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MARKER DATABASE
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 

Canada, Historic Sites and Monuments Board Historical Markers

Mandated to advise the Government of Canada, through the Minister of the Environment, on the commemoration of nationally significant aspects of Canada''s history, the Board authorizes Parks Canada to install plaques inscribed with a bilingual text describing the historic significance of the subject. They are sometimes written in a third language, particularly when the commemorated subject is linked to the history of Aboriginal peoples or ethnocultural communities.240 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 40
 
Wideview of Banff Park Museum Marker image, Touch for more information
By Dawn Bowen, July 2, 2008
Wideview of Banff Park Museum Marker
Alberta, Banff — Banff Park Museum
Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed . . . — Map (db m8836) HM
Alberta, Banff — Banff Springs HotelL'Hôtel Banff Springs
This hotel is among the largest and most renowned of the fashionable resort hotels established along railway and steamship routes in Canada during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in stages . . . — Map (db m100084) HM
Alberta, Banff — John Murray Gibbon1875-1952
Born in Ceylon and educated in Scotland and Germany, Gibbon studied painting before turning to journalism. As publicity agent for the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1913 to 1945 he combined advertising with the promotion of a Canadian identity, . . . — Map (db m108632) HM
Alberta, Banff — Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray StationLa Station d'étude des Rayons Cosmiques du Mont Sulphur
Located at the top of Sulfur Mountain, the cosmic ray station was completed by the National Research Council in 1956, in preparation for International Geophysical Year (1957–1958) an undertaking involving 66 countries and a dozen scientific . . . — Map (db m109422) HM
Alberta, Banff — The Cave and Basin
The Cave and Basin Springs were brought to public attention after being located by CPR construction workers in 1883. These and the Upper Hot Springs soon drew private entrepreneurs and tourists. Growing support for public ownership prompted the . . . — Map (db m108877) HM
Alberta, Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil FieldLe Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend
The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, . . . — Map (db m8856) HM
Alberta, Fort McMurray — Methye Portage
The earliest trade route between eastward and northward flowing waters followed the Clearwater River and the Methye Portage. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778 and used continuously for more than a century for more than a century by fur-traders . . . — Map (db m8814) HM
Alberta, Jasper — Arthur Oliver Wheeler(1860-1945)
A preeminent topographical surveyor, Wheeler represented British Columbia on the commission which located and marked the boundary with Alberta between 1913 and 1925. His party surveyed and mapped the 1000 km-long mountain section, using photographs . . . — Map (db m108876) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant
This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original . . . — Map (db m8825) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Oilfield
Turner Valley is Alberta’s first great oilfield. Initially the field, which began production in 1914, yielded mainly natural gas. Local plants, which provided the only extensive gas-processing system in the province, extracted the marketable . . . — Map (db m9204) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British ColumbiaL’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique
Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars . . . — Map (db m9192) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Butchart Gardens / Les Jardins Butchart
Jennie Butchart began to shape this magnificent landscape in 1904. She established, in the style of the grand estates of the period, several distinct gardens to evoke a range of aesthetic experiences. An abandoned limestone quarry was . . . — Map (db m74419) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Fisgard LighthouseLe Phare Fisgard
The first permanent lighthouse on the Pacific coast of Canada, Fisgard was erected in 1859-60 by the British and Colonial Governments to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour. Brought from England with the first lightkeeper, the lantern became . . . — Map (db m70876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park
This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. . . . — Map (db m72870) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt FortificationsLes Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt
From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great . . . — Map (db m72872) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — Esquimalt Naval SitesLes Sites Navals d'Esquimalt
The long naval presence here has produced a unique legacy among defence sites in Canada. From its establishment in 1865 until Britain's Royal Navy withdrew in 1906, Esquimalt served as headquarters of the vast Pacific Station. In the Dockyard, the . . . — Map (db m72867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — The Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC)Le Corps Féminin de l'Armée Canadienne (CFAC)
Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) Women's service in the military during the Second World War challenged the tradition of all-male armed forces. Between 1941 and 1946, close to 22,000 volunteers enlisted in the CWAC and were posted to bases at home . . . — Map (db m72873) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Oak Bay — Chinese CemeteryLe Cimetière Chinois
This place, chosen by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1903 for its harmonized elements of Nature expressing the principles of "feng shui", is a significant legacy of the first Canadians of Chinese origin. Traditionally it was a . . . — Map (db m72874) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Amor De Cosmos, 1825-1897
[English] Amor De Cosmos (Lover of the Universe) was the name adopted by William Smith of Windor, Nova Scotia, while in the California goldfields. In 1858 he arrived in Victoria and founded the opposition journal, the Colonist. For over two decades . . . — Map (db m49079) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Congregation Emanu-El
The Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue was built in 1863, just five years after the arrival if the first members of Victoria's Jewish community during the Fraser River gold rush period. Its opening was widely celebrated in Victoria for, despite their . . . — Map (db m72875) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Craigdarroch
Built for coal magnate Robert Dunsmuir, Craigdarroch symbolized the desire of late 19th-century industrialists to assert their social position through conspicuous displays of wealth. Completed in 1890, the eclectic mansion features exquisite . . . — Map (db m72876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Creation of the Province of British ColumbiaCréation de la Province de Columbie-Britannique
[English] The province of British Columbia was created on July 20, 1871. Formerly a crown colony established by the union in 1866 of Vancouver Island with the mainland colony of British Columbia, the addition of the Pacific coast province made . . . — Map (db m49038) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily Carr1871-1945
[English] Artist and author Emily Carr was born here and lived most of her life in this neighbourhood of Victoria where she died. Her compelling canvases of British Columbia landscape offer a unique vision of the forest an shore, while her . . . — Map (db m49241) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Empress HotelL’Hotel Empress
[English] This hotel was built between 1904 and 1908, and has since been enlarged twice. The architect, Francis M. Rattenbury, followed the practice of the Canadian Pacific Railway in employing the Chateau style, identifiable by the steep slate . . . — Map (db m49238) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway RoundhouseLa Rotonde de l'Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
This imposing brick roundhouse is a particularly fine example of an industrial structure associated with the steam railway era in Canada. Built in 1913, the ten-stall roundhouse with attached machine, boiler and blacksmith's shops is part of a . . . — Map (db m72877) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Estate of the Lieutenant Governor of British ColumbiaLe Domaine du Lieutenant-Gouverneur de la Colombie-Britannique
This magnificent estate, residence of the Crown's representatives in British Columbia, is a cultural landscape that boasts a long and remarkable association with this high office. In 1865 the government of the colony purchased Cary Castle, a house . . . — Map (db m72878) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary . . . — Map (db m80552) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Former Victoria Law CourtsL’Ancien Palais de Justice de Victoria
[English] Opened in 1889, the Victoria Law Courts was the first major public building constructed by the provincial government after union with Canada. Previously, court sessions had been held in one of the colonial administration buildings located . . . — Map (db m49098) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the . . . — Map (db m48542) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Modeste Demers1809-1871
Born near Levis, Demers was trained at the Seminary of Quebec, ordained in 1836 and sent in 1838 as a missionary to the Columbia. His ministry extended from the interior of British Columbia to Oregon. First pastor of St. John's Church of Oregon . . . — Map (db m72879) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Old Victoria Custom HouseAncien Édifice de la Douane de Victoria
(English) Completed in 1875 in the Second Empire style, Victoria’s original Custom House is a distinguished example of the buildings erected by the new Federal Government after Confederation. It regulated the trade of the West Coast’s busiest port . . . — Map (db m49077) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Robert Dunsmuir(1825-1889)
Born into a family of Ayrshire coalmasters, Robert Dunsmuir achieved renown as a leading Canadian businessman. He developed the Wellington Mine near Nanaimo, which soon made him one of the richest men in Canada and, through his labour practices, one . . . — Map (db m72880) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal TheatreLe Théâtre Royal
Constructed in 1912-1913 during the Victoria building boom, this structure originally opened as the Royal Victoria Theatre, owned by a group of local entrepreneurs. Theatres of this type, presenting live dramatic, musical and vaudeville . . . — Map (db m72881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Anthony Musgrave1828-1888
A career Imperial civil servant, Anthony Musgrave served as governor of Newfoundland (1864 - 69) and British Columbia (1869 - 71). Both terms of office were marked by a strong personal effort to encourage the two colonies to unite with the new . . . — Map (db m72882) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas1803-1877
[English] Justifiably described as “the father of British Columbia”, Douglas was born in Demerara. He joined the North West Company in 1819, serving at Fort William and Ile a la Crosse where he was taken into the Hudson’s Bay Company. . . . — Map (db m48769) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie1819 – 1894
[English] Begbie practised [sic] law in England for fourteen years before his appointment in 1858 as the first judge of the mainland Colony of British Columbia. During the gold rush, he won the respect of lawless miners of the Fraser River and . . . — Map (db m49082) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Andrew's Roman Catholic CathedralLa Cathédrale Catholique St. Andrew
Soaring skywards with its bold array of coloured brick, stone and slate, St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral displays the confident spirituality that characterizes the best religious architecture of the High Victorian Gothic style. Designed in . . . — Map (db m70881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann's Academyl'Académie St. Ann
For over a century, St. Ann's played an important role in the educational life of Western Canada. It served as the regional motherhouse for the Sisters of St. Ann, the major female Roman Catholic teaching and nursing order in British Columbia, which . . . — Map (db m72883) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Church of Our Lord
This picturesque building is one of the finest expressions in wood of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. It was constructed in 1875 for the Reformed Episcopal church in Victoria by the Reverend Edward Cridge. Architect John Teague enhanced the . . . — Map (db m72884) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria City HallHôtel de Ville de Victoria
Victoria’s first city hall was designed in 1875. The building was begun three years later and completed in 1890. The designer was John Teague, an Englishman long resident in Victoria, who was responsible for planning many of the city’s early . . . — Map (db m49126) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria’s ChinatownLe Quartier Chinois de Victoria — 域 多 利 唐 人 街
[English] This district, first settled in 1858, is the oldest and most intact Chinatown in Canada, representing an important chapter in the long history and heritage of Chinese Canadians. As the major immigrant port of entry on the west coast in . . . — Map (db m52980) HM
Manitoba, Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in . . . — Map (db m8421) HM
Manitoba, Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore . . . — Map (db m8453) HM
Manitoba, Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies . . . — Map (db m8489) HM
Manitoba, Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators
This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section of . . . — Map (db m8491) HM
Manitoba, Lockport — St. Andrews Caméré Curtain Dam
This is the only Caméré curtain bridge-dam built in North American, and by far the largest ever constructed. H.E .Vautelet, the Canadian engineer responsible for its design, adapted a French technological advancement to deal with the destructive and . . . — Map (db m9205) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrew’s Rectory
Erected between 1852 and 1854, this large limestone dwelling housed the rector of nearby St. Andrew’s church and complemented the massive construction of that building. The rectory, built for the Reverend William Cockran was one of the first stone . . . — Map (db m8449) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrews Anglican Church
Beginning in 1828 the Rev. W. Cockran held religious services in the homes of settlers in this area. In 1829 he established a permanent residence at Grand Rapids on the Red River and by 1831 had built a small wooden church. His growing congregation . . . — Map (db m8445) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — Twin Oaks
Built in the mid-1850s, this house was the residence for a private girls’ school run by Matilda Davis until 1873. The school was supported by families of the Red River Settlement and by officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company from across western Canada . . . — Map (db m8450) HM
Manitoba, Winnipeg — Forks of the Red and AssiniboineFourche de la Rouge et de L'Assiniboine
Strategically located at the junction of two major rivers which form part of a vast continental network, this spot has witnessed many of the key events of Western Canadian history. This was a traditional native stopping place and for this reason La . . . — Map (db m106447) HM
Manitoba, Winnipeg — The Creation of ManitobaLa Création du Manitoba
Angered that they had not been consulted about the transfer of the Hudson's Bay Company territories to Canada, the inhabitants of the Red River Settlement, led by Louis Riel, in 1869 proclaimed a Provisional Government which took control of the . . . — Map (db m106489) HM
New Brunswick (Albert County), Hillsborough — Combat of the/du Petitcodiac

Near this town on 3rd September 1755, a detachment of Major Frye's troops, sent from Fort Cumberland to destroy Acadian settlements on the river and compel the people to surrender for deportation, was defeated by a French force under Charles . . . — Map (db m106630) HM

New Brunswick (Albert County), Hopewell Cape — Right Honourable Richard Bedford BennettPrime Minister of Canada — August 7, 1930 - October 22, 1935

Viscount of Mickelham, Calgary and Hopewell

[Burgundy marker on monument] Rt. Hon. Richard Bedford Bennett 1870-1947

Born at Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, Bennett moved to Calgary in 1897. A member of the legislature of the . . . — Map (db m106707) HM

New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews BlockhouseLe Blockhaus de St. Andrews — (West Point Blockhouse)
This marker consists of two side-by-side plaques, one in English and the other in French. English: The West Point Blockhouse and a battery were erected by the townspeople of St. Andrews at the outbreak of the War of 1812-14 in anticipation . . . — Map (db m77240) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Historic DistrictArrondissement Historique de St. Andrews
English Founded by Loyalists in 1783, St. Andrews is a fine and rare surviving example of a Canadian town whose plan and character clearly reflect its 18th-century origins. The town retains the four key elements of a British colonial . . . — Map (db m77398) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Stephen — St. Stephen Post OfficeBureau de Post de St. Stephen
English Built in 1885-1887, this building was constructed to house the post office, customs and internal revenue. Designed under federal chief architect Thomas Fuller, the structure is one of a series of building erected to establish a . . . — Map (db m77238) HM
New Brunswick (Gloucester County), Caraquet — The Return of the AcadiansLe retour des Acadiens
English: Because of the vicissitudes of war, the Acadians, pioneers of this country, were dispersed in 1755. The arrival of Alexis Landry at Ste. Anne de Bocage, soon after 1755, symbolizes the return of the Acadians to their beloved . . . — Map (db m80579) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely . . . — Map (db m120628) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Marine Compound EngineLa Première Machine Compound de Marine
English The first vessel in the world propelled by a compound steam engine was the REINDEER launched for service on the Saint John, in 1845. Both the vessel and engine were designed by Benjamin Tibbets, a native of Queen’s County, New . . . — Map (db m77428) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Steam Fog HornLa Premiere Corne de Brume a Vapeur
English In 1854, Robert Foulis of St. John, N.B., first advocated the use of a steam horn or whistle to give warning to vessels in foggy weather. An apparatus devised by him was installed on Partridge Island in 1859. This was the first . . . — Map (db m77430) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort HoweMajor Gilfrid Studholme — Indian Treaty of 1778/Le Traité Indien de 1778
Three markers are mounted on this monument Fort Howe English Late in 1777 Major Gilfred Studholme hurriedly fortified this ridge overlooking the mouth of the Saint John River. Throughout the remainder of the American . . . — Map (db m77537) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Founding of New BrunswickLa Fondation du Nouveau-Brunswick
English The increase of population consequent upon the large influx of Loyalists in 1783 and 1784 convinced the British government of the desirability of creating the Province of New Brunswick. This was done on 16 August 1784. Brigadier . . . — Map (db m77519) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Imperial TheatreLe Théâtre Imperial
English Constructed in 1912-1913 to the designs of Philadelphia architect A.E. Westover, this structure was built by the Keith-Albee chain of New York City and its Canadian subsidiary, the Saint John Amusements Company. Dramatic, musical . . . — Map (db m77506) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — No. 2 Mechanics’ Volunteer Company Engine HouseCaserne No 2 des Mécaniciens Pompiers Volontaires
English The cry “Fire!” so terrified Canadians in the early 19th century that communities began to construct permanent fire stations. Erected in 1840, this elegant Neoclassical building is a pioneer example of a firehall . . . — Map (db m77508) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John City MarketLe Marché de Saint John
English Built between 1874 ad 1876, the Saint John City market narrowly escaped the fire that swept through the town in 1877 and stands today as a rare and distinguished example of a 19th century market building. Designed in the Second . . . — Map (db m77535) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Marco PoloLe Marco Polo
English A three-masted full-rigged ship with a modified clipper hull, the Marco Polo earned a reputation as the “fastest ship in the world” and drew international attention to New Brunswick shipyards. Built in 1851 by . . . — Map (db m77456) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Landing of the LoyalistsDébarquement des Loyalistes
English On 10 May 1783 the Spring Fleet, carrying over 2,000 Loyalists, arrived at the Saint John River mouth. The exiles, mostly civilians from the Middle Colonies, established themselves in the newly-surveyed townsites of Parr and . . . — Map (db m77432) HM
New Brunswick (Westmoreland County), Shediac — Men of LettersHommes de Lettres
English: Born in or near Shediac, Pascal Poirier (1852-1933), historian and first Acadian senator; Placide Gaudet (1850-1930), historian and genealogist; John Clarence Webster (1863-1950), historian, Professor, and eminent surgeon, all . . . — Map (db m80578) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Blackhead — Cape Spear LighthouseLe Phare du Cap Spear
English Cape Spear, Newfoundland’s oldest surviving lighthouse, has served as the chief approach light for St. John’s harbour since 1836. Constructed by local builders Nicholas Croke and William Parker, it consists of a stone towner . . . — Map (db m79112) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Ferryland — Colony of AvalonLa colonie d’Avalon — Sir David Kirke, c. 1597-1654
Two plaques are mounted on this monument. English: Near this site stood the “Mansion House” built between 1621 and 1625 by Captain E. Wynne, resident governor of the Colony of Avalon, for the proprietor, Sir . . . — Map (db m79466) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Castle Hill
English In 1693 the French began construction of Fort Royal to guard the harbour at Placentia. When it was completed in 1703, several batteries and outworks supported the main fortifications. The defences, however, were precariously . . . — Map (db m78917) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Battle of Signal HillLa bataille de Signal Hill
English This hill was the site of the decisive assault by British troops on the French lines, September 15, 1762, in the last phase of the battle in North America between the forces fo Great Britain and France. The victorious attack, led by . . . — Map (db m78938) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Bank of British North AmericaL’ancienne Bank of North America
English This Italianate style building recalls evolution of banking in Newfoundland, Designed by Halifax architect David Stirling for the Bank of British North America, it opened in 1850 at a time when British investors controlled banking . . . — Map (db m79034) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Newfoundland Railway HeadquartersL’ancien siège social du chemin de fer de Terre-Neuve
English This remarkable building served as the headquarters and terminus of the Newfoundland railway system. Begun in 1881, the railway played a significant role in the development of the island. Its benefits were evident by the eve of . . . — Map (db m79109) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Mary Meager Southcott(1862-1943)
English Educator, suffragist, and prominent nursing leader, Mary Southcott led the campaign to professionalize nursing in early 20th-century Newfoundland. Trained in London, England, she founded the St. John’s General Hospital School of . . . — Map (db m79031) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John the Baptist Anglican CathedralCathédrale Anglicane St. John the Baptist
English Begun in 1847, under the direction of Bishop Feild, this cathedral was designed by the noted British architect George Gilbert Scott and is an internationally important monument of the Gothic Revival style. Its historical . . . — Map (db m79058) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John’s Court HouseLe Palais de justice de St. John’s
English The St. John’s Court House, built 1900-1094, is by far the most striking and elaborate courthouse in the province. Set into a steep hill it commands a dramatic view of the harbour. The Romanesque Revival building was designed by . . . — Map (db m79032) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — William Carson1770-1843
English Born in Scotland, Carson came to Newfoundland as a physician in 1808, and became an ardent advocate of social and political reform. He was leader in the campaign for an elected legislature, established in 1832, and helped bring . . . — Map (db m79033) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 10, Newfoundland and Labrador (Labrad), L'Anse-au-Loup — L’Anse Amour BurialSite funéraire de l’anse Amour
English: This mound of rocks is the earliest known funeral monument in the new world and marks the burial place of an Indian child who died about 7500 years ago. The Maritime Archaic people, to whom the child belonged, occupied this area . . . — Map (db m79551) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 10, Newfoundland and Labrador (Labrad), Red Bay — Basque Whalers in the Strait of Belle IsleLes baleiners Basques dans la détroit de Belle Isle
English: In the 16th century, the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle emerged as the world's largest producer of whale oil. At its peak, whaling on this coast attracted nearly 2000 Basques annually from Spain and France, and Red Bay . . . — Map (db m79527) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 5 (Humber District)), Corner Brook — Captain James Cook, R.N.Le capitaine James Cook
English: From 1763 to 1767 Captain Cook. R.N directed a survey embracing the greater part of the coast of Newfoundland. The charting of this coastline was the first scientific, large scale, hydrographic survey to use precise triangulation . . . — Map (db m79672) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St Lunaire-Griquet — L’Anse aux Meadows
English: Discovered in 1960, this is the first authenticated Norse site found in North America and could be Leif Ericsson's short-lived Vinland camp. Some time about AD 1000 Norse seafarers established a base here from which they . . . — Map (db m79611) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St. Anthony — Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell1865-1940
English: Born in England and trained in medicine, Grenfell gave 50 years of service to the people of northern Newfoundland and Labrador, and became a legend in his own time. He and those he inspired brought medical, spiritual and . . . — Map (db m79610) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Annapolis Royal Historic DistrictL’arrondissement historique d’Annapolis Royal
English From its strategic setting, Annapolis Royal has witnessed pivotal events in the history of European settlement in Canada. Located on a former Mi’kmaq meeting place, the townsite and its environs were known as Port-Royal by the . . . — Map (db m78670) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Charles Fort / Le fort CharlesCharles de Menou d’Aulnay — (ca. 1604-1650) / (v.1604-1650)
Two markers are located on these monument. Charles Fort / Le fort Charles English A group of about 70 Scottish settlers began a colony here in 1629, eight years after King James I granted ‘Nova Scotia’ to Sir William . . . — Map (db m78486) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Jean Paul Mascarenec. 1694-1760
English A French Huguenot in the British army, Mascarene served here from 1710 to 1750. He was a member of the Council of Nova Scotia (1720-50), lieutenant-colonel of Philipps’ Regiment (1742-50), and administrator and commander in chief . . . — Map (db m78491) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Samuel Vetch
English Adjutant-General of the force under Colonel Francis Nicholson which captured Port Royal, Capital of Acadia, in 1710. First Governor and Commander-in-Chief. A notable figure in colonial history. An able soldier and administrator. . . . — Map (db m78482) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sinclair InnL’auberge Sinclair
English The Sinclair Inn is an important document in the history of building in Atlantic Canada. In the 1780s, tavern-keeper Frederick Sinclair created this inn by combining two existing structures. Both were frame, and the walls of one . . . — Map (db m78701) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — William WolseleyPhilipps Cosby
Two plaques share a common stand. William Wolseley 1756-1842 English William Wolseley was born at Annapolis Royal, the son of an officier of the garrison. He entered the Royal Navy in 1769, and served with . . . — Map (db m78607) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — First Lighthouse Tower
English: On this site was erected by France, in 1731, the first Lighthouse Tower, constructed of fireproof materials, in North America. Near here the British erected batteries to silence the defensive works erected by France. In 1745, . . . — Map (db m79967) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Fortress of LouisbourgLa forteresse de Louisbourg
English: In 1713, France decided to found Louisbourg to defend her colonial and maritime interests in North America. As capital of the colony of Isle Royale and guardian the Gulf of Saint. Lawrence, it became the most important French . . . — Map (db m79915) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — French Garrison at Louisbourg
English: This tablet commemorated the valour and endurance displayed against overwhelming odds, by the French forces, who, in 1745 and again in 1758, garrisoned the defensive batteries on the Island opposite the entrance to the harbour of . . . — Map (db m79968) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Marie Marguerite Rose(1717-1757)
English: Captured in Africa at the age of 19 and transported to Ile Royale, where she was sold to a member of the colonial elite, Marie Marguerite Rose is seen to be a key figure of the initial phase of Black slavery in Canada. Gaining her . . . — Map (db m79917) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Wolfe’s LandingLe débarquement de Wolfe
English: Here, 8th June, 1758, the men of Brigadier General James Wolfe’s brigade, after having been repulsed with heavy loss by the French troops entrenched westward made their gallant and successful landing. Thus began the operation . . . — Map (db m79938) HM
Nova Scotia (Colchester County), Tatamagouche — Naval Encounter at Tatamagouche(15th June, 1745)

In this harbour Capt. David Donahew of New England with three armed vessels surprised Lieut. Paul Marin's allied force en route from Annapolis Royal to Louisbourg. He drove them ashore, disheartened the Canadian Indians and prevented the French . . . — Map (db m108133) HM

Nova Scotia (Colchester County), Truro — Truro Post Office / Le Bureau de Poste de Truro

This building, opened in 1884, was erected to house the Post Office, Customs and Internal Revenue. Designed under the supervision of federal Chief Architect Thomas Fuller, the Truro Post Office was part of a nation-wide programme to house . . . — Map (db m108244) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Edward Barron Chandler1800 - 1880

Born in Amherst, Chandler was called to the New Brunswick bar in 1823. He represented Westmorland in the legislature (1827-36), was a Legislative Councillor (1836-78) and a member of the Executive Council almost continuously between 1844 and . . . — Map (db m107018) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Jonathan McCully1809 - 1877

Born in Cumberland County, N. S., McCully practised law in Amherst and was appointed to the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia in 1848 serving as Solicitor General and Government leader in the Council (1860-62). As editor of the Halifax . . . — Map (db m108034) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Robert Barry Dickey1811 - 1903

Born in Amherst, educated at Windsor Academy, and called to the bar in 1834, Dickey practiced law in Amherst and sat in the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia (1858-67). A Father of Confederation, he attended both the Charlottetown and Quebec . . . — Map (db m107017) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Sir Charles Tupper1821 - 1915

Born at Amherst and educated in medicine, Tupper was elected in 1855 to the Nova Scotia Assembly, becoming Premier in 1864. In alliance with John A. Macdonald, he skilfully manoeuvered unwilling Nova Scotians into Confederation. Having held . . . — Map (db m108038) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Wallace Bridge — Simon Newcomb1835-1909

Born at Wallace Bridge, Newcomb moved to the United States in 1853. Graduating from Harvard he became Professor of Mathematics in the U.S. Navy and was assigned to the Naval Observatory. He was soon recognized as an authority on mathematical . . . — Map (db m108085) HM

Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Black-Binney HouseRésidence Black-Binney
English Built about 1819 by John Black, successful merchant and Executive Councillor (1813-23), this house is a notable example of the finest Halifax residences of its day - the first important era of stone construction in the town. James . . . — Map (db m77657) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Captain / Capitaine James Cook(1728-1779)
English Before the voyages that brought him world fame as Captain Cook, this British Royal Navy officier complied navigational charts for the coasts of Quebec and Nova Scotia. While based in Halifax from 1758 to 1762, he learned . . . — Map (db m77953) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Citadel / La Citadelle d’Halifax
English Built to defend against a land-based attack, the Halifax Citadel was the fourth in a series of forts to occupy this hill, The star-shaped fortress, completed in 1856, was the centerpiece of the extensive system of fortifications . . . — Map (db m78258) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Waterfront Buildings
English From the founding of Halifax in 1749 until the early twentieth century, this portion of the waterfront was associated with men and events in the civic and commercial life of the city. These seven typical warehouses and offices, . . . — Map (db m77826) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Old Burying GroundLe Vieux Cimetière
English The Old Burying Ground, which contains more than 1,200 head and footstones, constitutes a unique concentration of gravestone art. A rich variety of styles, poignant images and carving skill is reflected in these old stones. The . . . — Map (db m77784) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pier 21 / Le Quai 21Postwar Immigration / L’immigration de L’aprés-guerre — War Brides / Les Epouses de Guerre
There are three plaques on this monument. Pier 21 / Le Quai 21 English This site witnessed the arrival of approximately one million immigrants, who have enriched the cultural mosaic of Canada. Opened in 1928, Pier 21 served . . . — Map (db m77718) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Province House
English Province House is an architectural monument and the setting for signifiant events in Canadian political life. Begun in 1811 and opened in 1819 as the seat of government for Nova Scotia, it is one of the finest Palladian-style . . . — Map (db m77858) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — St. Mary’s BasilicaLa Basilique St. Mary
English St. Mary’s holds a central position in the history of Roman Catholicism in Nova Scotia. Begun in 1820, the church demonstrated the enhanced ecclesiastical status of the province, which acquired its own Bishop in 1818, and witnessed . . . — Map (db m77721) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt
[English text] York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential . . . — Map (db m44479) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — Grand-Pré Rural Historic DistrictArrondissement Historique Rurual de Grand-Pré
English The villages of Grand-Pré and Hortonville, and the fertile farmlands which surround them, comprise one of the oldest settlement and land use patterns of European origin in Canada. Acadians began settling near Grand-Pré in the 1680s, . . . — Map (db m78721) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — The Expulsion of the AcadiansLa déportation des Acadiens — (1755-1762)
English The expulsion of the Acadians began in 1755, on the eve of the Seven Years’ War. Frustrated with the neutrality of the Acadians who refused to swear an unconditional oath of allegiance to the Crown, British forces began the . . . — Map (db m78722) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Ermatinger HouseLa Maison Ermatinger
This house, built between 1814 and 1823 by Charles Ermatinger of the North West Company, is the oldest surviving house in northwestern Ontario. Constructed when Sault Ste. Marie was still a small fur trading post on the Upper Lakes, this fine house . . . — Map (db m105955) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Francis Hector Clergue(1856-1939)
A Maine-born promoter, Clergue transformed Sault Ste. Marie into a major industrial centre. He purchased an unfinished hydroelectric station and canal at the Sault in 1894; then, lacking markets for his electric power, he created his own . . . — Map (db m106374) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Nicolas Perrotca. 1644-1717
Explorer, interpreter, fur trader and diplomat, French-born Perrot played an important role in the establishment and protection of New France's western frontier during the last four decades of the 17th century. In 1671 he was with Saint-Lusson at . . . — Map (db m105957) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Passenger and Packet Freighters on the Upper Great Lakes
Until the mid-20th century, passenger and packet freighters were the most efficient means for transporting goods and people to and from isolated communities of the Upper Great Lakes. Essential to early regional development and instrumental in the . . . — Map (db m105959) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Sault Ste. Marie Ship CanalCanal de Sault Ste. Marie
Completed in 1895, this canal formed the last link in an all-Canadian navigation system stretching from the St. Lawrence River to Lake Superior. Designed and built by Canadians, the canal incorporated several engineering innovations. It was the . . . — Map (db m106185) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — The First Sault Ste. Marie CanalLe Premier Canal de Sault Ste-Marie
The French explorers who first reached this favoured Ojibway hunting and fishing ground were soon followed by fur traders and missionaries who built a post and mission. By 1762 the region had come under British control and the trade eventually fell . . . — Map (db m106412) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — Her Majesty’s Chapel of the MohawksLa Chapelle des Agniers de Sa Majesté — Ne Iakataneraientahtsere Ne Iekora Ne Kanienkehaka Rotoreonnaienhs
English: Originally called St. Paul's, this chapel was the first Protestant church in Upper Canada and is now the oldest surviving church in Ontario. Built by the Crown in 1785, it was given to those Mohawk Indians led by Joseph Brant who . . . — Map (db m83743) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — Thayendanega (Joseph Brant)1742-1807
English: This celebrated Mohawk chief of Canajoharie Castle and Johnson Hall grew up in the Mohawk Valley. He received his baptism of fire at the battle of Lake George in 1755. He served with Sir William Johnson in the Niagara . . . — Map (db m83714) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — The Six Nations
English: Commemorating the loyal services and unswerving fidelity of the Six Nations of Iroquois Indians to the British Empire in the Seven Years War, 1755 - 1763, the War of the American Revolution, 1775 - 1783, and in the defence of . . . — Map (db m83712) HM
Ontario (Carleton County), Richmond — Charles Lennox4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox — 4e Duc de Richmond et de Lennox

Charles Lennox was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the British North American colonies and Governor-in-Chief of Lower Canada in May 1818. He received a mandate to improve the colonies' defences and inland navigation system. Lennox . . . — Map (db m109977) HM

Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House
Following the defeat of the British at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, American forces controlled the Thames Valley west of Moraviantown. In early December a detachment of 3 officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment established . . . — Map (db m71292) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America
From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of . . . — Map (db m71391) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Josiah Henson(1789 - 1883)
English After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an . . . — Map (db m78377) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Tecumseh1768-1813
Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white . . . — Map (db m71410) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent Municipality), Thamesville — Fairfield on the Thames / The Fairfield Mission
(Front of monument) Fairfield on the Thames / Fairfield sur la Thames

Here stood the village of Fairfield, destroyed by invading American forces following the Battle of the Thames. , 5th October, 1813. Its inhabitants, Delaware . . . — Map (db m116758) HM

Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard
[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built . . . — Map (db m37552) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)
The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces . . . — Map (db m34353) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson(1796 - 1852)
Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the . . . — Map (db m76737) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The WyandotLes Hurons de Detroit
This area was once the home of the Wyandot, remnants of the Huron, Neutrals, and Petuns who were dispersed by the Iroquois in the 1640's. Some eventually reunited and settled along the Detroit River, where they became known as the Hurons of Detroit, . . . — Map (db m37340) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hiram Walker1816 - 1899
Massachusetts born, Hiram Walker had by the 1850s become a successful general merchant, distiller and grain dealer in Detroit. After Michigan adopted prohibition in 1855 he acquired land across the river in Canada where he established a distillery . . . — Map (db m37377) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit
Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply . . . — Map (db m34321) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Francois Baby House
This house and adjacent farmland were the property of François Baby (1763-1856), first member for Kent in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada (1792-96), militia officer and Assistant Quarter Master General during the War of 1812. When the . . . — Map (db m34303) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Underground Railroad in Canada
From the early 19th century until the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. White and black abolitionists formed a heroic network dedicated to helping free and . . . — Map (db m37379) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
In English: An earlier fort was built here on Point Henry during the War of 1812 primarily to defend the nearby naval dockyard. When the Rideau Canal was built as part of a military route connecting Kingston with Montreal, the strategic . . . — Map (db m39363) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Navy Yard
English: The Navy Yard established in 1789 as a trans-shipment point for the Great Lakes and as the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario base was administered by the Admiralty after 1813. During the War of 1812 Commodore James Yeo, R. N., . . . — Map (db m83568) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Buildings
English: This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c. 1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval . . . — Map (db m83618) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Pro Patria 1812-1814
English: In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and Provincial Marine, and the officers and soldiers on the Royal Marines, Royal Newfoundland, King’s (8th) and 100th Regiments, who served on Lake Ontario in defence of . . . — Map (db m83620) WM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir James Lucas Yeo1782-1818
English: Born at Southampton, England, Yeo entered the British Navy, served throughout the Napoleonic Wars and won rapid promotion by his ability. In 1813, already a Commodore, he came to Canada to command British forces on the Great . . . — Map (db m83616) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814
[English Text]: Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and . . . — Map (db m56725) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Dundurn Castle
This villa was completed in 1835 for Allan Napier MacNab. Incorporating an existing farmhouse, it was designed by the local architect, Robert Wetherell, as a statement of its owner's place in Hamilton society. The house features an eclectic blend of . . . — Map (db m66126) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — HMCS Haida - NCSM HaidaTribal Class Destroyer — National Historic Site of Canada
HMCS Haida is the last of the Tribal class destroyers which saw heavy action with the Australian, British and Canadian navies during World War II. Built for the Royal Canadian Navy at Newcastle, England, , in 1942, this ship served on the frigid . . . — Map (db m67343) WM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Sir Allan Napier MacNab1798 - 1862
Politician, businessman, land speculator and soldier, Allan MacNab enjoyed a very public life. He was a successful lawyer and was appointed Upper Canada's first Queen's Counsel. In 1838 he was knighted for his role in suppressing the rebellion in . . . — Map (db m66130) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek
[English Text]: Battle of Stoney Creek During 1813 the Americans planned to invade Upper Canada from Detroit and the Niagara Peninsula. In late May, an American force crossed the Niagara River, seized Fort George, and with about . . . — Map (db m56762) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Oil Springs — First Oil Wells in CanadaLes Premiers Puits de Pétrole au Canada
English The presence of oil in this locality was observed by early travelers and by the pioneer farmers who used it for medical purposes. In 1858, near Oil Springs, James M. Williams dug the first oil well in Canada and later established a . . . — Map (db m78424) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — Victoria Hall
English When Victoria Hall was built in 1889, Petrolia, in the midst of an oil boom, was one of the wealthiest towns in Canada. The opulent town hall reflects this stage in the town’s growth. While its first floor housed municipal offices, . . . — Map (db m78421) HM
Ontario (Lanark County), Almonte — Former Almonte Post Office
Begun in 1889 and finished in 1891, this building was erected to house postal and customs services. Federal chief architect Thomas Fuller was responsible for the design and Robert Cameron was the contractor. The building was part of a national . . . — Map (db m104019) HM
Ontario (Lanark County), Almonte — Robert Tait McKenzie
Surgeon, educator and sculptor, McKenzie was born in Lanark County, Ontario. After graduating in medicine at McGill University, he became its Medical Director of Physical Training in 1894. A pioneer in physical education, he served as a surgeon . . . — Map (db m104096) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Former Brockville Post Office
Completed in 1886 this structure was designed under the direction of Thomas Fuller, Chief Architect of the Department of Public Works from 1881 to 1896. The Brockville Post Office shows the sensitivity often displayed by Fuller and his staff. The . . . — Map (db m87064) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Fulford Place
Built in 1899 – 1900, this eclectic mansion evokes the opulent lifestyle of Canada's industrial elite at the turn of the century. Designed by American architect A. W. Fuller, it was the spacious residence of Senator George T. Fulford . . . — Map (db m87017) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Leeds-Grenville County Court House
Symbols of law and authority to a new and changing society, the district court houses of Upper Canada were architecturally prominent buildings in the colony. Of these, one of the most grandiose is the former Johnstown District court house which was . . . — Map (db m87027) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Sir William Buell Richards1815 - 1889
Born at Brockville and called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1837, Richards represented Leeds in the Legislative Assembly (1848–53) and served as Attorney General for Canada West in the Hincks-Morin administration (1851–3). Appointed . . . — Map (db m87029) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Darlingside — Darlingside

Darlingside is a rare surviving example of the wood depots which provided an essential fuelling service during the early phase of steamboat navigation on Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River. Thomas Darling, a Scottish immigrant, . . . — Map (db m102088) HM

Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Gananoque
English: A vulnerable point on the vital line of supply from Lower Canada in the War of 1812-14. Raided on the 21st September, 1812, when the bridge was broken up. Fortified by the Leeds Militia and garrisoned in turn by the 104th, 41st, . . . — Map (db m83528) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Cavendish — Lucy Maud Montgomery(1874 - 1942)
English: Internationally renowned author, Lucy Maud Montgomery was born in New London, Prince Edward Island. After her mother's death in 1876, she lived with her maternal grandparents in Cavendish until 1911, when she married and moved to . . . — Map (db m80283) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — All Souls’ Chapel
English: This 1888 chapel, designed by William Critchlow Harris, Jr., is a masterful example of High Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in Canada. Its robust design is distinguished by rough textures in rust-red Prince Edward Island . . . — Map (db m80226) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Andrew Archibald Macdonald1829 - 1912
English: Born at Three Rivers, Brudenell Point, Macdonald, a merchant and shipbuilder, served as a member of the Legislative Assembly (1853-58) and of the Legislative Council (1867-72). He attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences . . . — Map (db m80271) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Apothecaries Hall
English: On December 24, 1810, Thomas Desbrisay Jr. opened an apothecary shop on this site to supply drugs and medicine to the people of Prince Edward Island. Until then, many Islanders relied more on home remedies or obtained medicines . . . — Map (db m80262) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Charlottetown City HallHotel de ville de Charlottetown
English: Built in 1888, the Charlottetown City Hall is the oldest municipal hall in Prince Edward Island. Designed by Phillips and Chappell in the Romanesque Revival style often favoured for 19th-century civic buildings, it originally . . . — Map (db m80230) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Colonel John Hamilton Gray1811 - 1887
English: Born in Charlottetown, a Father of Confederation, Gray served in the Imperial cavalry (1831-52) before entering politics. Elected in 1858 to represent Queen's County, he served as Premier of the province (1863-65) and played a . . . — Map (db m80269) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Confederation Centre of the ArtsCentre de Arts de la Confédération
English: Opened by Her Majesty the Queen in 1964 as Canada's National Memorial to the Fathers of Confederation, the Centre is an outstanding example of an institution dedicated to the arts. The extensive cultural complex includes a . . . — Map (db m80264) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Dundas Terrace
English: This apartment building, completed in 1890, is a handsome example of the Queen Anne Revival in Canada. Admired for its picturesque qualities, this style was popular in Canadian domestic architecture from the 1880s to the 1910s. As . . . — Map (db m80207) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Edward Palmer1809 - 1889
English: Born in Charlottetown and called to the bar in 1831, Palmer was a member of the legislature (1835-60), and of the Legislative Council (1860-73). Between 1848 and 1873 he held several cabinet posts, including that of President of . . . — Map (db m80270) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Edward Whelan1824 - 1867
English: Born in Ireland, Whelan immigrated to Halifax c. 1836 and became a protégé of Joseph Howe. As a journalist in Charlottetown be published the short- lived Palladium in 1845, became editor of the Morning News in 1846, . . . — Map (db m80266) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — George Coles1810 - 1875
English: A native Prince Edward Islander, Coles, first elected in 1842, represented the constituency of Queen's in the House of Assembly of the Island until his retirement because of ill health in 1868. Co-founder, with Edward Whelan, of . . . — Map (db m80273) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Great George Street Historic DistrictL’arrondissement Historique de la rue Great George
English: Great George Street is richly evocative of both its 18th-century origins and its subsequent development as one of Charlottetown's principal streets. Clearly focused to Province House, the seat of Island government and the . . . — Map (db m80200) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Province House
English Completed in 1847, this neo-classical building was designed and built by local architect Isaac Smith to accommodate the provincial legislature and administrative offices. It also housed the Island's Supreme Court until 1872. . . . — Map (db m80282) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Sir Louis Henry Davis1845-1924
Born in Charlottetown, Davies studied law at the Inner Temple and was admitted to the bar in 1867. A member of the Legislative Assembly (1872-9) and Premier for the last three years of that period, he defended the rights of tenant farmers while . . . — Map (db m80206) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Survey of the Gulf and River St. LawrenceL’hydrographie du Golfe de du Fleuves Saint-Laurent
English: Between 1827 and 1856 the first complete hydrographic survey of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence was carried out by Captain Henry W. Bayfield and his assistants. From the time of Cartier, French and British navigators ad surveyed . . . — Map (db m80198) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Thomas Heath Haviland1822 - 1895
English: Born in Charlottetown, Haviland was called to the Prince Edward Island bar in 1846. He represented Georgetown in the legislature (1847-70), serving successively as Colonial Secretary, as Speaker, and as Solicitor-Genera1. As a . . . — Map (db m80268) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — William Henry Pope1825 - 1879
English: Born at Bedeque, Prince Edward Island, Pope was admitted to the bar in 1847, became Colonial Secretary in 1859, was elected to the Legislative Assembly representing Queen's County in 1863 and continued to serve in the Assembly . . . — Map (db m80272) HM
Quebec (Acton MRC), Acton Vale — Acton Vale Station
The design of this building is based on a standard plan used by the Grand Trunk Railway Company to build several stations between 1895 and 1905 on the line connecting Montreal to Portland, Maine. This plan features a variety of structural shapes, . . . — Map (db m74535) HM
Quebec (Argenteuil MRC), Saint-André-d'Argenteuil — Carillon Canal
French text appears above English text. Designed and constructed by the Royal Engineers. Commenced in 1826, completed in 1833, enlarged from 1871 to 1882. One of the canals which, by way of the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, Rideau, and . . . — Map (db m75655) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Calixa Lavallée(1842-1891)
English: Calixa Lavallée was one of the first Canadian musicians to win an international reputation. He studied in Montréal and Paris and was, at various times, an itinerant musician, military bandsman, choral and orchestra conductor, . . . — Map (db m81345) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye(1632-1702)
English: The man who became New France's leading businessman arrived at Québec in 1655. Driven by a desire for place and profit he began in the import trade, but his interests expanded to include all aspects of the colony's economic life: . . . — Map (db m81498) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Chemin Royal
English: On the 5th August, 1734, Lanouillier de Boiscler, Chief Roadmaster of New France, started from Quebec by coach for Montreal thus officially inaugurating the King's Highway in Canada. French: Le 5 août 1734, . . . — Map (db m80777) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — First Patent in CanadaPremier brevet d’invention
The first patent of invention was issued by the Province of Lower Canada in the Parliament Buildings which stood on this site. It was granted on the 8th June, 1824, for a washing and fulling machine in favour of Noah Cushing of Quebec . . . — Map (db m80789) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Georges-Philias Vanier(1888-1967)
English: Governor General from 1959 to 1967, Vanier had a distinguished military and diplomatic career. A founder of the Royal 22e Régiment, he served with it in the First World War and was its commanding officer from 1925 to 1928. General . . . — Map (db m80840) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Guillaume Verrier1680-1758
English: Born in France, Verrier was Attorney General of New France and member of the Council of Quebec for thirty years from 1728 until his death. From 1735 onwards, many who were te become successful men of law benefitted from the courses . . . — Map (db m81347) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Hôtel-Dieu de QuébecL’Hôtel-Dieu de Québec
English: Founded on 16 August 1637 by the Duchess of Aiguillon and the religious order of the Augustines Hospitalières of Dieppe, the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec was the first permanent hospital established north of Mexico. As soon as they . . . — Map (db m80783) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Joseph Bouchette1774-1841
English: Born at Quebec, Bouchette rose rapidly in the ranks of the Public Service to become, in 1804, Surveyor General of the Province. In carrying out the responsibilities of this office, he travelled throughout Upper and Lower Canada. In . . . — Map (db m81318) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — La contribution des troupes allemandes à la défense du CanadaThe Contributions of German Troops to the Defence of Canada

La contribution des troupes allemandes à la défense du Canada pendant la guerre de l'indéndance américaine

De 1776 à 1783, ces troupes au service de la Grande-Bretagne jouèrent un rôle crucial dans la défense du Canada, formant à . . . — Map (db m123223) HM

Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Le Château FrontenacVieux-Québec
Construit en sept étapes à partir de 1892-1893, cet édifice offre un excellet exemple des hotels de style Chateau etablis par les companies ferroviaires au Canada. Rehaussé par la splendeur du site, il évoque la romantisme des château de la Loir . . . — Map (db m74546) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Le Vielle Prison de Québec(The Old Quebec Prison) — (Morrin College)
English: This is the first prison in Canada to reflect the principles of John Howard, a British reformer who believed that cellular confinement, work, and education could rehabilitate criminals. Designed by local architect François . . . — Map (db m80776) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Legislature of the Province of CanadaLe Parlement de la Province du Canada
English: Between 1850 and 1866, the Capital of the Province of Canada alternated between Toronto and Québec. In 1852, Parliament met in the Legislative Chambers of Lower Canada on the site of the old Bishop’s Palace, now Montmorency Park. . . . — Map (db m80787) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — L'Église Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church

Cette église, qui occupe le site de l'Habitation de Champlain, a été érigée à la fin du XVIIe siècle. L'édifice actuel porte la signature d'architectes aussi réputés que les Baillif, Maillou et Baillairgé. Son nom rappelle la . . . — Map (db m123414) HM

Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Louis Jolliet1645-1700
. . . — Map (db m80798) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Organisation pour l'alimentation et l'agricultureFood and Agriculture Organization — Fiat panis

Le 16 octobre, 1945, cette organisation, le premier des organismes nouveaux des Nations Unies, fut adoptée, en cet édifice, par les représentants de 44 nations. Pour la première fois, des nations s'organisaient pour améliorer le niveau . . . — Map (db m123220) HM

Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Premier Hôpital au CanadaFirst Hospital in Canada
English: The Hotel-Dieu of Quebec, founded on the 16th August, 1637 by the Duchesse d’Aiguillon and the Augustines Hospitalieres de Dieppe, is the first hospital established in America, north of Mexico. Here, ever since their arrival in . . . — Map (db m80782) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Québec Court HouseLe palais de justice de Quebec
English: This building, designed by Eugène-Étienne Taché and other provincial Department of Public Works architects, was largely constructed between 1883 and 1887 on the site of the city's first court house. Its mansard roof, classical . . . — Map (db m81255) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Québec Martello TowersLes tours Martello de Québec
English: Four Martello towers (three of which remains) were an integral part of the defences of Québec, the key to the control of the continental interior of North America. Works had been proposed in the Plains of Abraham since the early . . . — Map (db m80891) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Samuel Johannes Holland(1728-1801)

Par ses méticuleux travaux d'arpentage, Samuel Holland influença les modes de colonisation de grandes régions du Canada. Né aux Pays-Bas, il effectua des levés stratégiques pour l'armée britannique en Amérique du Nord pendant la guerre de Sept . . . — Map (db m123308) HM

Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Grande Allée Drill HallLe manège de la Grande Allée
English: The Grande-Allée Drill Hall is an impressive example of a drill hall that retains its original parade square. Designed by Eugène-Étienne Taché, a Quebec public servant and architect, the stone building was completed in 1887, with . . . — Map (db m80754) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec
English: Founded on the initiative of Lord Dalhousie in 1824 to preserve the documentary record of Canadian history, this was the first Canadian learned society. For 120 years, the Society made important contributions to higher learning as . . . — Map (db m80775) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Maillou HouseLa Maison Malliou
English: Built as a one-storey house about 1736 by Jean Maillou, architect, it was raised before 1775 to its present height by Antoine Duchesnay, Executive Councillor and extended in 1799 by John Hale, Deputy Paymaster General of the . . . — Map (db m80799) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Québec BridgeLe pont Québec
English: This is the longest span cantilever bridge in the world, stretching 548.6 meters between the main piers. Completed in 1917, it is a remarkable engineering achievement. To overcome technical problems that had caused the collapse of . . . — Map (db m81248) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Québec CitadelLa Citadelle de Québec
English: In 1820 Lieutenant-Colonel Elias Walker Durnford of the Royal Engineers took charge of the construction of the Québec Citadel, which completed the city's defensive works begun during the French régime. Set on the heights of . . . — Map (db m80822) HM

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