“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Canada, Historic Sites and Monuments Board Historical Markers

Mandated to advise the Government of Canada, through the Minister of the Environment, on the commemoration of nationally significant aspects of Canada's history, the Board authorizes Parks Canada to install plaques inscribed with a bilingual text describing the historic significance of the subject. They are sometimes also written in a third language, particularly when the commemorated subject is linked to the history of Aboriginal peoples or ethnocultural communities.
329 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 129
Wideview of Banff Park Museum Marker image, Touch for more information
By Dawn Bowen, July 2, 2008
Wideview of Banff Park Museum Marker
Alberta, Banff — Banff Park Museum
Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed . . . — Map (db m8836) HM
Alberta, Banff — Banff Springs HotelL'Hôtel Banff Springs
This hotel is among the largest and most renowned of the fashionable resort hotels established along railway and steamship routes in Canada during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in stages . . . — Map (db m100084) HM
Alberta, Banff — Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray StationLa Station d'étude des Rayons Cosmiques du Mont Sulphur
Located at the top of Sulfur Mountain, the cosmic ray station was completed by the National Research Council in 1956, in preparation for International Geophysical Year (1957–1958) an undertaking involving 66 countries and a dozen scientific . . . — Map (db m109422) HM
Alberta, Banff — The Cave and Basin
The Cave and Basin Springs were brought to public attention after being located by CPR construction workers in 1883. These and the Upper Hot Springs soon drew private entrepreneurs and tourists. Growing support for public ownership prompted the . . . — Map (db m108877) HM
Alberta, Fort McMurray — Methye Portage
The earliest trade route between eastward and northward flowing waters followed the Clearwater River and the Methye Portage. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778 and used continuously for more than a century for more than a century by fur-traders . . . — Map (db m8814) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant
This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original . . . — Map (db m8825) HM
Alberta (Division No. 11), Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil FieldLe Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend
The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, . . . — Map (db m8856) HM
Alberta (Division No. 15), Banff — John Murray Gibbon1875-1952
Born in Ceylon and educated in Scotland and Germany, Gibbon studied painting before turning to journalism. As publicity agent for the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1913 to 1945 he combined advertising with the promotion of a Canadian identity, . . . — Map (db m108632) HM
Alberta (Division No. 15), Jasper — Arthur Oliver Wheeler(1860-1945)
A preeminent topographical surveyor, Wheeler represented British Columbia on the commission which located and marked the boundary with Alberta between 1913 and 1925. His party surveyed and mapped the 1000 km-long mountain section, using photographs . . . — Map (db m108876) HM
Alberta (Division No. 6), Turner Valley — Turner Valley Oilfield
Turner Valley is Alberta’s first great oilfield. Initially the field, which began production in 1914, yielded mainly natural gas. Local plants, which provided the only extensive gas-processing system in the province, extracted the marketable . . . — Map (db m9204) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British ColumbiaL’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique
Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars . . . — Map (db m9192) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Butchart Gardens / Les Jardins Butchart
Jennie Butchart began to shape this magnificent landscape in 1904. She established, in the style of the grand estates of the period, several distinct gardens to evoke a range of aesthetic experiences. An abandoned limestone quarry was . . . — Map (db m74419) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Fisgard LighthouseLe Phare Fisgard
The first permanent lighthouse on the Pacific coast of Canada, Fisgard was erected in 1859-60 by the British and Colonial Governments to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour. Brought from England with the first lightkeeper, the lantern became . . . — Map (db m70876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park
This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. . . . — Map (db m72870) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt FortificationsLes Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt
From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great . . . — Map (db m72872) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — Esquimalt Naval SitesLes Sites Navals d'Esquimalt
The long naval presence here has produced a unique legacy among defence sites in Canada. From its establishment in 1865 until Britain's Royal Navy withdrew in 1906, Esquimalt served as headquarters of the vast Pacific Station. In the Dockyard, the . . . — Map (db m72867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — The Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC)Le Corps Féminin de l'Armée Canadienne (CFAC)
Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) Women's service in the military during the Second World War challenged the tradition of all-male armed forces. Between 1941 and 1946, close to 22,000 volunteers enlisted in the CWAC and were posted to bases at home . . . — Map (db m72873) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Oak Bay — Chinese CemeteryLe Cimetière Chinois
This place, chosen by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1903 for its harmonized elements of Nature expressing the principles of "feng shui", is a significant legacy of the first Canadians of Chinese origin. Traditionally it was a . . . — Map (db m72874) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Amor De Cosmos, 1825-1897
[English] Amor De Cosmos (Lover of the Universe) was the name adopted by William Smith of Windor, Nova Scotia, while in the California goldfields. In 1858 he arrived in Victoria and founded the opposition journal, the Colonist. For over two decades . . . — Map (db m49079) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Congregation Emanu-El
The Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue was built in 1863, just five years after the arrival if the first members of Victoria's Jewish community during the Fraser River gold rush period. Its opening was widely celebrated in Victoria for, despite their . . . — Map (db m72875) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Craigdarroch
Built for coal magnate Robert Dunsmuir, Craigdarroch symbolized the desire of late 19th-century industrialists to assert their social position through conspicuous displays of wealth. Completed in 1890, the eclectic mansion features exquisite . . . — Map (db m72876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Creation of the Province of British ColumbiaCréation de la Province de Columbie-Britannique
[English] The province of British Columbia was created on July 20, 1871. Formerly a crown colony established by the union in 1866 of Vancouver Island with the mainland colony of British Columbia, the addition of the Pacific coast province made . . . — Map (db m49038) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily Carr1871-1945
[English] Artist and author Emily Carr was born here and lived most of her life in this neighbourhood of Victoria where she died. Her compelling canvases of British Columbia landscape offer a unique vision of the forest an shore, while her . . . — Map (db m49241) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Empress HotelL’Hotel Empress
[English] This hotel was built between 1904 and 1908, and has since been enlarged twice. The architect, Francis M. Rattenbury, followed the practice of the Canadian Pacific Railway in employing the Chateau style, identifiable by the steep slate . . . — Map (db m49238) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway RoundhouseLa Rotonde de l'Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
This imposing brick roundhouse is a particularly fine example of an industrial structure associated with the steam railway era in Canada. Built in 1913, the ten-stall roundhouse with attached machine, boiler and blacksmith's shops is part of a . . . — Map (db m72877) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Estate of the Lieutenant Governor of British ColumbiaLe Domaine du Lieutenant-Gouverneur de la Colombie-Britannique
This magnificent estate, residence of the Crown's representatives in British Columbia, is a cultural landscape that boasts a long and remarkable association with this high office. In 1865 the government of the colony purchased Cary Castle, a house . . . — Map (db m72878) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary . . . — Map (db m80552) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Former Victoria Law CourtsL’Ancien Palais de Justice de Victoria
[English] Opened in 1889, the Victoria Law Courts was the first major public building constructed by the provincial government after union with Canada. Previously, court sessions had been held in one of the colonial administration buildings located . . . — Map (db m49098) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the . . . — Map (db m48542) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Modeste Demers1809-1871
Born near Levis, Demers was trained at the Seminary of Quebec, ordained in 1836 and sent in 1838 as a missionary to the Columbia. His ministry extended from the interior of British Columbia to Oregon. First pastor of St. John's Church of Oregon . . . — Map (db m72879) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Old Victoria Custom HouseAncien Édifice de la Douane de Victoria
(English) Completed in 1875 in the Second Empire style, Victoria’s original Custom House is a distinguished example of the buildings erected by the new Federal Government after Confederation. It regulated the trade of the West Coast’s busiest port . . . — Map (db m49077) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Robert Dunsmuir(1825-1889)
Born into a family of Ayrshire coalmasters, Robert Dunsmuir achieved renown as a leading Canadian businessman. He developed the Wellington Mine near Nanaimo, which soon made him one of the richest men in Canada and, through his labour practices, one . . . — Map (db m72880) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal TheatreLe Théâtre Royal
Constructed in 1912-1913 during the Victoria building boom, this structure originally opened as the Royal Victoria Theatre, owned by a group of local entrepreneurs. Theatres of this type, presenting live dramatic, musical and vaudeville . . . — Map (db m72881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Anthony Musgrave1828-1888
A career Imperial civil servant, Anthony Musgrave served as governor of Newfoundland (1864 - 69) and British Columbia (1869 - 71). Both terms of office were marked by a strong personal effort to encourage the two colonies to unite with the new . . . — Map (db m72882) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas1803-1877
[English] Justifiably described as “the father of British Columbia”, Douglas was born in Demerara. He joined the North West Company in 1819, serving at Fort William and Ile a la Crosse where he was taken into the Hudson’s Bay Company. . . . — Map (db m48769) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie1819 – 1894
[English] Begbie practised [sic] law in England for fourteen years before his appointment in 1858 as the first judge of the mainland Colony of British Columbia. During the gold rush, he won the respect of lawless miners of the Fraser River and . . . — Map (db m49082) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Andrew's Roman Catholic CathedralLa Cathédrale Catholique St. Andrew
Soaring skywards with its bold array of coloured brick, stone and slate, St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral displays the confident spirituality that characterizes the best religious architecture of the High Victorian Gothic style. Designed in . . . — Map (db m70881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann's Academyl'Académie St. Ann
For over a century, St. Ann's played an important role in the educational life of Western Canada. It served as the regional motherhouse for the Sisters of St. Ann, the major female Roman Catholic teaching and nursing order in British Columbia, which . . . — Map (db m72883) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Church of Our Lord
This picturesque building is one of the finest expressions in wood of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. It was constructed in 1875 for the Reformed Episcopal church in Victoria by the Reverend Edward Cridge. Architect John Teague enhanced the . . . — Map (db m72884) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria City HallHôtel de Ville de Victoria
Victoria’s first city hall was designed in 1875. The building was begun three years later and completed in 1890. The designer was John Teague, an Englishman long resident in Victoria, who was responsible for planning many of the city’s early . . . — Map (db m49126) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria’s ChinatownLe Quartier Chinois de Victoria — 域 多 利 唐 人 街 —
[English] This district, first settled in 1858, is the oldest and most intact Chinatown in Canada, representing an important chapter in the long history and heritage of Chinese Canadians. As the major immigrant port of entry on the west coast in . . . — Map (db m52980) HM
Manitoba, Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in . . . — Map (db m8421) HM
Manitoba, Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore . . . — Map (db m8453) HM
Manitoba, Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies . . . — Map (db m8489) HM
Manitoba, Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators
This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section . . . — Map (db m8491) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrew’s Rectory
Erected between 1852 and 1854, this large limestone dwelling housed the rector of nearby St. Andrew’s church and complemented the massive construction of that building. The rectory, built for the Reverend William Cockran was one of the first stone . . . — Map (db m8449) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrews Anglican Church
Beginning in 1828 the Rev. W. Cockran held religious services in the homes of settlers in this area. In 1829 he established a permanent residence at Grand Rapids on the Red River and by 1831 had built a small wooden church. His growing congregation . . . — Map (db m8445) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — Twin Oaks
Built in the mid-1850s, this house was the residence for a private girls’ school run by Matilda Davis until 1873. The school was supported by families of the Red River Settlement and by officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company from across western Canada . . . — Map (db m8450) HM
Manitoba, Winnipeg — Forks of the Red and AssiniboineFourche de la Rouge et de L'Assiniboine
Strategically located at the junction of two major rivers which form part of a vast continental network, this spot has witnessed many of the key events of Western Canadian history. This was a traditional native stopping place and for this reason La . . . — Map (db m106447) HM
Manitoba, Winnipeg — The Creation of ManitobaLa Création du Manitoba
Angered that they had not been consulted about the transfer of the Hudson's Bay Company territories to Canada, the inhabitants of the Red River Settlement, led by Louis Riel, in 1869 proclaimed a Provisional Government which took control of the . . . — Map (db m106489) HM
Manitoba (Division No. 13), Gimli — St. Andrews Caméré Curtain Dam
This is the only Caméré curtain bridge-dam built in North America, and by far the largest ever constructed. H.E .Vautelet, the Canadian engineer responsible for its design, adapted a French technological advancement to deal with the . . . — Map (db m9205) HM
New Brunswick (Albert County), Hillsborough — Combat of the/du Petitcodiac

Near this town on 3rd September 1755, a detachment of Major Frye's troops, sent from Fort Cumberland to destroy Acadian settlements on the river and compel the people to surrender for deportation, was defeated by a French force under Charles . . . — Map (db m106630) HM

New Brunswick (Albert County), Hopewell Cape — Right Honourable Richard Bedford BennettPrime Minister of Canada — August 7, 1930 - October 22, 1935 —

Viscount of Mickelham, Calgary and Hopewell

[Burgundy marker on monument] Rt. Hon. Richard Bedford Bennett 1870-1947

Born at Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, Bennett moved to Calgary in 1897. A member of the legislature of the . . . — Map (db m106707) HM

New Brunswick (Carleton County), Woodstock — Connell House/Maison Connell
Lumber merchant and politician, Charles Connell had this house constructed circa 1840. Its pedimented front and freestanding columns make it a fine example of the Greek Revival style. Such houses inspired by classical temples are rare . . . — Map (db m139149) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Greenock Church / L’Église Greenock
English: This elegant church marks the growth of Presbyterianism and the Kirk of Scotland in New Brunswick. Built in 1821-1824, the structure successfully combines the American meeting house form with the British Palladian style. The . . . — Map (db m137515) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews BlockhouseLe Blockhaus de St. Andrews — (West Point Blockhouse) —
This marker consists of two side-by-side plaques, one in English and the other in French. English: The West Point Blockhouse and a battery were erected by the townspeople of St. Andrews at the outbreak of the War of 1812-14 in anticipation . . . — Map (db m77240) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Historic DistrictArrondissement Historique de St. Andrews
English Founded by Loyalists in 1783, St. Andrews is a fine and rare surviving example of a Canadian town whose plan and character clearly reflect its 18th-century origins. The town retains the four key elements of a British colonial . . . — Map (db m77398) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Stephen — St. Stephen Post OfficeBureau de Post de St. Stephen
English Built in 1885-1887, this building was constructed to house the post office, customs and internal revenue. Designed under federal chief architect Thomas Fuller, the structure is one of a series of building erected to establish a . . . — Map (db m77238) HM
New Brunswick (Gloucester County), Caraquet — The Return of the AcadiansLe retour des Acadiens
English: Because of the vicissitudes of war, the Acadians, pioneers of this country, were dispersed in 1755. The arrival of Alexis Landry at Ste. Anne de Bocage, soon after 1755, symbolizes the return of the Acadians to their beloved . . . — Map (db m80579) HM
New Brunswick (Kent County), Saint-Louis-de-Kent — Marcel-François Richard(1847-1915)
Français: Né à Saint-Louis-de-Kent et ordonné prêtre en 1870, Mgr Richard fut l'une des figures de proue de la renaissance acadienne. Il stimula la colonisation afin de centrer l'exode yeti les États-Unis, fonda des écoles, des . . . — Map (db m139702) HM
New Brunswick (Madawaska County), Edmundston — Archibald Fraser(1869-1932)
English: From a start in his family's small sawmill in the 1880s, Archibald came a prominent pioneer of the New Brunswick pulp industry. As the lumber trade fell into decline, he sought new ways to exploit the province's vast forest . . . — Map (db m137447) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — 1 Chipman Hill
English: Remarkable for the range of trompe l'œil effects and skillful execution, the wall and ceiling paintings inside this residence, part of a row of similar town houses, reflect the taste of the High Victorian era, . . . — Map (db m140107) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely . . . — Map (db m120628) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Marine Compound EngineLa Première Machine Compound de Marine
English The first vessel in the world propelled by a compound steam engine was the REINDEER launched for service on the Saint John, in 1845. Both the vessel and engine were designed by Benjamin Tibbets, a native of Queen’s County, New . . . — Map (db m77428) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Steam Fog HornLa Premiere Corne de Brume a Vapeur
English In 1854, Robert Foulis of St. John, N.B., first advocated the use of a steam horn or whistle to give warning to vessels in foggy weather. An apparatus devised by him was installed on Partridge Island in 1859. This was the first . . . — Map (db m77430) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort HoweMajor Gilfrid Studholme — Indian Treaty of 1778/Le Traité Indien de 1778 —
Three markers are mounted on this monument Fort Howe English Late in 1777 Major Gilfred Studholme hurriedly fortified this ridge overlooking the mouth of the Saint John River. Throughout the remainder of the American . . . — Map (db m77537) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort La Tour / Le Fort La Tour
English: In 1631, Charles de Sainte-Étienne de La Tour built a fort here on ground traditionally used by First Nations people, for some 4000 years. The fort became one of the earliest centres of the French fur trade with the . . . — Map (db m139998) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Founding of New BrunswickLa Fondation du Nouveau-Brunswick
English The increase of population consequent upon the large influx of Loyalists in 1783 and 1784 convinced the British government of the desirability of creating the Province of New Brunswick. This was done on 16 August 1784. Brigadier . . . — Map (db m77519) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Imperial TheatreLe Théâtre Imperial
English Constructed in 1912-1913 to the designs of Philadelphia architect A.E. Westover, this structure was built by the Keith-Albee chain of New York City and its Canadian subsidiary, the Saint John Amusements Company. Dramatic, musical . . . — Map (db m77506) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Loyalist House / La Maison Loyaliste
English: This gracious building is a well-preserved example of the homes built by prosperous United Empire Loyalists and their descendants. Constructed before 1820 by the merchant David Merritt, this house was maintained with . . . — Map (db m139999) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — No. 2 Mechanics’ Volunteer Company Engine HouseCaserne No 2 des Mécaniciens Pompiers Volontaires
English The cry “Fire!” so terrified Canadians in the early 19th century that communities began to construct permanent fire stations. Erected in 1840, this elegant Neoclassical building is a pioneer example of a firehall . . . — Map (db m77508) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Prince William Streetscape / La Rue Prince William
English: This historic streetscape is distinguished by its rare concentration of homogeneous, primarily late 19th century architecture. Traditionally referred to as “Wall Street,” the area contains major public . . . — Map (db m137519) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John City MarketLe Marché de Saint John
English Built between 1874 ad 1876, the Saint John City market narrowly escaped the fire that swept through the town in 1877 and stands today as a rare and distinguished example of a 19th century market building. Designed in the Second . . . — Map (db m77535) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — St. John's (stone) Church / L'Église St. John
English: Constructed in 1824-1825, St. John’s is one of the earliest Gothic Revival churches in Canada. Its name, the Stone Church, reflects the high quality of its regularly coursed masonry. The skillful treatment of its Gothic . . . — Map (db m140105) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Marco PoloLe Marco Polo
English A three-masted full-rigged ship with a modified clipper hull, the Marco Polo earned a reputation as the “fastest ship in the world” and drew international attention to New Brunswick shipyards. Built in 1851 by . . . — Map (db m77456) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Landing of the LoyalistsDébarquement des Loyalistes
English On 10 May 1783 the Spring Fleet, carrying over 2,000 Loyalists, arrived at the Saint John River mouth. The exiles, mostly civilians from the Middle Colonies, established themselves in the newly-surveyed townsites of Parr and . . . — Map (db m77432) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), St. Martins — Shipbuilding in New Brunswick / L’Industrie de la Construction Navale au Nouveau-Brunswick
English: From its origins in the late 18th century, the shipbuilding industry profoundly influenced New Brunswick history. Craftsmen in the colony built over 6,000 vessels during the 19th century, a third of the total tonnage produced in . . . — Map (db m137643) HM
New Brunswick (Westmoreland County), Shediac — Men of LettersHommes de Lettres
English: Born in or near Shediac, Pascal Poirier (1852-1933), historian and first Acadian senator; Placide Gaudet (1850-1930), historian and genealogist; John Clarence Webster (1863-1950), historian, Professor, and eminent surgeon, all . . . — Map (db m80578) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Alexander "Boss" Gibson(1819-1913)
English: Lumber and railway baron and generous benefactor, Gibson was a pivotal figure in the economy of the Maritimes at a time of transformation and integration within the national economy. A leading entrepreneur in mid-to-late . . . — Map (db m139997) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Charles Fisher(1808-1880)
English: Born in Fredericton, Fisher practised law before entering politics. Excepting the period 1850-1854 he represented York as a member of the Legislature continuously from 1837 until his retirement in 1868. Entering the . . . — Map (db m139900) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Christ Church Cathedral / Cathédrale Christ Church
English: Christ Church Cathedral, begun in 1845, is one of the best and earliest examples of the Gothic Revival in Canada. Its stone walls, crossing tower and picturesque massing, echoing the internal parts of the church, were . . . — Map (db m139987) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — First Ministry of Health / Le Premier Ministère de la Santé
English: The Legislature of New Brunswick, recognizing the growing importance of health as a matter of public concern, established, in 1918, a department of government with specific and exclusive responsibilities in that field. . . . — Map (db m139899) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Fredericton City Hall / L'Hôtel de ville de Fredericton
English: Built in 1875-1876 to the design of architects McKean and Fairweather, this is the oldest municipal hall in Atlantic Canada still used for civic administration. Its imposing exterior and the many functions it has . . . — Map (db m139800) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Fredericton Military Compound / Le Complexe Militaire de Frédéricton
English: This building is one of four remaining structures of the British establishment which housed the garrison at Fredericton from 1784 until the withdrawal of Imperial troops in 1869. Occupying the area between York and Regent . . . — Map (db m139996) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Lemuel Allan Wilmot1809-1878
English: Born in Sunbury County, educated at King’s College, and called to the bar in 1832, Wilmot entered politics as a reformer and represented York County in the Legislature (1835-51). A member of the Executive Council . . . — Map (db m139897) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Sir Howard Douglas1776-1861
English: Born in England, Douglas was Lieutenant-Governor and Commander in Chief of New Brunswick (1823-1831). He encouraged agriculture and fostered pioneer work in steam navigation and lighthouse construction. In 1828 he founded . . . — Map (db m139898) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — St. Paul's United Church
English: Built in 1886, St. Paul's is a fine example of High Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, fashionable in Canada during the second half of the 19th century. The style is marked by a bold and vigorous approach to design, . . . — Map (db m139980) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — The 104th Regiment / Le 104e Régiment
English: Six companies of this Fredericton-based regiment made a 700-mile, 52-day march to Quebec and Kingston between February and April 1813. The feat was accomplished in the face of hunger, cold and heavy snows, with remarkably . . . — Map (db m139995) HM
New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — York County Court House / Le Palais de Justice du Comté de York
English: Opened about 1858, this building is the earliest surviving New Brunswick court house constructed of brick. It represents the beginning of the trend toward the widespread use of brick and stone in public buildings in the . . . — Map (db m139799) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Blackhead — Cape Spear LighthouseLe Phare du Cap Spear
English Cape Spear, Newfoundland’s oldest surviving lighthouse, has served as the chief approach light for St. John’s harbour since 1836. Constructed by local builders Nicholas Croke and William Parker, it consists of a stone towner . . . — Map (db m79112) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Ferryland — Colony of AvalonLa colonie d’Avalon — Sir David Kirke, c. 1597-1654 —
Two plaques are mounted on this monument. English: Near this site stood the “Mansion House” built between 1621 and 1625 by Captain E. Wynne, resident governor of the Colony of Avalon, for the proprietor, Sir . . . — Map (db m79466) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Castle Hill
English In 1693 the French began construction of Fort Royal to guard the harbour at Placentia. When it was completed in 1703, several batteries and outworks supported the main fortifications. The defences, however, were precariously . . . — Map (db m78917) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Battle of Signal HillLa bataille de Signal Hill
English This hill was the site of the decisive assault by British troops on the French lines, September 15, 1762, in the last phase of the battle in North America between the forces fo Great Britain and France. The victorious attack, led by . . . — Map (db m78938) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Bank of British North AmericaL’ancienne Bank of North America
English This Italianate style building recalls evolution of banking in Newfoundland, Designed by Halifax architect David Stirling for the Bank of British North America, it opened in 1850 at a time when British investors controlled banking . . . — Map (db m79034) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Newfoundland Railway HeadquartersL’ancien siège social du chemin de fer de Terre-Neuve
English This remarkable building served as the headquarters and terminus of the Newfoundland railway system. Begun in 1881, the railway played a significant role in the development of the island. Its benefits were evident by the eve of . . . — Map (db m79109) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Mary Meager Southcott(1862-1943)
English Educator, suffragist, and prominent nursing leader, Mary Southcott led the campaign to professionalize nursing in early 20th-century Newfoundland. Trained in London, England, she founded the St. John’s General Hospital School of . . . — Map (db m79031) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John the Baptist Anglican CathedralCathédrale Anglicane St. John the Baptist
English Begun in 1847, under the direction of Bishop Feild, this cathedral was designed by the noted British architect George Gilbert Scott and is an internationally important monument of the Gothic Revival style. Its historical . . . — Map (db m79058) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John’s Court HouseLe Palais de justice de St. John’s
English The St. John’s Court House, built 1900-1094, is by far the most striking and elaborate courthouse in the province. Set into a steep hill it commands a dramatic view of the harbour. The Romanesque Revival building was designed by . . . — Map (db m79032) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — William Carson1770-1843
English Born in Scotland, Carson came to Newfoundland as a physician in 1808, and became an ardent advocate of social and political reform. He was leader in the campaign for an elected legislature, established in 1832, and helped bring . . . — Map (db m79033) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 10 (Labrador)), L'Anse-au-Loup — L’Anse Amour BurialSite funéraire de l’anse Amour
English: This mound of rocks is the earliest known funeral monument in the new world and marks the burial place of an Indian child who died about 7500 years ago. The Maritime Archaic people, to whom the child belonged, occupied this area . . . — Map (db m79551) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 10 (Labrador)), Red Bay — Basque Whalers in the Strait of Belle IsleLes baleiners Basques dans la détroit de Belle Isle
English: In the 16th century, the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle emerged as the world's largest producer of whale oil. At its peak, whaling on this coast attracted nearly 2000 Basques annually from Spain and France, and Red Bay . . . — Map (db m79527) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 5 (Humber District)), Corner Brook — Captain James Cook, R.N.Le capitaine James Cook
English: From 1763 to 1767 Captain Cook. R.N directed a survey embracing the greater part of the coast of Newfoundland. The charting of this coastline was the first scientific, large scale, hydrographic survey to use precise triangulation . . . — Map (db m79672) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St Lunaire-Griquet — L’Anse aux Meadows
English: Discovered in 1960, this is the first authenticated Norse site found in North America and could be Leif Ericsson's short-lived Vinland camp. Some time about AD 1000 Norse seafarers established a base here from which they . . . — Map (db m79611) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St. Anthony — Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell1865-1940
English: Born in England and trained in medicine, Grenfell gave 50 years of service to the people of northern Newfoundland and Labrador, and became a legend in his own time. He and those he inspired brought medical, spiritual and . . . — Map (db m79610) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Annapolis Royal Historic DistrictL’arrondissement historique d’Annapolis Royal
English From its strategic setting, Annapolis Royal has witnessed pivotal events in the history of European settlement in Canada. Located on a former Mi’kmaq meeting place, the townsite and its environs were known as Port-Royal by the . . . — Map (db m78670) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Charles Fort / Le fort CharlesCharles de Menou d’Aulnay — (ca. 1604-1650) / (v.1604-1650) —
Two markers are located on these monument. Charles Fort / Le fort Charles English A group of about 70 Scottish settlers began a colony here in 1629, eight years after King James I granted ‘Nova Scotia’ to Sir William . . . — Map (db m78486) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Jean Paul Mascarenec. 1694-1760
English A French Huguenot in the British army, Mascarene served here from 1710 to 1750. He was a member of the Council of Nova Scotia (1720-50), lieutenant-colonel of Philipps’ Regiment (1742-50), and administrator and commander in chief . . . — Map (db m78491) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Samuel Vetch
English Adjutant-General of the force under Colonel Francis Nicholson which captured Port Royal, Capital of Acadia, in 1710. First Governor and Commander-in-Chief. A notable figure in colonial history. An able soldier and administrator. . . . — Map (db m78482) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sinclair InnL’auberge Sinclair
English The Sinclair Inn is an important document in the history of building in Atlantic Canada. In the 1780s, tavern-keeper Frederick Sinclair created this inn by combining two existing structures. Both were frame, and the walls of one . . . — Map (db m78701) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — William WolseleyPhilipps Cosby
Two plaques share a common stand. William Wolseley 1756-1842 English William Wolseley was born at Annapolis Royal, the son of an officier of the garrison. He entered the Royal Navy in 1769, and served with . . . — Map (db m78607) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Glace Bay — Marconi Wireless Station / La Station de Communication Sans Fil de Marconi
English: Having demonstrated the feasibility of transatlantic wireless communication in 1901, Guglielmo Marconi established a permanent station on Cape Breton Island in 1902. When the original Table Head site proved too . . . — Map (db m139300) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Glace Bay — Transatlantic Wireless / T.S.F. Transatlantique / Radiotelegrafico Transatlantico
English: In 1901 Signor Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic radio message at Signal Hill in St. John’s. On 15 December, 1902, he sent the first West to East message from a new station at Table Head to Poldhu, . . . — Map (db m139201) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — First Lighthouse Tower
English: On this site was erected by France, in 1731, the first Lighthouse Tower, constructed of fireproof materials, in North America. Near here the British erected batteries to silence the defensive works erected by France. In 1745, . . . — Map (db m79967) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Fortress of LouisbourgLa forteresse de Louisbourg
English: In 1713, France decided to found Louisbourg to defend her colonial and maritime interests in North America. As capital of the colony of Isle Royale and guardian the Gulf of Saint. Lawrence, it became the most important French . . . — Map (db m79915) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — French Garrison at Louisbourg
English: This tablet commemorated the valour and endurance displayed against overwhelming odds, by the French forces, who, in 1745 and again in 1758, garrisoned the defensive batteries on the Island opposite the entrance to the harbour of . . . — Map (db m79968) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Marie Marguerite Rose(1717-1757)
English: Captured in Africa at the age of 19 and transported to Ile Royale, where she was sold to a member of the colonial elite, Marie Marguerite Rose is seen to be a key figure of the initial phase of Black slavery in Canada. Gaining her . . . — Map (db m79917) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Louisbourg — Wolfe’s LandingLe débarquement de Wolfe
English: Here, 8th June, 1758, the men of Brigadier General James Wolfe’s brigade, after having been repulsed with heavy loss by the French troops entrenched westward made their gallant and successful landing. Thus began the operation . . . — Map (db m79938) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Port Morien — L'industrie du Charbon au Canada / Canada's Coal Industry
Français: Deux mille pieds au sud-est de cet endroit se trouvent les vestiges de la première exploitation régulière d’une mine de charbon en Amérique, commencée par le Français en 1720. Cette industrie, modeste à son origine, est . . . — Map (db m139292) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Sydney — Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres1722-1824
English: A distinguished military engineer, of Huguenot descent, Desbarres served in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years’ War, and participated in the capture of Louisbourg in 1758 and of Quebec in 1759. From . . . — Map (db m140081) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Sydney — Sir John George Bourinot1837-1902
English: A native of Sydney, Bourinot was a journalist and legislative reporter in Halifax before joining the parliamentary staff at Ottawa in 1868. From 1880 to 1902 he served as Clerk of the House and was a recognized authority . . . — Map (db m140082) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Sydney — The Development of Whitney Pier / L'essor De Whitney Pier
English: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, thousands of immigrants came to Cape Breton from Europe, the West Indies, the United States, and elsewhere to work in iron and steel production. Many settled in Whitney Pier, . . . — Map (db m139295) HM
Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Victoria Mines — Atlantic Bulwark / Le Rempart de L'Atlantique
English: During the Second World War the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal Canadian Air Force protected shipping on vital North Atlantic routes which were the lifeline of the Allies. Army units shared in the defence of the . . . — Map (db m140130) HM
Nova Scotia (Colchester County), Debert — Isgonish-French River Portage
English: This was the chief route of the French and Indians from Cobequid to Isle St. Jean and Louisbourg and later of the British from Halifax to Charlottetown. Français: C’était la route principale des Français . . . — Map (db m139192) HM
Nova Scotia (Colchester County), Tatamagouche — Naval Encounter at Tatamagouche(15th June, 1745)

In this harbour Capt. David Donahew of New England with three armed vessels surprised Lieut. Paul Marin's allied force en route from Annapolis Royal to Louisbourg. He drove them ashore, disheartened the Canadian Indians and prevented the French . . . — Map (db m108133) HM

Nova Scotia (Colchester County), Truro — Truro Post Office / Le Bureau de Poste de Truro

This building, opened in 1884, was erected to house the Post Office, Customs and Internal Revenue. Designed under the supervision of federal Chief Architect Thomas Fuller, the Truro Post Office was part of a nation-wide programme to house . . . — Map (db m108244) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Edward Barron Chandler1800 - 1880

Born in Amherst, Chandler was called to the New Brunswick bar in 1823. He represented Westmorland in the legislature (1827-36), was a Legislative Councillor (1836-78) and a member of the Executive Council almost continuously between 1844 and . . . — Map (db m107018) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Jonathan McCully1809 - 1877

Born in Cumberland County, N. S., McCully practised law in Amherst and was appointed to the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia in 1848 serving as Solicitor General and Government leader in the Council (1860-62). As editor of the Halifax . . . — Map (db m108034) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Robert Barry Dickey1811 - 1903
Born in Amherst, educated at Windsor Academy, and called to the bar in 1834, Dickey practiced law in Amherst and sat in the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia (1858-67). A Father of Confederation, he attended both the Charlottetown and Quebec . . . — Map (db m107017) HM
Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Amherst — Sir Charles Tupper1821 - 1915

Born at Amherst and educated in medicine, Tupper was elected in 1855 to the Nova Scotia Assembly, becoming Premier in 1864. In alliance with John A. Macdonald, he skilfully manoeuvered unwilling Nova Scotians into Confederation. Having held . . . — Map (db m108038) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Pictou — Simon Newcomb1835-1909

Born at Wallace Bridge, Newcomb moved to the United States in 1853. Graduating from Harvard he became Professor of Mathematics in the U.S. Navy and was assigned to the Naval Observatory. He was soon recognized as an authority on mathematical . . . — Map (db m108085) HM

Nova Scotia (Cumberland County), Pugwash — Thinkers' Lodge
English: In 1957, at the height of the Cold War, the first Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs took place in this serene setting. Hosted by philanthropist Cyrus Eaton, top-level scientists from both sides of the Iron . . . — Map (db m140759) HM
Nova Scotia (Guysborough County), Canso — Canso
Important as a centre for the North Atlantic fisheries from the 16th century, the islands in Canso Harbour offered a safe haven for fishermen. First frequented by the French and Basques, the area became the site of an extensive . . . — Map (db m138598) HM
Nova Scotia (Guysborough County), Guysborough — Henry Marshall Tory1864-1947
Born at Port Shoreham, N.S., educated at Guysborough Academy and at McGill, Tory served as professor at McGill (1893-1905), Principal of McGill College, Vancouver (1906-7), first President of the University of Alberta (1908-28), and . . . — Map (db m138221) HM
Nova Scotia (Guysborough County), Port Felix — Captain Savalette
Every summer for more than 40 years, beginning in 1565, this Basque fisherman from Saint-Jean-de-Euz sailed to Eskikewa'kik, a district of Mi’kma’ki within the traditional territory of the Mi'kmaq. Here, his crew caught codfish, which . . . — Map (db m138605) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Black-Binney HouseRésidence Black-Binney
English Built about 1819 by John Black, successful merchant and Executive Councillor (1813-23), this house is a notable example of the finest Halifax residences of its day - the first important era of stone construction in the town. James . . . — Map (db m77657) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Captain / Capitaine James Cook(1728-1779)
English Before the voyages that brought him world fame as Captain Cook, this British Royal Navy officier complied navigational charts for the coasts of Quebec and Nova Scotia. While based in Halifax from 1758 to 1762, he learned . . . — Map (db m77953) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Cast Iron Facade / Façade en Fonte
English: This building, erected in 1860, provides a rare and early example of a full cast iron facade in Canada. Used in construction since the 1770s, cast iron had become a popular decorative material by the mid-19th century . . . — Map (db m139596) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Enos Collins1774-1871
English: An ambitious seaman from Liverpool, N.S., and sometime privateer, Enos Collins was reputed to be the richest man in British North America when he died. His fortune, amassed through shrewd investments in mercantile, . . . — Map (db m139664) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Gilbert Stuart Newton1794-1835
English: Born in Halifax, Newton had his first art lessons in Boston from his uncle Gilbert Stuart, painter of the George Washington portraits. Leaving for Europe in 1815 he settled in London and entered the Royal Academy Schools . . . — Map (db m139597) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax and Castine / Halifax et Castine
English: In September, 1814, a British military and naval expedition from Halifax, under Lieutenant General Sir John Coape Sherbrooke and Rear Admiral Edward Griffith, occupied the portion of Maine between the Penobscot and St. . . . — Map (db m140379) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Citadel / La Citadelle d’Halifax
English Built to defend against a land-based attack, the Halifax Citadel was the fourth in a series of forts to occupy this hill, The star-shaped fortress, completed in 1856, was the centerpiece of the extensive system of fortifications . . . — Map (db m78258) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax City Hall / Hôtel de ville d'Halifax
English: The Halifax City Hall, erected between 1887 and 1890, is the largest and one of the oldest municipal buildings in Nova Scotia. Designed by a local architect, Edward Elliot, its elegant facade features an attractive and . . . — Map (db m139509) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Waterfront Buildings
English From the founding of Halifax in 1749 until the early twentieth century, this portion of the waterfront was associated with men and events in the civic and commercial life of the city. These seven typical warehouses and offices, . . . — Map (db m77826) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — John William Ritchie(1808-1890)
English: A gifted lawyer, legislator, and judge, this Father of Confederation helped pave the way for Nova Scotia's reluctant entry into the new Dominion. He was a member of this colony's legislature and served as solicitor . . . — Map (db m140961) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Old Burying GroundLe Vieux Cimetière
English The Old Burying Ground, which contains more than 1,200 head and footstones, constitutes a unique concentration of gravestone art. A rich variety of styles, poignant images and carving skill is reflected in these old stones. The . . . — Map (db m77784) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pier 21 / Le Quai 21Postwar Immigration / L’immigration de L’aprés-guerre — War Brides / Les Epouses de Guerre —
There are three plaques on this monument. Pier 21 / Le Quai 21 English This site witnessed the arrival of approximately one million immigrants, who have enriched the cultural mosaic of Canada. Opened in 1928, Pier 21 served . . . — Map (db m77718) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Province House
English Province House is an architectural monument and the setting for signifiant events in Canadian political life. Begun in 1811 and opened in 1819 as the seat of government for Nova Scotia, it is one of the finest Palladian-style . . . — Map (db m77858) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Sir Samuel Cunard1787-1865
English: Born in Halifax of Loyalist parentage, Cunard founded in the maritime provinces a commercial empire embracing banking, lumber, land, coal and, especially, shipping. Involved in transatlantic steam navigation from its early . . . — Map (db m139202) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — St. Mary’s BasilicaLa Basilique St. Mary
English St. Mary’s holds a central position in the history of Roman Catholicism in Nova Scotia. Begun in 1820, the church demonstrated the enhanced ecclesiastical status of the province, which acquired its own Bishop in 1818, and witnessed . . . — Map (db m77721) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — St. Paul’s Church / Église St. Pauls
English: Completed in 1750, St. Paul’s was the first church outside Great Britain to be designated as an Anglican cathedral. Between 1787 and 1864 it served as the cathedral church of the See of Nova Scotia. For 96 years St. . . . — Map (db m139686) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The Halifax Court House / Le Palais de Justice D'Halifax
English: The Halifax Court House was designed in 1858 by the Toronto architectural firm of William Thomas and Sons and since its completion in 1863 has housed both county and provincial courts. The building’s importance is . . . — Map (db m139600) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — William Alexander Henry1816-1888
English: Born in Halifax and called to the bar in 1840, Henry represented Antigonish in the Nova Scotia Assembly as a Liberal (1841-57), and as a Conservative (1857-67). An ardent advocate of Confederation, he attended the . . . — Map (db m139598) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — William Henry Chase1852-1933
English: A native of Kings County, Chase made his fortune as a shipper of potatoes and apples, warehouse developer and speculator in Annapolis Valley fruits. Active in the Nova Scotia Fruit Grower’s Association, he initiated apple . . . — Map (db m141002) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — William Thomas1800-1860
English: The buildings on the north end of Granville Street were designed by the firm of William Thomas and Sons after a fire had razed the block in 1859. Erected in the Italianate Style for prosperous merchants, the structures . . . — Map (db m139599) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt
[English text] York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential . . . — Map (db m44479) HM
Nova Scotia (Inverness County), Cheticamp — Jeanne Dugas
The life story of Jeanne Dugas illustrates the experiences of Acadíans in the second half of the 18th century. She and her family fled Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island) to escape the deportation of 1758, but were later captured by the . . . — Map (db m139618) HM
Nova Scotia (Inverness County), Port Hastings — The Building of the Canso Causeway / La Construction de la Levée de Canso
English: The foundation of this massive stone structure rests 66 metres below the Strait of Canso, creating the world’s deepest causeway. More than 9 million tonnes of rock fill were dumped into the strait between 1952 and 1955 . . . — Map (db m139303) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — Grand-Pré Rural Historic DistrictArrondissement Historique Rurual de Grand-Pré
English The villages of Grand-Pré and Hortonville, and the fertile farmlands which surround them, comprise one of the oldest settlement and land use patterns of European origin in Canada. Acadians began settling near Grand-Pré in the 1680s, . . . — Map (db m78721) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — The Attack at Grand Pré/La bataille Grand Pré
On February 11, 1747 Grand Pré was the scene of a surprise attack on Col. Arthur Noble's detachment of British troops from Massachusetts who were billeted in the houses of the inhabitants. A French and Indian force under Coulon de . . . — Map (db m140191) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — The Expulsion of the AcadiansLa déportation des Acadiens — (1755-1762) —
English The expulsion of the Acadians began in 1755, on the eve of the Seven Years’ War. Frustrated with the neutrality of the Acadians who refused to swear an unconditional oath of allegiance to the Crown, British forces began the . . . — Map (db m78722) HM
Nova Scotia (Kings County), Horton Landing — New England Planters/Les planters de la Nouvelle-Angeleterre
In 1759, New England farmers and fishermen sent agents to Halifax to discuss with Governor Lawrence the settlement of the undeveloped areas of the province. Substantial immigration began in 1760 and, by late 1763, several thousand . . . — Map (db m140207) HM
Nova Scotia (Pictou County), New Glasgow — George Frederick Cameron1854-1885
English: Born and educated in New Glasgow, Cameron, having graduated from the Boston Law School, practiced law in the United States before joining Queen’s University in 1882. The following year he became editor of the Kingston . . . — Map (db m139298) HM
Nova Scotia (Pictou County), Stellarton — The General Mining Association (GMA)La General Mining Association (GMA)
English: This British firm established coal mining as a major industry in Nova Scotia. Granted a monopoly of provincial mineral rights in 1826, the GMA developed coal operations here at Albion Mines and at Sydney Mines, and . . . — Map (db m140077) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Ermatinger HouseLa Maison Ermatinger
This house, built between 1814 and 1823 by Charles Ermatinger of the North West Company, is the oldest surviving house in northwestern Ontario. Constructed when Sault Ste. Marie was still a small fur trading post on the Upper Lakes, this fine house . . . — Map (db m105955) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Francis Hector Clergue(1856-1939)
A Maine-born promoter, Clergue transformed Sault Ste. Marie into a major industrial centre. He purchased an unfinished hydroelectric station and canal at the Sault in 1894; then, lacking markets for his electric power, he created his own . . . — Map (db m106374) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Nicolas Perrotca. 1644-1717
Explorer, interpreter, fur trader and diplomat, French-born Perrot played an important role in the establishment and protection of New France's western frontier during the last four decades of the 17th century. In 1671 he was with Saint-Lusson at . . . — Map (db m105957) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Passenger and Packet Freighters on the Upper Great Lakes
Until the mid-20th century, passenger and packet freighters were the most efficient means for transporting goods and people to and from isolated communities of the Upper Great Lakes. Essential to early regional development and instrumental in the . . . — Map (db m105959) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — Sault Ste. Marie Ship CanalCanal de Sault Ste. Marie
Completed in 1895, this canal formed the last link in an all-Canadian navigation system stretching from the St. Lawrence River to Lake Superior. Designed and built by Canadians, the canal incorporated several engineering innovations. It was the . . . — Map (db m106185) HM
Ontario (Algoma District), Sault Ste. Marie — The First Sault Ste. Marie CanalLe Premier Canal de Sault Ste-Marie
The French explorers who first reached this favoured Ojibway hunting and fishing ground were soon followed by fur traders and missionaries who built a post and mission. By 1762 the region had come under British control and the trade eventually fell . . . — Map (db m106412) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — Her Majesty’s Chapel of the MohawksLa Chapelle des Agniers de Sa Majesté — Ne Iakataneraientahtsere Ne Iekora Ne Kanienkehaka Rotoreonnaienhs —
English: Originally called St. Paul's, this chapel was the first Protestant church in Upper Canada and is now the oldest surviving church in Ontario. Built by the Crown in 1785, it was given to those Mohawk Indians led by Joseph Brant who . . . — Map (db m83743) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — Thayendanega (Joseph Brant)1742-1807
English: This celebrated Mohawk chief of Canajoharie Castle and Johnson Hall grew up in the Mohawk Valley. He received his baptism of fire at the battle of Lake George in 1755. He served with Sir William Johnson in the Niagara . . . — Map (db m83714) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — The Six Nations
English: Commemorating the loyal services and unswerving fidelity of the Six Nations of Iroquois Indians to the British Empire in the Seven Years War, 1755 - 1763, the War of the American Revolution, 1775 - 1783, and in the defence of . . . — Map (db m83712) HM
Ontario (Carleton County), Richmond — Charles Lennox4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox — 4e Duc de Richmond et de Lennox —

Charles Lennox was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the British North American colonies and Governor-in-Chief of Lower Canada in May 1818. He received a mandate to improve the colonies' defences and inland navigation system. Lennox . . . — Map (db m109977) HM

Ontario (Chatham-Kent Division), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House
Following the defeat of the British at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, American forces controlled the Thames Valley west of Moraviantown. In early December a detachment of 3 officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment established . . . — Map (db m71292) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent Division), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America
From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of . . . — Map (db m71391) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent Division), Dresden — Josiah Henson(1789 - 1883)
After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an . . . — Map (db m78377) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent Division), Thamesville — Fairfield on the Thames / The Fairfield Mission
(Front of monument) Fairfield on the Thames / Fairfield sur la Thames

Here stood the village of Fairfield, destroyed by invading American forces following the Battle of the Thames. , 5th October, 1813. Its inhabitants, Delaware . . . — Map (db m116758) HM

Ontario (Chatham-Kent Division), Thamesville — Tecumseh1768-1813
Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white . . . — Map (db m71410) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard
[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built . . . — Map (db m37552) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)
The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces . . . — Map (db m34353) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson(1796 - 1852)
Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the . . . — Map (db m76737) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The WyandotLes Hurons de Detroit
This area was once the home of the Wyandot, remnants of the Huron, Neutrals, and Petuns who were dispersed by the Iroquois in the 1640's. Some eventually reunited and settled along the Detroit River, where they became known as the Hurons of Detroit, . . . — Map (db m37340) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hiram Walker1816 - 1899
Massachusetts born, Hiram Walker had by the 1850s become a successful general merchant, distiller and grain dealer in Detroit. After Michigan adopted prohibition in 1855 he acquired land across the river in Canada where he established a distillery . . . — Map (db m37377) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit
Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply . . . — Map (db m34321) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Francois Baby House
This house and adjacent farmland were the property of François Baby (1763-1856), first member for Kent in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada (1792-96), militia officer and Assistant Quarter Master General during the War of 1812. When the . . . — Map (db m34303) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Underground Railroad in Canada
From the early 19th century until the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. White and black abolitionists formed a heroic network dedicated to helping free and . . . — Map (db m37379) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Early Land Survey in Ontario / Premiers Travaux D'Arpentage en Ontario
English: In September 1783, Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins was despatched to Cataraqui by Governor Haldimand to lay out townships for loyalist settlers. The necessary land was purchased from Mississauga Indians, and on 27 . . . — Map (db m140199) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
In English: An earlier fort was built here on Point Henry during the War of 1812 primarily to defend the nearby naval dockyard. When the Rideau Canal was built as part of a military route connecting Kingston with Montreal, the strategic . . . — Map (db m39363) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Frontenac County Court House / Palais de Justice du Comté de Frontenac
English: This grand Neo-classical building has served the courts of Frontenac County since its opening in 1858. Designed by the Dorset-born architect, Edward Horsey, it is superbly sited on land originally acquired in 1840 for a . . . — Map (db m140193) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Custom House / Bâtiment des Douanes de Kingston
English: Designed by the Montréal architectural firm of Hopkins, Lawford and Nelson, the Kingston Custom House was built in 1856-59 for the government of the united Canadas. The symmetrical composition of the two-storey ashlar . . . — Map (db m140194) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Navy Yard
English: The Navy Yard established in 1789 as a trans-shipment point for the Great Lakes and as the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario base was administered by the Admiralty after 1813. During the War of 1812 Commodore James Yeo, R. N., . . . — Map (db m83568) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Post Office / Bureau de Poste de Kingston
English: In 1856-59 the government of the united Canadas erected the Kingston Post Office. Designed by the Montreal architectural firm of Hopkins, Lawford and Nelson, this limestone building shows the influence of the British . . . — Map (db m140197) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Buildings
English: This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c. 1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval . . . — Map (db m83618) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Pro Patria 1812-1814
English: In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and Provincial Marine, and the officers and soldiers on the Royal Marines, Royal Newfoundland, King’s (8th) and 100th Regiments, who served on Lake Ontario in defence of . . . — Map (db m83620) WM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir James Lucas Yeo1782-1818
English: Born at Southampton, England, Yeo entered the British Navy, served throughout the Napoleonic Wars and won rapid promotion by his ability. In 1813, already a Commodore, he came to Canada to command British forces on the Great . . . — Map (db m83616) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir John Alexander Macdonald(1815-1891)
English: This Kingston lawyer was the chief architect of Confederation, which led to the creation of the Dominion of Canada on July 1st, 1867. He was Canada's first Prime Minister and led the country for almost 19 years. The . . . — Map (db m140200) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The First Meeting of the Executive Council of Upper CanadaLa Première Réunion du Conseil Exécutif du Haut-Canada
English: Because of the Loyalist influx into the western part of Quebec after the American Revolution, the province was divided into Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec). The Constitutional Act of 1791 provided for . . . — Map (db m140198) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814
[English Text]: Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and . . . — Map (db m56725) HM

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Jun. 3, 2020