“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Civil Rights in Education Heritage Trail Historical Markers

This set of markers, placed by Virginia’s Retreat, highlights the evolution of Civil Rights in Southside Virginia in the years from the Civil War into the 20th Century.
Civil Rights in Education Heritage Trail® Map. image, Touch for more information
Civil Rights in Education Heritage Trail® Map.
Virginia (Amelia County), Amelia Court House — 10 — Mrs. Samantha Jane NeilAmelia Court House, Virginia — Amelia County —
Amelia County is largely indebted to one woman for bringing formal education and religion to African Americans after the Civil War. In 1865 Mrs. Samantha Jane Neil left her home in Pennsylvania to search for her husband’s body. He had been a . . . — Map (db m20239) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Amelia Court House — 9 — Russell Grove Presbyterian Church and SchoolAmelia Court House, Virginia — Amelia County —
Russell Grove Presbyterian Church and the Russell Grove School were established as a result of the efforts of Mrs. Samantha Jane Neil, a Presbyterian missionary and teacher of African-American children after the Civil War. At first the school . . . — Map (db m28927) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — 2 — Carver-Price SchoolCivil Rights in Education Heritage Trail — Appomattox, Virginia - Appomattox County —
In 1929-30 the Appomattox training school was built on this site with funds raised by Mozella Price, who served as Supervisor of Appomattox Counter Negro Schools from 1919 to 1963. It was a cinder block building, employing four teachers. At the . . . — Map (db m29969) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — 3 — Education in 1800's Rural VirginiaCivil Rights in Education Heritage Trail — Appomattox, Virginia - Appomattox County —
Before and during the Civil War, educational opportunities in Rural Virginia were often limited. The wealthier families employed a tutor or sent their children to boarding academies such as the nearby Union Academy. In such schools students learned . . . — Map (db m30105) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — 1 — Winonah Camp / Mozella Price HomeCivil Rights in Education Heritage Trail — Appomattox, Virginia - Appomattox County —
Mozella Jordan Price was instrumental in improving the education and quality of life for African Americans in Appomattox County. Mrs. Price was educated in Farmville schools, attended Boydton Institute, Virginia State College, and earned a Bachelor . . . — Map (db m29971) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Alberta — 38 — Southside Virginia Community CollegeAlberta, Virginia — Brunswick County —
Southside Virginia Community College has two campuses: the Christanna Campus in Alberta, which opened in 1970, and the John H. Daniel campus in Keysville, which opened in 1971. The college is part of the statewide system of community colleges . . . — Map (db m30868) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Brodnax — 40 — Hospital and School of the Good ShepherdLawrenceville, Virginia — Brunswick County —
Though many freed African Americans continued after the Civil War to work the same farms on which they had been slaves, many also left their homes in search of better opportunities elsewhere. Often the sick, elderly and very young were left . . . — Map (db m30873) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Lawrenceville — 41 — Fort ChristannaLawrenceville, Virginia — Brunswick County —
In 1714, at Governor Alexander Spotswood’s urging, the Virginia General Assembly funded the Virginia Indian Company, charged with building a fort on the banks of the Meherrin River in what would become Brunswick County. The fort would provide . . . — Map (db m20197) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Lawrenceville — 39 — Saint Paul's CollegeLawrenceville, Virginia — Brunswick County —
Saint Paul’s College began as a small parochial school founded by a newly ordained Episcopal deacon, the Rev. James Solomon Russell. Born into slavery, Russell attended seminary school in Petersburg. Within a year of graduation he had managed . . . — Map (db m30870) HM
Virginia (Buckingham County), Buckingham — 4 — One-Room SchoolhouseBuckingham, Virginia — Buckingham County —
Union Grove School is representative of the many one-room schools for African-American students in Buckingham County and throughout the area. The African-American members of the community built Union Grove around 1925, and like most schools, it . . . — Map (db m21148) HM
Virginia (Buckingham County), New Canton — 5 — Carter G. Woodson BirthplaceNew Canton, Virginia — Buckingham County —
North of this sign is the birthplace of Dr. Carter G. Woodson. Dr. Woodson was born December 19, 1875, to former slaves, James Henry and Eliza Ann Riddle Woodson. Young carter left Buckingham to work in West Virginia when he was 17 years old. He . . . — Map (db m31608) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Charlotte Court House — 30 — Charlotte County Library
Beginning in 1937, Ambassador and Mrs. David K. E. Bruce anonymously gave money to 11 sites in Southside Virginia to build libraries. The Bruce libraries, as they were called, became the first public libraries to allow access to African . . . — Map (db m31019) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Keysville — 29 — Southside Virginia Community CollegeKeysville, Virginia — Charlotte County —
Southside Virginia Community College has two campuses: the Christanna Campus in Alberta, which opened in 1970, and the John H. Daniel campus in Keysville, which opened in 1971. The college is part of the statewide system of community colleges . . . — Map (db m31025) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Red Oak — 31 — Salem SchoolRed Oak, Virginia — Charlotte County —
After the Civil War, in the Red Oak area of Charlotte County, many freed slaves were welcomed to worship at Antioch Baptist Church, a traditionally white church. The Antioch congregation helped raise money to build Salem Baptist Church in 1865, . . . — Map (db m30999) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Ettrick — 11 — Virginia State UniversityEttrick, Virginia — Chesterfield County —
Virginia State University was chartered by the Virginia legislature in 1882 as the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. Delegate Alfred W. Harris, an African-American attorney in Petersburg, championed the charter and supported it through . . . — Map (db m26005) HM
Virginia (Cumberland County), Cartersville — 6 — Hamilton High SchoolCartersville, Virginia — Cumberland County —
Parents in the Cartersville area of Cumberland County met in 1909 to discuss the need for a centralized high school to replace the one-room schools serving white children in the area at that time. The county Superintendent of Schools led the . . . — Map (db m31609) HM
Virginia (Cumberland County), Cartersville — 7 — Rosenwald School at CartersvilleCartersville, Virginia — Cumberland County —
Julius Rosenwald, a former president of Sears, Roebuck & Co., continued the efforts made by numerous philanthropists to bring education to African Americans in the South. During the early 1900s, funding for schools was scarce; the South had half . . . — Map (db m21159) HM
Virginia (Cumberland County), Cumberland — 8 — Jackson DavisCumberland Court House, Virginia — Cumberland County —
Jackson Davis, an educational reformer and amateur photographer, was born in Cumberland County, VA, to William Anderson and Sally Wyatt (Guy) Davis on September 25, 1882. He attended the public schools of Richmond, VA, and received his B.A. from . . . — Map (db m21150) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — 17 — Early Education in Dinwiddie CountyDinwiddie, Virginia — Dinwiddie County —
Prior to the Civil War, Dinwiddie County was home to several private academies for those who could afford to pay for their education. While it was mostly affluent males who were educated, Pegram’s Academy, Female Academy, Girard Heartwell School . . . — Map (db m26834) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — 15 — Petersburg State Colony for the Negro InsanePetersburg, Virginia — Dinwiddie County —
In 1938 the Virginia Assembly chartered a residential care facility for mentally retarded African-American males between 8 and 21 years of age. The Petersburg State Colony for the Negro Insane, as it was named, was located on the present site of . . . — Map (db m23455) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — 16 — Rocky Branch SchoolSutherland, Virginia — Dinwiddie County —
In 1911 a group of Dinwiddie County’s African-American residents established the Rocky Branch School in Sutherland. The school was a typical two-room schoolhouse. It had been moved from original location across from Ocran Methodist Church on . . . — Map (db m26833) HM
Virginia (Halifax County), Halifax — 33 — Mary M. Bethune High SchoolHalifax, Virginia — Halifax County —
In 1872 the Banister Baptist Association built a private African-American training school in Halifax County. Originally the campus consisted of four wooden buildings and a dormitory. The school year was six months, and the grades went only as . . . — Map (db m30988) HM
Virginia (Halifax County), Nathalie — 32 — Meadville Community CenterVernon Hill, Virginia — Halifax County —
Caleb Robinson was born in Jamaica in 1864 and educated at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia. In 1893 he formed the McKinley Institute on land he purchased in the Meadville section of Halifax County. He imported northern teachers . . . — Map (db m30991) HM
Virginia (Halifax County), South Boston — 35 — Mizpah ChurchSouth Boston, Virginia — Halifax County —
Many churches in the second half of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century helped fill African Americans’ need for schooling. Frequently the church would raise funds to build the school, with county governments occasionally offering . . . — Map (db m30961) HM
Virginia (Halifax County), South Boston — 34 — Washington-Coleman Elementary SchoolSouth Boston, Virginia — Halifax County —
Determined to provide elementary education for young African Americans, the Rev. Parham B. Ragland started a school in his backyard some time around 1875. Though the "Backyard School" was private, Rev. Ragland was able to garner financial . . . — Map (db m30970) HM
Virginia (Lunenburg County), Meherrin — 22 — St. Matthew's Lutheran Church Christian Day SchoolMeherrin, Virginia — Lunenburg County —
In 1880 a German Lutheran minister, the Rev. W. R. Buehler, a well-educated man who had worked for five years as a missionary in Africa, moved with his family to Green Bay, Virginia. He had not been in Green Bay long when the black community, . . . — Map (db m31035) HM
Virginia (Lunenburg County), Victoria — 21 — The People's Community CenterVictoria, Virginia — Lunenburg County —
On May 13, 1947, several African-American leaders in Lunenburg County met at First Baptist Church in Victoria to discuss the need for a centrally located building large enough to accommodate countywide gatherings and educational activities for . . . — Map (db m31856) HM
Virginia (Mecklenburg County), Boydton — 37 — Boydton Academic and Bible InstituteBoydton, Virginia — Mecklenburg County —
Boydton Academic and Bible Institute was opened in 1879 in building that had been abandoned by Randolph-Macon College when it moved to Ashland in 1868. Dr. Charles Cullis, a humanitarian from Boston, purchased the property in 1878 and opened the . . . — Map (db m30917) HM
Virginia (Mecklenburg County), Chase City — 36 — Thyne InstituteChase City, Virginia — Mecklenburg County —
Thyne Institute was established by Rev. J.Y. Ashenhurst, United Presbyterian Church, and a group of local citizens to provide an opportunity for African Americans (known as “freedmen” in the late 1800s) to obtain an education. In . . . — Map (db m31003) HM
Virginia (Nottoway County), Blackstone — 18 — Blackstone Female InstituteBlackstone, Virginia — Nottoway County —
The Blackstone Female Institute was conceived in 1891 by George Pierce Adams, a Blackstone merchant, and Joshua Soule Hunter, a Methodist minister. Originally designed as a school to prepare young female students to enter Randolph-Macon Women’s . . . — Map (db m31045) HM
Virginia (Nottoway County), Blackstone — 19 — Mount Nebo ChurchBlackstone, Virginia — Nottoway County —
Mt. Nebo Church was founded shortly after the Civil War in 1867. A northerner named Mr. Rickets bought the place called Oak Hill and began preaching to a group of African Americans at this place in the woods. The audience increased as people . . . — Map (db m20242) HM
Virginia (Nottoway County), Burkeville — 20 — Ingleside Training InstituteBurkeville, Virginia — Nottoway County —
When the Russell Grove School in Amelia County grew too big for its building, land was found in Nottoway County near Burkeville for a new school. Built in 1892 to educate African-American girls, the new school was named Ingleside Seminary. It . . . — Map (db m31042) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — 12 — Earliest Known Public High School for African Americans in VirginiaPetersburg, Virginia
Petersburg established a public school system in 1868, two years before the state’s mandate. Colored Elementary School #1 was conducted in the old church building of the African Baptist Church, which stood to your left. The building had been . . . — Map (db m26011) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — 13 — McKenney LibraryPetersburg, Virginia
Petersburg's main public library, the William R. McKenney Library, is housed in a fine dwelling constructed in 1859 by John Dodson, a prominent lawyer and mayor of Petersburg. After the Civil War, the Confederate General and railroad magnate . . . — Map (db m20609) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — 14 — The Peabody-Williams SchoolPetersburg, Virginia
Disrupted by the convulsions of the First World War, efforts to replace the increasingly inadequate Peabody School on Fillmore Street stretched out from 1913 until 1920, when the new Peabody-Williams School opened on Jones Street. Charles . . . — Map (db m26012) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 27 — Beulah AME ChurchFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
Beulah African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church was founded in 1868. Originally, it was known as The Colored Methodist Church of Farmville. The original wooden-framed building was destroyed, by fire in 1898. The cornerstone on the present . . . — Map (db m31318) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 25 — Farmville Female Seminary AssociationFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
Founded on March 5, 1839 as the Farmville Female Seminary Association, Longwood is one of the oldest colleges originally for women in the country. In 1842 the cornerstone was laid for the first true college building, which is today known as . . . — Map (db m31316) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 26 — First Baptist ChurchFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
The First Baptist Church was organized in 1866 as an outgrowth of the predominantly white Farmville Baptist Church. In 1949, following the death of the Rev. C. H. Griffin, the Church voted unanimously to call his son, L. Francis Griffin, as . . . — Map (db m31310) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 28 — Hampden-Sydney CollegeHampden-Sydney, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
Hampden-Sydney College, in continuous operation since November 10, 1775, was established “to form good men and good citizens.” One of the few remaining all-male colleges, it was named for John Hampden (1594-1643) and Algernon Sydney . . . — Map (db m31324) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 23 — Prince Edward County Public SchoolsFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
In 1954, after the Supreme Court ruled in Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, that United States schools must integrate, Senator Harry S. Byrd and several Virginia governors followed the policy of “massive resistance.” . . . — Map (db m31321) HM
Virginia (Prince Edward County), Farmville — 24 — R. R. Moton High SchoolFarmville, Virginia — Prince Edward County —
On this site of the former R.R. Moton High School, the actions of some brave African-American students to achieve equal educational opportunities for blacks eventually led to the end of legal segregation in American public schools. Moton . . . — Map (db m31319) HM

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Jun. 4, 2020