of glacial ice once towered above the horizon as far as the eye can see. When the glacier melted, about 600,000 years ago, it left a moraine - a . . . — Map (db m122872) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Coeur d'Alene — 268 — Lake Steamers
Built by the army in 1880 to carry hay and supplies for Fort Coeur d'Alene, the "Amelia Wheaton" was the first of a long list of steamers on this lake. Commercial steamboating began in 1884 with the mining rush. In later years, fleets of . . . — Map (db m122877) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Coeur d'Alene — 164 — Mullan Military Road
Walk the Mullan Road one of the Northwest's most significant routes. Take the side road to your left. From 1858-62, Lt. John Mullan's crew built the Northwest's first engineered highway, connecting Fort Benton with Fort Walla Walla, 625 . . . — Map (db m122859) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Harrison — 281 — Submerged Valley
Glacial activity about 9000 to 12000 years ago created this lake out of what previously had been the valley of a river. The ice sheet occupied major valleys north of here. As the glacier receded, melt waters flooded across the outlet of this . . . — Map (db m122125) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Hauser — 256 — Purcell Trench
A long, glaciated valley, extending from British Columbia this far into Idaho, brought part of a continental ice sheet past here thousands of years ago. Rocks and boulders transported here by glacial ice backed up Lake Coeur d'Alene. Then a . . . — Map (db m122127) HM
Idaho (Kootenai County), Post Falls — 348 — Treaty Rock
On June 1, 1871, Frederick Post made a deal with Andrew Seltice -- a prominent Coeur d'Alene Indian leader -- to obtain more than 200 acres of Spokane River land to start a mill here. They recorded this cession of land on a prominent rock . . . — Map (db m122126) HM
Idaho (Latah County), Moscow — 279 — University of IdahoLike this Long Highway, the University of Idaho — links together the northern and southern parts of the state of Idaho —
Established by the territorial legislature, Jan. 30, 1889, the university opened in the fall of 1892. As Idaho’s land grant institution, the university was charged to bring the benefits of quality teaching, research, and service to the people of . . . — Map (db m109682) HM
Idaho (Latah County), Potlatch — 505 — Company TownBuilt as a model town, Potlatch — was owned by Weyerhaeuser's Potlatch Lumber Company —
Spokane architect C. Ferris White designed the new community in 1905. Workers’ housing stood close to the mill. Managers’ homes were built away from the plant’s noise and smoke. The railroad depot separated town from industry. All company . . . — Map (db m109672) HM
Idaho (Latah County), Potlatch — 504 — World's Largest MillPotlatch Lumber Company's Sawmill — Built here in 1906, was one of the largest in the world —
Expanding operations to the West, Weyerhaeuser timber barons invested in Idaho’s prime white pine stands. By 1920, their mill was cutting 175 million board feet each year. Logs and lumber were moved by the Washington, Idaho and Montana Railway . . . — Map (db m109673) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Carmen — 241 — Fort Bonneville
In a grove of cottonwoods across the river, Capt. B.L.E. Bonneville established a winter fur trade post. Sept. 26, 1832. His fort, described by a rival trapper as "a miserable establishment" - - -"consisted of several log cabins, low, badly . . . — Map (db m59848) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Carmen — 125 — Historic Lemhi Co.
1866 - Gold discovered at Leesburg by Elijah Mulkey, Wm. Smith, F.B. Sharkey, Jos. Rapp, & Ward Girton. Mining has continued in Lemhi Co. with production of $30 Mil. in gold & nearly $35 Mil. in copper, lead, tungsten, silver, etc. 63 . . . — Map (db m109670) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Gibbonsville — 243 — Gibbonsville
British investment in a large Gibbonsville mine after 1880 made this an important gold camp until 1899. Discovery of a major lode here in 1877 and construction of a good wagon road to a Utah and Northern Railway terminal in Montana brought . . . — Map (db m109623) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Gibbonsville — 269 — Lewis and Clark
On their way north searching for a route over Idaho's mountain barrier, Lewis and Clark left this canyon and ascended a high ridge to reach Bitterroot Valley, September 3-4, 1805. No Indian trail came this way, but Tobe, their experienced Shoshoni . . . — Map (db m59798) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Leadore — 238 — Bannock Pass
This traditional Indian route provided access from Montana's buffalo country to Snake and Salmon river fishing streams. Hudson's Bay Company trapping expeditions came this way after 1822 and prosectors followed searching for mines. Then in . . . — Map (db m109408) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Leadore — 296 — Charcoal Kilns
Charcoal for a smelter, active from 1885-1889 across the valley at Nicholia, was produced in 16 kilns 6 miles west of here. Discover in 1881, the Viola mine became an important source for lead and silver from 1886-1888. Ore also was hauled . . . — Map (db m109034) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Leadore — 429 — Cote's Defile
A French Canadian who came to southern Idaho in 1818, Joseph Cote found this valley while trapping beaver. Though he was thousands of miles from his Canadian base in Montreal, he had years of experience in Pacific Northwest exploration. . . . — Map (db m109032) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Leadore — 234 — Gilmore
Lack of a good transportation system delayed serious lead and silver mining at Gilmore from 1880 to 1910. Construction of a branch railroad from Montana to serve this mining area resulted in a production of $11,520,852 before a power plant . . . — Map (db m109391) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Leadore — 270 — Prehistoric Man
Archaeological research as traced human occupation to this valley back more than ten thousand years. The first men here found the valley forested. As the climate became drier, other mountain dwellers -- known to archaeologists as people of . . . — Map (db m109031) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — 122 — Lewis and ClarkHoping for an Easy River Trip to the Pacific
Clark explored the first few miles of the rugged canyon of the Salmon below here late in August 1805. His small advance party camped here with poor but friendly Indians. Clark reported that the Salmon "is almost one continued rapid," and that . . . — Map (db m59847) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — 448 — Nez Perce Trail
Following high ridges, buffalo hunters cut an old Indian trail along a direct route from Lewiston past here to Lemhi Valley. This trail was not available to Lewis and Clark in 1805, but an early missionary -- Samuel Parker -- crossed it with . . . — Map (db m109621) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon — 127 — Lewis and Clark
After crossing the Continental Divide southeast of here, Aug. 12, 1805, Lewis camped with a Shoshoni band near here, Aug. 13-14. Lewis had to obtain Indian horses so his men could get from the upper Missouri to a navigable stream flowing to . . . — Map (db m109599) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon — 312 — MacDonald's Battle
Whooping and yelling, Blackfeet Indians and white trappers "fought like deamons" in the defile before you in 1823. After the Hudson's Bay Company trappers burned the Indians out of a strong position by starting a large brush fire, the . . . — Map (db m109598) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon — 239 — Sacajawea
Returned to her homeland in this valley in 1805 as an interpreter for Lewis and Clark when they explored these mountains. When she was only about 14 years old, she had been captured by Indians in Montana, where her people were out hunting . . . — Map (db m109600) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon (Elk Bend) — 507 — Idaho Hermits
Living for more than 60 years in hand-built "dugouts" across the Salmon River from this site, Richard "Dugout Dick" Zimmerman (1916-2010) came to symbolize the Idaho hermit. With colorful names like Buckskin Bill and Hank the Hermit, these . . . — Map (db m109678) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Tendoy — 128 — Fort Lemhi
In 1855 a group of Mormon missionaries came north from Utah to found a remote colony just below the bench east of here. A religious settlement rather than a military fort. Salmon River Mission grew to more than 100 settlers before Indian . . . — Map (db m109585) HM
Idaho (Lemhi County), Tendoy — 325 — Lewis and Clark
After crossing through Lemhi Pass, 12 miles east of here, Lewis unfurled the American flag for the first time west of the Rockies. Meriwether Lewis met with 3 Shoshoni Indians near here on August 13, 1805. "....leaving my pack and rifle I . . . — Map (db m109409) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Craigmont — 331 — Craigmont
Not long before Camas Prairie Railroad service reached here in 1908, rival towns were started on each side of the track. Vollmer began as a rail and business center on the east, and Ilo (an older town a mile away) moved to an adjacent site on . . . — Map (db m121214) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Craigmont — 331 — Craigmont
Not long before Camas Prairie Railroad service reached here in 1908, rival towns were started on each side of the track. Vollmer began as a rail and business center on the east, and Ilo (an older town a mile away) moved to an adjacent site on . . . — Map (db m121217) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Craigmont — 163 — Lawyer's Canyon
Named for the Nez Perce Indian leader who served as Head Chief, 1848-1871, and who lived near the lower end of the canyon. Called “The Lawyer” by early fur traders for his exceptional talents in languages and oratory, he was a . . . — Map (db m121212) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Craigmont — 489 — Lewis and Clark
On May 27, 1806, Sgt. John Ordway and Pvts. Frazer and Weiser were dispatched from Camp Chopunnish (Kamiah) to Lewis’ River (Snake River) to obtain salmon. Guided by Nez Perce Indians, the men crossed the Camas Prairie near here. On May 29, at a . . . — Map (db m121213) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Craigmont — 371 — Railroad Trestles
In order to cross Lawyer’s Canyon and other Camas Prairie gorges, a series of high railroad bridges was (sic) built in 1908. This highway goes past two of them here. Most were timber, but a metal structure, 1500 feet long and 296 feet . . . — Map (db m121210) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Greer — 466 — Gold Rush Ferry
An old ferry near here took thousands of eager fortune hunters to a trail that climbed out of this canyon to rich gold fields discovered at Pierce in 1860. You can still follow their spectacular route to Weippe Prairie, where in 1805 Lewis and . . . — Map (db m109756) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Nezperce — 372 — Camas Prairie
Most of Camas Prairie's wind blown soil rests upon Columbia River lava flows. Coming from a series of widespread eruptions, they covered older, eroded granite rocks here some 6 to 17 million years ago. Some earlier volcanic extrusions, . . . — Map (db m140897) HM
Idaho (Lewis County), Nezperce — 492 — Lewis and Clark
On their eastbound journey, the Corps of Discovery and several Nez Perce reached the Nezperce Prairie from present-day Peck on May 8, 1806, and camped on "a Small hansom Stream". On May 9 the party arrived at the root-digging camp of . . . — Map (db m140898) HM

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May. 26, 2020