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Tennessee Civil War Trails Historical Markers

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Wide view of Fighting in Shelbyville Marker image, Touch for more information
By J. Makali Bruton, June 18, 2015
Wide view of Fighting in Shelbyville Marker
Tennessee (Bedford County), Shelbyville — Fighting in ShelbyvilleRain, Muddy Roads, and Swollen Rivers — Tullahoma Campaign
(preface) After the Battle of Stones River ended on January 2, 1863, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro. Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg withdrew south to the Highland Rim to protect the rail junction at Tullahoma, Bragg's . . . — Map (db m85714) HM
Tennessee (Benton County), Camden — Fighting on the Tennessee RiverCavalry versus Navy
During the Civil War, several engagements occurred along the strategically important Tennessee River within about five miles of here. In each one, cavalrymen engaged naval forces. On April 26, 1863 near the mouth of the Duck River east of here, . . . — Map (db m74512) HM
Tennessee (Benton County), Holladay — Fort JohnsonControlling the Tennessee River
Take Exit 133, State Route 191, and drive north to visit two state parks associated with the struggle to control the Tennessee River during the Civil War.      In 1861, the Confederates built Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River and Fort Henry on . . . — Map (db m96639) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Friendsville — The Underground RailroadFriendsville Quakers and Cudjo's Cave
Members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) came to Blount County in the 1790s looking for a place to worship in peace. Hardworking and industrious, opposing war and slavery, they developed the land and founded the prosperous settlements . . . — Map (db m81361) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — Maryville During the Civil War"A shameful...fire"
During the antebellum period, Blount County supported abolitionism. In 1822, local Quakers and other residents formed an abolitionist society, and in the decades following, local clergymen preached against the evils of slavery. When the county . . . — Map (db m69452) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Charleston — Charleston on the HiwasseeA Strategic Crossing
Charleston, formerly Fort Cass during the “Trail of Tears” (Indian removal of 1838), was strategically important in the military struggle for East Tennessee. The East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad bridge here, the line’s only crossing . . . — Map (db m69343) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Charleston — The Henegar House"A bird can't live here!"
During the war, Henegar House’s occupants, as in many other Tennessee homes, were divided in their loyalties. Henry Benton Henegar, the owner, was a Unionist while his wife, Margaret Lea Henegar, was a secessionist. Whenever Confederates occupied . . . — Map (db m69346) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Cleveland — Cleveland During the Civil WarStruggle for Control
When the Civil War began, Cleveland was a divided community with most residents being sympathetic to the Union. Confederate troops occupied the area in 1861 to control the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad and to protect the vitally important . . . — Map (db m69342) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Cleveland — Fort Hill CemeteryDefending Cleveland
First called City Cemetery, this is the resting place of both Confederate and Union soldiers. On November 4, 1862, a train wreck south of Cleveland killed 17 Confederate soldiers who are buried here in a mass grave. Nearby engagements in 1863 . . . — Map (db m102186) HM
Tennessee (Campbell County), Jellico — Civil War in TennesseeWar in the Mountains
Tennessee’s mountain residents were bitterly divided about secession in 1861, although most were Unionist. In Huntsville (Exit 141), Scott County residents voted to secede and join Kentucky if Tennessee joined the Confederacy. Confederate . . . — Map (db m74227) HM
Tennessee (Campbell County), LaFollette — Big Creek GapNatural Opening
The road in front of you winds through Big Creek Gap, one of the few natural openings through the Cumberland Mountains in the region. During the Civil War, this corridor was much narrower and steeper, and even lightly loaded wagons found travel . . . — Map (db m74229) HM
Tennessee (Carroll County), Clarksburg — ClarksburgPrelude, Battle of Parker's Crossroads — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
(preface) Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec 15, 1862-Jan 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s supply line between Columbus, Kentucky, and Vicksburg, . . . — Map (db m74967) HM
Tennessee (Carroll County), McKenzie — Harris-Collier-Holland FarmOne Family's Story
Albert Gallatin Harris purchased this farm in 1829 and built the present house in 1857. After camping on the land during the Civil War, Union troops ransacked the farm, killing or stealing all the livestock. They did not burn the house because the . . . — Map (db m74514) HM
Tennessee (Carroll County), McKenzie — McKenzie's StationA Strategic Junction — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
(preface) Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1862-Jan. 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's supply line between Columbus, Kentucky, and Vicksburg, . . . — Map (db m74532) HM
Tennessee (Cheatham County), Kingston Springs — Connection To JohnsonvilleU.S. Military Railroad
In November 1863, Federal troops occupied Kingston Springs to serve as headquarters for the supervisors of the U.S. Military Railroad Construction Corps. They oversaw the construction of this section of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad. When . . . — Map (db m69365) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Harrogate — Lincoln And Cumberland GapPassage to the West
Cumberland Gap became the principal passage between the eastern and western theaters of operation in the Upper South during the war. Whichever side held the high ground here held the Gap. In 1861, Confederate Gen. Felix K. Zollicoffer's men . . . — Map (db m35761) HM
Tennessee (Clay County), Celina — Celina During the Civil WarHamilton's Tennessee Cavalry Battalion
During the Civil War, the residents of the eastern and Cumberland River sections of present-day Clay County (then part of Jackson and Overton Counties) were usually Confederate sympathizers, while those in the western section supported the Union. . . . — Map (db m74297) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Parrottsville — Johnson's Parrottsville SlavesOrigin of Tennessee Emancipation Day
In 1842, state senator Andrew Johnson, a resident of neighboring Greene County, purchased his first slave here in Parrottsville. Her name was Dolly, and she was fourteen. Her son claimed that she approached Johnson and asked him to buy her because . . . — Map (db m92476) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Parrottsville — The Hanging of Peter ReeceSwift Retribution
During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces accused each other of committing atrocities against prisoners and civilians. The hanging of Peter Reece, a Unionist who lived near present day Harned Chapel United Methodist Church, illustrates . . . — Map (db m87171) HM
Tennessee (Coffee County), Tullahoma — Fortress TullahomaStrategic Rail Center — Tullahoma Campaign
(preface) After the Battle of Stones River ended on January 2, 1863, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro. Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg withdrew south to the Highland Rim to protect the rail junction at Tullahoma, Bragg’s . . . — Map (db m81382) HM
Tennessee (Coffee County), Tullahoma — Maplewood Confederate CemeteryHallowed Ground
Tullahoma was the headquarters and logistics center of the Confederate Army of Tennessee for the first six months of 1863 after the Battle of Murfreesboro. At least three hospitals here treated soldiers wounded during Gen. Braxton Bragg’s 1862 and . . . — Map (db m75310) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Crab Orchard — Champ FergusonConfederate Partisan of the Cumberlands
Samuel "Champ" Ferguson was the most notorious Confederate guerilla leader in the Upper Cumberland mountains. In 1861, he formed a company and began attacking Unionist partisans. Such irregular forces were common on both sides during the war, . . . — Map (db m98849) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Crossville — Cumberland County at WarDivided by Conflict
Divided loyalties in Tennessee produced a bitter and violent Civil War experience in Cumberland County, the only county that did not report a vote either for or against secession. Confederate supporters joined Co. B, Lt. Col. Oliver P. Hamilton’s . . . — Map (db m69232) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Crossville — Cumberland County FamiliesDivided by War
When the war began, the residents of the Upper Cumberland Plateau were divided in their loyalties. In Cumberland County, for instance, the numbers of Confederate and Union enlistments were about equal. Some Confederate supporters joined Co. B, . . . — Map (db m107097) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Pleasant Hill — Affair at Cumberland MountainA Brief Fight
Less than half a mile west of here, on the Lewis Whitaker farm, the only engagement of the war in Cumberland County between regular Union and Confederate troops took place on December 9, 1863. Several companies of Col. Thomas J. Jordan’s 9th . . . — Map (db m69228) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — Belle Meade PlantationThe Battle of Nashville — Hood's Campaign
(overview) In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman’s supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman’s “March to . . . — Map (db m68971) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — Belle Meade PlantationChange of Ownership
Confederate Gen. William Hicks “Billy” Jackson (1835–1903), who acquired Belle Meade Plantation after the war, served with distinction throughout the Western Theater of the Civil War. He was an excellent horseman, a skill that . . . — Map (db m68973) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — Fort NegleyDefending the Capital — Hood's Campaign
In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman’s supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” Hood . . . — Map (db m74349) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — Travellers Rest"The proudest moment of my life" — Hood's Campaign
In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman’s supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” Hood . . . — Map (db m74373) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Nashville — War on the Home FrontBelle Meade and Union Occupation
William Giles Harding, the owner of Belle Meade Plantation, was an ardent Confederate supporter who provided thousands of dollars to help arm Tennessee’s Confederate forces. He served on the state’s Military Armaments Committee. In March 1862, he . . . — Map (db m81481) HM
Tennessee (Dekalb County), Alexandria — Morgan in AlexandriaPreparing for a Raid
From late in 1862 to mid-1863, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg fortified his defenses in Middle Tennessee while Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans reinforced his army. To disrupt the extended Federal communication and supply lines, late in 1862 Bragg . . . — Map (db m74322) HM
Tennessee (Dekalb County), Smithville — DeKalb County in the Civil WarA Country and a County Divided
DeKalb County differed from surrounding counties. A sizeable minority of its citizens opposed secession and voted against it in the June 8, 1861 referendum. Their champion was a slave owner, Congressman William B. Stokes. The majority followed . . . — Map (db m81483) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Charlotte — Civil War In Charlotte"Marauding gangs of Freebooters"
In 1860, 300 people lived in Charlotte, the Dickson County seat. During the war, the residents witnessed considerable military activity, beginning February 17, 1862, when Confederate Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest, arrived here to reequip his men and . . . — Map (db m68958) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Charlotte — Fighting for FreedomPromise Land Civil War Heroes
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued January 1, 1863, authorized the recruiting of African Americans as United States soldiers. It inspired men, like brothers John and Arch Nesbitt, to join the U.S. Colored Troops and fight for their freedom. John . . . — Map (db m81504) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Charlotte — Harpeth ShoalsHazardous Navigation
After the fall of Fort Donelson in February 1862, Federal forces gained control of Nashville and transported most of their supplies to the city via the Cumberland River. Extending for five miles along the river here, the Harpeth Shoals made . . . — Map (db m68962) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Dickson — Camp GillemGillem Station
In 1864, just to your left, the Federal army established Camp Gillem to protect the locomotive yard here at Gillem Station. Both were named for Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, commander of the troops guarding and constructing the Nashville and Northwestern . . . — Map (db m68922) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Dickson — Irish ShantyOnly Boiling Eggs
On July 2, 1863, as Federal forces conducted a campaign to rid the Yellow Creek valley of Confederate guerrillas, a forward detachment of the 8th Kentucky Cavalry (US) rode up to a grocery store and tavern located about two miles to the west. The . . . — Map (db m68923) HM
Tennessee (Dickson County), Dickson — Mile Post 42The U.S. Military Railroad
The railroad in front of you was part of a vital transportation network for the Federal army during the Civil War. W.H.Crutcher had purchased 533 acres and constructed a sixteen-by-sixteen foot log structure here in December 1860. After occupying . . . — Map (db m68931) HM
Tennessee (Dyer County), Dyersburg — Dyer County in the WarA Scoured Countryside
At least fifteen Confederate companies were formed in Dyer County, including Capt. Otho F. Strahl’s Co. K, 4th Tennessee Infantry, and Capt. Tyree H. Bell’s Co. B, 12th Tennessee Infantry. Both men rose to the rank of brigadier general. Strahl was . . . — Map (db m74634) HM
Tennessee (Fayette County), LaGrange — LaGrangeUnion Supply Base
Federal forces occupied LaGrange during the war, 1862-1865, and made it an important supply base. Gen. William T. Sherman established his headquarters here when the occupation began in 1862. In April 1863, Union Col. Benjamin H. Grierson left here . . . — Map (db m51816) HM
Tennessee (Fayette County), Moscow — Battle of Moscow"The river seemed like running blood"
By late in 1863, the Union army occupying West Tennessee strongly defended the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, which ran eastward from Memphis through Moscow. Federal infantry, including the U.S. Colored Troops of the 2nd West Tennessee Infantry, . . . — Map (db m37273) HM
Tennessee (Franklin County), Cowan — Passing Through CowanCumberland Mountain Tunnel — Tullahoma Campaign
(preface) After the Battle of Stones River ended on January 2, 1853, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro. Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg withdrew south to the Highland Rim to protect the rail junction at Tullahoma, Bragg’s . . . — Map (db m75267) HM
Tennessee (Franklin County), Winchester — Winchester's Civil War SitesCounty Seceded before the State
When Tennessee failed to secede from the Union on February 9, 1861, Franklin County residents met here at the courthouse. They listened to attorney Peter Turney’s forceful speech offering resolutions in favor of secession and reportedly adopted them . . . — Map (db m75226) HM
Tennessee (Gibson County), Trenton — Female Collegiate InstituteFreed House
Friendship Lodge No. 22, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, founded the Odd Fellows Female Collegiate Institute here in 1852. During the Civil War, Federal troops occupied the building, a two-story brick structure, and used it as a hospital. An . . . — Map (db m74600) HM
Tennessee (Gibson County), Trenton — Fighting for TrentonRaid on the Depot — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
(preface) Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1862-Jan. 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's supply line between Columbus, Kentucky and Vicksburg, . . . — Map (db m74603) HM
Tennessee (Gibson County), Trenton — Fighting for TrentonRifling the Courthouse — Forrest’s First West Tennessee Raid
(Preface): Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1862 - Jan. 3, 1863, destroying railroads an severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's supply line between Columbus, Kentucky and Vicksburg, . . . — Map (db m81556) HM
Tennessee (Gibson County), Trenton — Fighting for TrentonForrest's Artillery Position — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
(preface) Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1862 - Jan. 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's supply line between Columbus, Kentucky and Vicksburg, . . . — Map (db m81557) HM
Tennessee (Giles County), Cornersville — Lairdland Farm HouseWar and Romance
Here on February 10, 1867, James Knox Polk Blackburn and Mary “Mackie” McMillan Laird were married on the porch of the Lairdland farm house. She was the daughter of Robert H. and Nancy Mildred Gordon Laird, who owned the thousand-acre . . . — Map (db m75135) HM
Tennessee (Giles County), Elkton — Elkton BridgeA Strategic Crossing
The Elk River crossing here on the Columbia, Pulaski, Elkton, and Alabama Turnpike (earlier called the Bumpass Trail) was the narrowest part that could be bridged between Fayetteville, Tennessee, and Florence, Alabama. During the Civil War, a wooden . . . — Map (db m42500) HM
Tennessee (Giles County), Minor HIll — Sam Davis Capture SiteMinor Hill
On Nov 20, 1863, scout Sam Davis stopped here while carrying dispatches to Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg. According to local tradition, he was asleep under a plum tree when two members of the 7th Kansas Cavalry, disguised as Confederates, arrested . . . — Map (db m75197) HM
Tennessee (Grainger County), Bean Station — Battle of Bean's StationOpportunity Lost
Confederate Gen. James Longstreet abandoned his siege of Knoxville early in December 1863 and withdrew northeast with Union Gen. John Parke following distantly. Parke sent Gen. James Shackleford ahead to harry Longstreet, who camped with his main . . . — Map (db m69551) HM
Tennessee (Grainger County), Blaine — Blaine's CrossroadsLittle to Gain; Much to Lose
After Confederate Gen. James Longstreet's defeat at Fort Sanders on November 29, 1863, he lifted the siege of Knoxville and headed northeast, hoping to intercept a Federal column marching toward Knoxville from Cumberland Gap. The Confederates paused . . . — Map (db m100816) HM
Tennessee (Grainger County), Blaine — Janeway CabinWhen the Veterans Came Home
This single-room cabin was constructed about six miles east of here, the home of John Janeway and his wife, Gertrude. It is typical of such dwellings in Appalachian Tennessee. During the Civil War, Janeway join the fighting late, in June 1864, . . . — Map (db m100480) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Greeneville — Bridge BurnersHangings at the Depot
After Unionists burned several East Tennessee railroad bridges on November 9, 1861, Confederate engineer Colonel Danville Leadbetter soon arrived to rebuild the brides and capture the perpetrators. Later that month, his forces captured Henry Fry, . . . — Map (db m58073) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Greeneville — Death of Gen. John Hunt Morgan"... bring Morgan out dead or alive."
On September 3-4, 1864, Lt.Col. William H. Ingerton led the 13th Tennessee Cavalry (USA) to Greeneville's outskirts, where he learned that Gen.John Hunt Morgan was at the Dickson-Williams Mansion. He told his company commanders, Capts. C.C. Wilcox . . . — Map (db m23081) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Greeneville — The Dickson - Williams MansionA House Divided
The Federal-style mansion in front of you was the home of Catharine Dickson Williams and Dr. Alexander Williams. Catharine Williams, a famous Greeneville hostess, counted Presidents Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, and Andrew Johnson among her guests. . . . — Map (db m81613) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Greeneville — Tusculum CollegePresident Andrew Johnson Museum & Library
During the 1861 secession debates, Greene County was mostly Unionist, but Tusculum College students were divided. Before the June secession vote, then-U.S. Sen. Johnson spoke in Greeneville in support of the Union. Afterward, secessionist students . . . — Map (db m69599) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Limestone — Unionist StrongholdThe Civil War in Greene County
Before the war began, Greene County had a long history of abolitionist sentiment. It was not surprising, then, that local residents overwhelmingly supported the Union when Tennessee seceded in June 1861. When 30 neighboring counties met in . . . — Map (db m84761) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Mosheim — Battles of Blue SpringsFighting on the Same Ground Twice
On the morning of October 10, 1863, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s campaign suddenly arrived at Blue Springs (present-day Mosheim) when Union cavalry attacked Confederate General John S. Williams’s troops. By noon, the Confederate lines were . . . — Map (db m69566) HM
Tennessee (Greene County), Mosheim — Pottertown Bridge BurnersUnionists Pay the Ultimate Price
When Tennessee left the Union in June 1861, Greene County was a hotbed of divided loyalties. Several Unionists, who crafted multi-colored earthenware pottery which is still highly valued, were among the occupants of the nearby community named . . . — Map (db m81629) HM
Tennessee (Hamblen County), Morristown — Caught in the CrossfireMorristown in the Civil War
In 1861, Morristown was a small railroad town strategically located where the East Tennessee & Virgina Railroad crossed the road to the Cumberland Gap. Although much of East Tennessee was Unionist, Morristown's residents held secessionist . . . — Map (db m101931) HM
Tennessee (Hamblen County), Russellville — Bethesda Presbyterian ChurchA Church Divided
Bethesda Presbyterian Church, completed 1835, is a powerful reminder of the effect of the Civil War on the Tennessee home front. As the war clouds gathered, conflicting sympathies divided the congregation, and the church closed its doors. After the . . . — Map (db m35659) HM
Tennessee (Hamblen County), Russellville — Longstreet's HeadquartersA Cold Command
In the winter of 1863-1864, after abandoning the siege of Knoxville, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet was given command of the Confederate forces in Upper East Tennessee. He chose Russellville, a small town on the East Tennessee and Virginia . . . — Map (db m81633) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Chattanooga Creek Picket LinesSoldier's Truces — Chattanooga Campaign
(Sidebar): After the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans retreated to Federal-occupied Chattanooga, a strategically vital rail center, where Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg laid siege from Lookout Mountain . . . — Map (db m81653) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Civil War in TennesseeControlling the River and Rails
Controlling the river and railroad junction at Chattanooga was important to both North and South during the war. As a Confederate general noted, Chattanooga "commands important passes into Georgia and Alabama, and would enable the enemy ... to cut . . . — Map (db m48198) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Crutchfield HouseHeadquarters and Hospital — Chattanooga Campaign
(preface) After the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans retreated to Federal-occupied Chattanooga, a strategically vital rail center, where Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg laid siege from Lookout Mountain . . . — Map (db m69252) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Headquarters RowGenerals and Ghosts
Beginning in 1862, Confederate Gens. Braxton Bragg, Daniel Ledbetter, and Joseph E. Johnston, followed by Union Gens. William S. Rosecrans and George H. Thomas, occupied the Greek Revival-style Richardson house, which stood nearby at 320 Walnut . . . — Map (db m59043) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Occupied ChattanoogaThe Waterfront
Chattanooga's Tennessee River waterfront underwent major changes during the Civil War. The Confederate troops who occupied the town in the spring of 1862 constructed forts and batteries near the river. When Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans army . . . — Map (db m59048) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Raccoon MountainEstablishing the Cracker Line — Chattanooga Campaign
(preface) After the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863, Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans retreated to Federal occupied Chattanooga, a strategically vital rail center, where Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg laid siege from Lookout Mountain . . . — Map (db m69994) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Chattanooga — Swaim's JailConfining Andrew's Raiders
Swaim’s Jail, a small two-story brick building set into the side of the slope and surrounded by a high board fence, stood across the street. Confederate authorities held Andrew’s Raiders there after their capture in April 1862. James J. Andrews, 22 . . . — Map (db m51690) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Lookout Mountain — Soldier TouristsThe View from the Top
Both the Confederate and the Union soldiers who fought in and around Chattanooga were struck by the region's scenic beauty. During the Union army's occupation of Chattanooga (November 1863 - Summer 1865), countless men hiked up Lookout Mountain to . . . — Map (db m59082) HM
Tennessee (Hamilton County), Tiftonia — Civil War in TennesseeThe Fight for Lookout Mountain
Chattanooga, nestled along the banks of the Tennessee River and the northern gateway to the Georgia railroad system, was strategically important to both the United States and the Confederacy in the Civil War. Lookout Mountain (Exits 175 and 178) was . . . — Map (db m47082) HM
Tennessee (Hardeman County), Bolivar — BolivarStrategic Position
Located midway between Memphis and Corinth, Mississippi, Bolivar's position on the Hatchie River (a navigable route to the Mississippi River) and its junction of north-south railroads made it a strategic location for both armies. By the fall of . . . — Map (db m84786) HM
Tennessee (Hardeman County), Grand Junction — Grand JunctionCrossroads of Conflict
Grand Junction is named for its location, where the Memphis and Charleston and Mississippi Central Railroads intersect, and was strategically important to both Confederate and Union forces. After defeats at Shiloh and Corinth, Confederates tore up . . . — Map (db m37277) HM
Tennessee (Hardin County), Savannah — Grant at Cherry Mansion"Gentlemen, the ball is in motion" — Battle of Shiloh
After the February 1862 Union victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s army occupied Nashville while Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s army penetrated to Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. Buell and Grant planned to attack the . . . — Map (db m81776) HM
Tennessee (Hardin County), Shiloh — Johnston's Last Bivouac"I would fight them if they were a million." — Battle of Shiloh
(Preface): After the February 1862 Union victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army occupied Nashville while Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's army penetrated to Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. Buell and Grant planned . . . — Map (db m81845) HM
Tennessee (Hawkins County), Rogersville — Clay-Kenner HouseMurder in the Streets
John G. Bynum and his wife Nancy Bradley Phipps Bynum, owned this house during the Civil War. The value of his land and slaves in 1860 totaled $140,000, an enormous sum for the time. Bynum helped raise the county's first Confederate unit, the . . . — Map (db m97662) HM
Tennessee (Hawkins County), Surgoinsville — Fighting in Hawkins CountySurgoinsville and the War
Land, timber, and commercial opportunities drew settlers here to the banks of the Holston River. As the Civil War approached, the river's importance in the Tennessee Valley made it a contested transportation route. Hawkins County residents mostly . . . — Map (db m97667) HM
Tennessee (Henderson County), Lexington — Battle for LexingtonIngersoll's Last Stand — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1862-Jan 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s supply line between Columbus, Kentucky, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Forrest . . . — Map (db m81884) HM
Tennessee (Henderson County), Parkers Crossroads — Parker's CrossroadsNarrowly Avoided Defeat — Forrest's First West Tennessee Raid
Late in 1862, the Union army under Ulysses S. Grant threatened Vicksburg, Mississippi. Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg ordered Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest to sever Grant's West Tennessee supply line which extended from Columbus, Kentucky, via the . . . — Map (db m72222) HM
Tennessee (Henderson County), Sardis — Doe Creek Church and SchoolBrothers against Brothers
A classic example of the brother-against-brother feuds resulting from the Civil War began virtually in the shadows of the historic log Doe Creek Church and School. Hugh and Robert Kennedy established farms here early in the 1820s. When the war . . . — Map (db m81945) HM
Tennessee (Hickman County), Centerville — Hickman County CourthouseA Brick Fortress
In 1864, the Hickman County Courthouse and Centerville's business district around the public square became a burned-out war zone. Confederate Col. Jacob B. "Jake" Biffle pursued Col. John Murphy's 2nd Tennessee Mounted Infantry for two days from . . . — Map (db m99020) HM
Tennessee (Humphreys County), New Johnsonville — Battle of JohnsonvilleUp in Smoke
Johnsonville was a major Federal supply depot on the Tennessee River at the western terminus of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad, completed in May 1864. Col. Charles R. Thompson commanded the 2,000-man garrison here. The 12th, 13th, and 100th . . . — Map (db m74390) HM
Tennessee (Humphreys County), New Johnsonville — JohnsonvilleConstructing a Military Depot
As the Union military occupation spread over Middle Tennessee, Federal commanders needed a supply depot on the Tennessee River. By 1863, they agree that such a depot, navigable year around, would provide Union armies in the west with a stream of . . . — Map (db m74391) HM
Tennessee (Humphreys County), Waverly — Fort Hill at WaverlyDefending Railroads
The earthen fort in front of you, known as Fort Hill, was the headquarters of the 13th U.S. Colored Troops (USCT), led by Col. John A. Hottenstein, from the fall of 1863 to the end of the war. The fort defended the army-operated railroad that ran . . . — Map (db m82963) HM
Tennessee (Jackson County), Gainesboro — Cumberland River CampaignBurning of Old Columbus
North of this marker lies the site of Old Columbus, once an important landing on the Cumberland River. In the winter of 1863–1864, the war had disastrous consequences for this river village. Late in December 1863, Gen. Ulysses . . . — Map (db m68344) HM
Tennessee (Jackson County), Granville — Civil War in GranvilleContested Town
The Civil War experiences of Granville, an important Cumberland River port in the nineteenth century, were similar to many rural Upper Cumberland communities. When Tennessee seceded in 1861, most residents backed the Confederacy. Granville was . . . — Map (db m82194) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Dandridge — Attack on DandridgeJudicious Withdrawal
(preface) In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’ s army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet’s men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m69520) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Dandridge — Battle of Hay's FerryFighting for Food
(preface) In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’ s army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet’s men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m69526) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Dandridge — Fighting at DandridgeMidwinter Clash
(preface) In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E, Burnside's army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet's men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m100483) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Dandridge — Fighting at DandridgeMidwinter Clash
(preface) In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E, Burnside's army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet's men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m100826) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Jefferson City — Mossy Creek EngagementBending but not Breaking
(preface) In November 1863, Confederated Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet’s men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m70659) HM
Tennessee (Jefferson County), Talbot — Kimbrough's CrossroadsConfederate Surprise
(preface) In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led a force from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’ s army at Knoxville. The campaign failed, and in December Longstreet’s men marched east along the East . . . — Map (db m69548) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Farragut — Admiral Farragut's BirthplaceHero of Mobile Bay
In front of you, on the promontory just across the cove, is where David Glasgow Farragut was born on July 5, 1801. Farragut's father, George Farragut, came to the American colonies in 1776 from Spain as a merchant sea captain. During the . . . — Map (db m101431) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Farragut — Battle of Campbell's Station"Form on me."
(preface) On November 4, 1863, to divert Federal forces from Chattanooga, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from the city to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison in Knoxville. Burnside confronted . . . — Map (db m69456) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — Bleak HouseConfederate Memorial Hall
Bleak House, the home of Robert Houston Armstrong and Louisa Franklin Armstrong, is an Italianate-style mansion completed in 1858. During the Siege and Battle of Knoxville, November 17–December 4, 1863, the house was Confederate Gen. James . . . — Map (db m69488) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — Fort DickersonDefending Knoxville
On November 4, 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's garrison at Knoxville. Burnside confronted Longstreet below Knoxville, then withdrew on November 12. . . . — Map (db m100512) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — Fort SandersDecisive Battle for Knoxville — Knoxville Campaign
(preface) On November 4, 1863, to divert Federal forces from Chattanooga, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from the city to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison in Knoxville. Burnside confronted . . . — Map (db m82209) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — Knoxville: A Divided CitySimultaneous Union and Confederate Rallies
In April 1861, before Tennessee seceded, Knoxville was deeply divided. Excited residents gathered in the streets and held rallies to sway public opinion. These divisions were never more visible then than during simultaneous Union and Confederate . . . — Map (db m100524) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — Old Gray CemeterySilent Voices
Since the Civil War, the thirteen-acre Old Gray Cemetery has been the final resting place for Union and Confederate veterans. During the conflict, control of Knoxville shifted from Confederate to Union forces, so it is appropriate that both sides . . . — Map (db m82211) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Knoxville — War on the Home FrontMabry-Hazen House and Bethel Cemetery — Knoxville Campaign
(preface) On November 4, 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison at Knoxville. Burnside confronted Longstreet below Knoxville, then withdrew . . . — Map (db m82212) HM
Tennessee (Lawrence County), Appleton — Sugar Creek EngagementProtecting the Army of Tennessee — Hood's Campaign
(Preface): In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman's supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman's "March to the Sea," . . . — Map (db m82213) HM
Tennessee (Lawrence County), Lawrenceburg — Skirmish at LawrenceburgSaving the Courthouse
In November 1862, Confederate cavalrymen under Col. Albert G. Cooper camped near Lawrenceburg. He confined captured Federal soldiers and Union sympathizers in the jail here on the town square. Union Maj. Thomas C. Fitz Gibbon, commanding the post at . . . — Map (db m53601) HM
Tennessee (Lawrence County), Summertown — Fouche Springs Engagement"A perfect stampede" — Hood's Campaign
(preface) In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman’s supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman’s “March to the . . . — Map (db m75016) HM
Tennessee (Lewis County), Hohenwald — Civil War in Lewis CountyForagers and Guerrillas
During the war, many Lewis Country men enlisted in Confederate regiments, including the 3rd, 24th, and 48th Tennessee Infantry and the 9th, 10th, and 19th Tennessee Cavalry. Almost all of the young men marched away to war, leaving the elderly, . . . — Map (db m82216) HM
Tennessee (Lincoln County), Fayetteville — Lincoln County in the Civil WarA Confederate Stronghold
Lincoln County was a Confederate stronghold during the Civil War. Local men formed companies for the Confederate army before Tennessee seceded. In April 1861, Col. Peter B. Turney organized the 1st Confederate Infantry Regiment (first in the state) . . . — Map (db m82217) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Greenback — National CampgroundBivouac of Reconciliation
In November 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet besieged Knoxville and Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s force there. Late in the month, after the Federal victory at Chattanooga, Gen. William T. Sherman led his corps north through largely . . . — Map (db m82220) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Lenoir City — Lenoir PlantationFederal Occupation
The 1863 Union raid on Lenoir Station, now Lenoir City, changed the lives of the family that owned the 2,700-acre plantation here. Dr. Benjamin B. Lenoir was one of four brothers who owned the property. His wife was Henrietta Ramsey Lenoir and his . . . — Map (db m69443) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Lenoir City — Lenoir's StationSander's Raid
Union Gen. Ambrose Burnside needed to gather information on Confederate troop strength and to cripple the important East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad before he invaded East Tennessee in 1863. In June, he ordered Col. William P. Sanders to march . . . — Map (db m69434) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Loudon — Loudon Railroad BridgeStrategic Crossing
The covered wooden bridge of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad here on the Tennessee River was a strategically significant crossing for rail traffic between Richmond and Chattanooga. The Confederacy especially relied on the railroad for troop . . . — Map (db m82222) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Morganton — Morganton CrossingToo Cold to Wade — Knoxville Campaign
(preface) On November 4, 1863, to divert Federal forces from Chattanooga, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from the city to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison in Knoxville. Burnside confronted . . . — Map (db m69381) HM
Tennessee (Loudon County), Philadelphia — Battle of PhiladelphiaBivouac of Reconciliation
During the autumn of 1863, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's forces occupied Knoxville and much of the surrounding countryside. Philadelphia, a station on the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, was the southernmost Union-held town. Col. Frank . . . — Map (db m82223) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Lafayette — A Family TragedyThe Execution of Pvt. Elvis B. Parker
Thousands of Tennessee families were caught in the crossfire of the Civil War. Dempsey Parker’s family, which lived in the Hillsdale community here in Macon County, is one of many examples of a family sharply divided between North and South. . . . — Map (db m68525) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Lafayette — Ambush at MeadowvilleConflict in Macon County
During the Civil War, Macon County experienced internal strife as did many other areas of Tennessee. In the spring of 1863, a Confederate partisan band established itself in this part of the county, where it harassed Federal units and threatened . . . — Map (db m82224) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Lafayette — Macon County in the Civil WarDivision and Conflict
During the Civil War, about 500 Macon County men served on each side. The Highland Rim ridge, as well as family loyalties, generally separated Confederates from Unionists. Gibbs Crossroads, where Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg once had a . . . — Map (db m82225) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Red Boiling Springs — Gibbs CrossroadsCrossroads of War
Places once prominent in Tennessee’s antebellum transportation routes are sometimes almost forgotten places today. This road intersection was of significant strategic value in fighting the war in Tennessee’s Upper Cumberland region. During the Civil . . . — Map (db m82226) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Red Boiling Springs — Red Boiling SpringsEnlistment Center and Civil War Hospital
Red Boiling Springs has long been a landmark in Macon County. It was a central crossroads for both Federal and Confederate forces during the Civil War. The war came home for local residents on September 24, 1861, when Capts. Ridley R. West and . . . — Map (db m39584) HM
Tennessee (Macon County), Westmoreland — Epperson SpringsResort and Wartime Enlistment Center
The Epperson Springs Hotel, built by local businessmen so that residents and visitors could enjoy bathing and soaking in a mineral springs, stood here. Most of the state’s early resorts grew up around mineral springs; physicians often touted the . . . — Map (db m68547) HM
Tennessee (Madison County), Denmark — Battle of Britton LaneAn Unexpected Clash
In August 1862, Confederate Gen. Sterling Price ordered Gen. Frank C. Armstrong to conduct a raid with his 2,000-man cavalry brigade to determine the strength and location of Union forces in West Tennessee. The raiders left Guntown, Mississippi, on . . . — Map (db m82228) HM
Tennessee (Madison County), Denmark — Denmark Presbyterian ChurchWartime House of Worship
This church, built by slaves in 1854, played a significant role in Madison County’s Civil War experiences. In April 1861, days after the firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, 104 local men formed a company called The Danes, later part of the 6th . . . — Map (db m74848) HM
Tennessee (Madison County), Jackson — Battle of Salem CemeterySurprise Attack — Forrest's Second Tennessee Raid
Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest led his cavalry brigade on a raid through West Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1962-Jan 3, 1863, destroying railroads and severing Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's supply line between Columbus, Kentucky, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Forrest . . . — Map (db m62189) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Columbia — Delaying Forrest"...a decided stand" — Hood's Campaign
(Preface): In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman's supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman's "March to the Sea," . . . — Map (db m28688) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Columbia — James K. Polk HouseFor the Union
This house, constructed in 1816, is the only surviving Tennessee residence associated with the nation's eleventh president. James Knox Polk (1795-1849) lived here from 1818 to 1824. When Polk's mother died in 1852, the house passed to his younger . . . — Map (db m97096) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Columbia — Road to NashvilleColumbia Artillery Duel — Hood's Campaign
(preface) In September 1864, after Union Gen. William T. Sherman defeated Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood at Atlanta, Hood led the Army of Tennessee northwest against Sherman’s supply lines. Rather than contest Sherman’s “March to the . . . — Map (db m75035) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Columbia — Sam WatkinsA Common Soldier's Lasting Legacy
Samuel Rush Watkins and his wife, Virginia (Jenny) Mayes Watkins, who worshipped here at Zion Presbyterian Church, are buried in the cemetery. In his book Company Aytch: or, a Side Show of the Big Show, Watkins left an incomparable memoir of . . . — Map (db m85997) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Mount Pleasant — The Bigby GreysStory of Service
Here on the square, on April 20, 1861, a hundred local men under Capt. Daniel F. Wade were sworn into Confederate service as the Bigby Greys. The women of Mt. Pleasant presented the company with its first flag, in the first Confederate national . . . — Map (db m75021) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Spring Hill — The Battle of Spring HillThe Great Escape
By 3 p.m. on November 29, 1864, Union Gen. John M. Schofield realized that his command was in great danger. The bulk of his army was posted near Columbia, Tennessee, while Confederates Gen. John Bell Hood’s troops were north of him, approaching the . . . — Map (db m75079) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Spring Hill — The Battle of Spring HillOpportunity Lost
After nightfall, Confederate Gen. Edward Johnson's division began moving into position on the left of Gen. William B. Bate's division. Johnson, whose unit was part of Gen. S.D. Lee's corps, had been ordered forward from the vicinity of Rutherford . . . — Map (db m88973) HM
Tennessee (Maury County), Spring Hill in Maury County — The Battle of Spring HillBlocking the Columbia Turnpike
Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood hoped to block the road in front of you—the Columbia Turnpike—and cut off Union Gen. John M. Schofield's force at Columbia from a larger Federal army to the north at Nashville. Confederate divisions . . . — Map (db m88969) HM
Tennessee (McMinn County), Athens — Road to ChattanoogaThe Tide Turns for the Union
This interstate highway parallels the historic line of the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad. Late in 1863, Union and Confederate armies followed the tracks during a series of battles in the fight for control of Chattanooga, a strategically vital . . . — Map (db m97343) HM
Tennessee (McMinn County), Niota — Niota DepotNot "quiet and cozy"
Railroads played a significant role in the Civil War in East Tennessee. Commanders on both sides viewed the railroad as an important asset, not only as a carrier of military supplies, but also as the means of rapidly concentrating their forces. This . . . — Map (db m69361) HM
Tennessee (McNairy County), Adamsville — Adamsville In The Civil WarThe Road to Shiloh — Battle of Shiloh
After the February 1862 Union victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s army occupied Nashville while Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s army penetrated to Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. Buell and Grant planned to attack the . . . — Map (db m74877) HM
Tennessee (McNairy County), Purdy — Fielding Hurst and PurdyBehaving Badly
Fifty yards north is the home (ca. 1856) of Union Col. Fielding Hurst, a slave owner but devout Unionist who raised the 6th Tennessee Cavalry during the Civil War. Hurst’s family controlled an area known during the war and long afterward as the . . . — Map (db m74875) HM
Tennessee (McNairy County), Shiloh — Fallen TimbersBrief but Furious Close to Shiloh — Battle of Shiloh
(preface) After the February 1862 Union victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army occupied Nashville while Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's army penetrated to Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. Buell and Grant . . . — Map (db m84783) HM
Tennessee (Monroe County), Madisonville — War Comes to MadisonvilleEnjoying "forced hospitality" — Knoxville Campaign
(preface) On November 4, 1863, to divert Federal forces from Chattanooga, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from the city to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison in Knoxville. Burnside confronted . . . — Map (db m69379) HM
Tennessee (Monroe County), Sweetwater — Sweetwater DepotStrategic Target — Knoxville Campaign
(preface) On November 4, 1863, to divert Federal forces from Chattanooga, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from the city to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s garrison in Knoxville. Burnside confronted . . . — Map (db m69367) HM
Tennessee (Monroe County), Sweetwater — The Great Craighead CaveMining a Strategic Material
Saltpeter, or niter, is a key ingredient of gunpowder found in many limestone caves in East Tennessee. In June 1861, Randolph Ross, Jr., and J. Marshall McCue contracted with the Confederate Ordnance Bureau to produce niter here at the “Milk . . . — Map (db m82276) HM
Tennessee (Monroe County), Tellico Plains — Coker CreekCaught in the Middle
Here in the shadow of the Unicoi Mountains, the Coker Creek community suffered the effects of the Civil War. The conflict closed the lucrative gold mines here and brought devastation and terror to the inhabitants. Both the Union and the Confederate . . . — Map (db m82296) HM
Tennessee (Monroe County), Tellico Plains — Tellico Iron WorksGripped in the War's Iron Fist
Throughout the Civil War, both sides depended on the iron industry for vitally important munitions. The Tellico Iron and Manufacturing Company, then located one mile east, caught the attention first of the Confederate army and eventually of Union . . . — Map (db m82297) HM
Tennessee (Montgomery County), Clarksville — Battle of Riggins HillFight for Control
In mid-August 1862, Confederate cavalry recaptured Clarksville to disrupt Union transportation on the Cumberland River to Nashville and to gather new recruits and supplies. Early in September, Union Col. William W. Lowe led 1,100 men including . . . — Map (db m68651) HM
Tennessee (Montgomery County), Clarksville — Clarksville in the Civil WarChanging Hands
Clarksville, a communication and transportation center was strategically significant because of the Cumberland River and the Memphis, Clarksville and Louisville Railroad. The area’s rich agricultural produce—grain, livestock, tobacco, and . . . — Map (db m68639) HM
Tennessee (Montgomery County), Clarksville — Recapture of ClarksvilleConfederate Occupation
On August 18, 1862, Union-occupied Clarksville came under attack from Confederate forces to disrupt river traffic. The town was still very much a pro-Confederate hotbed of guerilla activity and the focus of Confederate cavalry raids. Confederate . . . — Map (db m68636) HM
Tennessee (Montgomery County), Clarksville — Surrender of ClarksvilleUnion Occupation
In the mid-afternoon of February 19, 1862, Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote, aboard his flagship, the timber-clad gunship USS Conestoga, passed Linwood Landing around the bend of the Cumberland River a mile and a half north of here. The ironclad . . . — Map (db m68648) HM
Tennessee (Overton County), Hilham — John Hunt MorganFrequent Visitor
Confederate cavalry raider Gen. John Hunt Morgan frequently passed through Livingston, strategically located at a crossroads in the Upper Cumberland region. Morgan and his men first came here on July 7, 1862, as they approached the Kentucky line for . . . — Map (db m68340) HM
Tennessee (Overton County), Livingston — Camp ZollicofferMore Men than Firearms
Camp Zollicoffer, a Confederate induction and training base, was established here in the summer of 1861 and prepared thousands of soldiers for military life. At the time, J.D. Goodpasture owned this land, and his house stood nearby. His farm was . . . — Map (db m68334) HM
Tennessee (Overton County), Livingston — Heart of ControversyBethlehem United Methodist Church
In 1861, as the secession debate raged across Tennessee, Mary Catherine Sproul taught school here on the church grounds. She was excited to learn that pro-Union leader Horace Maynard would give a speech in Livingston. Then she overheard local . . . — Map (db m82305) HM
Tennessee (Overton County), Livingston — Overton County Courthouse1865 Burning
During the war, guerrillas supporting both sides operated in Overton County, and the residents experienced early the dangers of living in the borderlands. In October 1861, William E.B. Jones of Livingston wrote Tennessee’s Confederate governor Isham . . . — Map (db m68332) HM
Tennessee (Overton County), Monroe — Camp MyersConfederate Induction Center
Camp Myers, a Confederate training camp established early in 1861 in Overton County together with Camp Zollicoffer, was located nearby and named for Calvin Myers, a Mexican War veteran. After Tennessee seceded in June 1861, Camp Myers was used to . . . — Map (db m68330) HM
Tennessee (Perry County), Linden — Cedar Grove Iron FurnaceShelled by Gunboats
Tennessee’s iron industry was strategically important to both North and South. Numerous furnaces supplied iron to foundries to manufacture munitions as well as armor for ironclad vessels. The fall of Forts Henry and Donelson in February 1862 opened . . . — Map (db m74987) HM
Tennessee (Perry County), Linden — Razing the CourthousePhelp's Raid
To control shipping and military traffic along the Tennessee River, Union forces moved into this region in 1862. Naval gunboats sought to cut vital Confederate supply links to West Tennessee and the Deep South. Confederate cavalry detachments . . . — Map (db m75003) HM
Tennessee (Pickett County), Travisville — Affair at TravisvilleWar Comes to Tennessee
The first military action of the Civil War in Tennessee occurred on September 29, 1861 at Travisville. The blood spilled in this brief engagement brought the reality of the conflict home to the people of the Cumberland Mountains. Confederate Gen. . . . — Map (db m74250) HM
Tennessee (Putnam County), Buffalo Valley — Civil War in TennesseePartisan Warfare
The rugged landscape of the Upper Cumberland experienced some of the most vicious guerrilla fighting of the war, as residents were about evenly divided between the Union and the Confederacy. North of Ext 258 is Carthage, where part of . . . — Map (db m105545) HM
Tennessee (Putnam County), Monterey — Gen. John T. WilderEast Tennessee Railroads and Bridges
Born in New York's Catskill Mountains, Union general and postwar Tennessee industralist John T. Wilder joined the 17th Indian Volunteers when the Civil War began. Wilder and his 17thh Indian Mounted Infantry (nickname "Wilder's Lighting Brigade") . . . — Map (db m99010) HM
Tennessee (Rhea County), Spring City — The Rhea County SpartansWomen's Cavalry
Walden’s Ridge, directly ahead, was a natural obstacle to east-west military movements during the war. In 1862–1863, Confederate authorities ordered three Rhea County cavalry companies to patrol the passes there between Emory Gap (north) and . . . — Map (db m69235) HM
Tennessee (Robertson County), Adams — Fort RedmondRed River Blockhouse No. 1
The Edgefield and Kentucky Railroad was vitally important for transporting soldiers and supplies. Confederate forces constructed Fort Redmond to protect and defend the railroad bridge a mile northwest of here, near the confluence of the Red River . . . — Map (db m82327) WM
Tennessee (Robertson County), Portland — Civil War in TennesseeInvaders, North and South
In 1861, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which I-65 largely parallels today, connected the mid-South to the Ohio River and the industrial centers of the North. During the war, however, it brought invaders to both Tennessee and Kentucky as a . . . — Map (db m84485) HM
Tennessee (Robertson County), Portland — Duval-Groves HouseCamp Trousdale
James Duval constructed this house between 1850 and 1853, and James and Mariah Groves owned and occupied it during the Civil War. Mariah Groves lived here until her death in 1897. Groves family members shown in the photograph reminisced about . . . — Map (db m68573) HM
Tennessee (Robertson County), Springfield — An Army In SpringfieldFederal Occupation
For most residents, Robertson County was a difficult place to live during the war. After the fall of Confederate Forts Henry and Donelson in 1862, Union forces occupied the county and made the town of Springfield a military base, where they guarded . . . — Map (db m82328) HM
Tennessee (Robertson County), Springfield — Guarding SpringfieldThe Federal Occupation
Early in the war, townswomen met at the Henry H. Kirk house, just north of here, to sew uniforms and blankets for Confederate soldiers after Kirk bought sewing machines and patterns in St. Louis, Missouri. When the 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry hoisted . . . — Map (db m82330) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Murfreesboro — Battle of MurfreesboroBeginning of a Legend — Forrest's First Raid
(preface) For two weeks in July 1862, Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest led 1,400 cavalrymen through Middle Tennessee to raid, scout and disrupt the Union Army of the Cumberland’s operation there. Leaving McMinnville on July 13, Forrest fought . . . — Map (db m69157) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Murfreesboro — Bragg's HeadquartersFateful Decisions at Stones River — Battle of Stones River
(Preface): Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans led the Army of the Cumberland from Nashville toward Murfreesboro in December 1862, while Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg and the Army of the Tennessee occupied the town to protect the approaches to . . . — Map (db m82454) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Murfreesboro — Evergreen CemeteryConfederate Circle
The Confederate Circle at historic Evergreen Cemetery was established in 1890. The reburial of Confederate dead from across the county here took place the following year. Among those buried here is Robert James Campbell Gailbreath . . . — Map (db m69176) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Murfreesboro — Oaklands MansionWatching from the Windows — Forrest's First Raid
(preface) For two weeks in July 1862, Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest led 1,400 cavalrymen through Middle Tennessee to raid, scout, and disrupt the Union Army of The Cumberland’s operation there. Leaving McMinnville on July 13, Forrest fought . . . — Map (db m82517) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Smyrna — Dewitt Smith JobeConfederate Scout
Rutherford County native DeWitt Smith Jobe was a member of Capt. Henry B. Shaw’s Coleman’s Scouts, a Confederate cavalry unit and spy network that served the Army of Tennessee. The men operated behind Union lines, remaining out of sight in the . . . — Map (db m69079) HM
Tennessee (Rutherford County), Smyrna — Sam Davis HomeConfederate Martyr
This is the Sam Davis Home, one of Tennessee’s most significant Confederate memorial properties. Samuel (“Sam”) Davis, born here in 1842, enlisted in the Rutherford Rifles (Co. I, 1st Tennessee Infantry) in 1861 and fought in western . . . — Map (db m82592) HM
Tennessee (Sequatchie County), Dunlap — Thunder in the ValleyCivil War in Sequatchie County
The outbreak of the war divided Sequatchie County families, and local men served on both sides of the conflict. Union and Confederate armies marched through the county, civilian law broke down, and marauders used the conflict as an excuse to rob, . . . — Map (db m85541) HM
Tennessee (Sevier County), Pigeon Forge — Unionists Within the ConfederacySevier County Home Guard
When the Civil War began, Sevier County Unionists at first operated quietly in secessionist Tennessee. In 1861, they set up a secret garment factory in the second floor of this mill and made cloth for uniforms. They also made shoes for Federal . . . — Map (db m65704) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Arlington — Memphis's Civil War SitesCivilians Lined the Bluffs
In April 1862, Union victories at Shiloh and on the Mississippi River made Confederate control of the river in Tennessee more difficult. Southern soldiers evacuated posts that they could not defend easily, such as Memphis. Capt. James E. . . . — Map (db m88230) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Collierville — Battle of ColliervilleAn Unexpected Guest
Collierville's location on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad made it strategically important throughout the Civil War. Frequently occupied by Union forces, the town found itself in the gun sights of Confederate cavalrymen intent on severing . . . — Map (db m37267) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Collierville — Chalmers's Collierville Raid"... break the railroad behind him."
Early in November 1863, Union Gen. William T. Sherman was moving east to relieve the Union army at Chattanooga. Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Gen. James R. Chalmers to "harass [Sherman's] rear and break the railroad behind him." . . . — Map (db m37269) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Germantown — War Comes to GermantownGuarding the Railroad
In 1861, Germantown was divided between secessionists and unionists until the news of Fort Sumter and President Abraham Lincoln’s call for volunteers tilted the balance in favor of secession. Germantown women announced on April 26, “We…offer . . . — Map (db m82844) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Memphis — Civil War in TennesseeMemphis during the War
In 1860, Memphis had Tennessee's largest cotton and slave markets and was a strategic Mississippi River gateway. The naval battle of Memphis in June 1862 took place as thousands of residents watched nine Union vessels defeat eight Confederate ships. . . . — Map (db m55313) HM
Tennessee (Shelby County), Memphis — Confederate ParkReunions and Memorials
Opened in 1906 as part of the Memphis Park and Parkway System, Confederate Park commemorates the Battle of Memphis. When Confederate forces retreated to Mississippi after the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, unfortified Memphis became vulnerable to . . . — Map (db m82849) HM
Tennessee (Smith County), Carthage — Rome FerryHot Pursuit
After Union Gen. Ebenezer Dumont’s troops surprised Confederate Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s command at Lebanon on May 5, 1862, Morgan’s men escaped north and rushed toward the Cumberland River. Hotly pursued, the Confederates succeeded in reaching Rome . . . — Map (db m68354) HM
Tennessee (Smith County), Carthage — Smith County Courthouse SquareA Major Federal Base
Carthage’s historic courthouse square was the control center of a major Federal base from 1863 to 1865 in the fight to control the Upper Cumberland River region. When Union Gen. George Crook arrived in Carthage to stay in 1863, he commandeered the . . . — Map (db m68353) HM
Tennessee (Smith County), Carthage — Upper FerryOn the Cumberland River
As a major Cumberland River port with three landings, Carthage was strategically important to both Confederate and Union forces. The Upper Ferry and landing was located near the present Corps of Engineer boat ramp near Upper Ferry Road. . . . — Map (db m68349) HM
Tennessee (Stewart County), Dover — Battle of DoverWar Returns to Stewart County
Union and Confederate forces clashed near here again on February 3, 1863, almost one year after the Battle of Fort Donelson. Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler attacked Dover’s 800-man Federal garrison after he failed to disrupt Union shipping on the . . . — Map (db m68668) HM
Tennessee (Stewart County), Dover — Forrest's AttackBreaking Out of Fort Donelson — Battle of Fort Donelson
(overview) In February 1862, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attacked Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to take control of western Tennessee and Kentucky as well as the rivers. Grant captured Fort Henry on February . . . — Map (db m68667) HM
Tennessee (Stewart County), Dover — Forrest's EscapeThe Road to Nashville — Battle of Fort Donelson
(overview) In February 1862, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attacked Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to take control of western Tennessee and Kentucky as well as the rivers. Grant captured Fort Henry on February . . . — Map (db m68665) HM
Tennessee (Stewart County), Dover — Holding The LineThe Stand of the 11th Illinois Volunteer Infantry — Battle of Fort Donelson
(overview) In February 1862, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attacked Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to take control of western Tennessee and Kentucky as well as the rivers. Grant captured Fort Henry on February . . . — Map (db m82951) HM
Tennessee (Stewart County), Dover — Morrison's AttackA Senseless Loss — Battle of Fort Donelson
(overview) In February 1862, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attacked Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to take control of western Tennessee and Kentucky as well as the rivers. Grant captured Fort Henry on February . . . — Map (db m68907) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Blountville — Battle of BlountvilleFederal Guns on Cemetery Hill
This is where Union forces stood as they attacked Blountville on September 22, 1863, during a campaign to control the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. On the day of the attack, the Confederates occupied Blountville while the Federal forces held the . . . — Map (db m69699) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Blountville — Battle of Blountville"…the best portion of the town was destroyed"
This is the Sullivan County Courthouse. Its interior was burned during the Union attack on Blountville on September 22, 1863, as Confederate and Federal forces vied for control of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, located a few miles east of . . . — Map (db m69708) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Blountville — Battle of BlountvilleConfederate Position
You are in the former schoolyard of the Masonic Female Institute, where Confederate troops stood as they defended Blountville on September 22, 1863. Col. James E. Carter's 1st Tennessee Cavalry withdrew that morning of 1863 from the Watauga River to . . . — Map (db m69806) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Blountville — Old Deery InnRefuge from the Storm
In September 1863, Confederate Gen. Samuel Jones’s command and Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s forces contested control of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad a few miles east. On September 22, Union Col. John W. Foster’s brigade engaged the forces . . . — Map (db m69712) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Blountville — The Cannonball HouseNarrowly Missed Destruction
You are standing in front of the Miller-Haynes house, known as the Cannonball House because of structural damage it sustained from Union cannon fire during the Battle of Blountville on September 22, 1863. During the artillery exchanges, Confederate . . . — Map (db m69805) HM
Tennessee (Sullivan County), Bristol — East Hill CemeteryHistoric Burying Ground
During the Civil War, Bristol was a strategic location on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. The Confederate Medical Corps established hospitals in the town, which soon became an important medical center. Wounded soldiers were brought by rail . . . — Map (db m82957) HM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Castalian Springs — CragfontUnion Occupation
Cragfont was the home of Confederate Maj. George W. Winchester (1822-1878), his mother, Susan Winchester, his wife, Malvina H. Gaines, and their children. Their surviving letters and diaries describe life during Union occupation. George . . . — Map (db m68465) HM WM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Castalian Springs — Hawthorne HillBirthplace of William B. Bate
William Brimage Bate was born here in 1826, and during the Civil War he rose to the rank of major general. He left home at the age of sixteen to be a clerk on a steamboat. During the Mexican War, he served as a lieutenant, then became a journalist, . . . — Map (db m82969) HM WM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Castalian Springs — WynnewoodChanging Allegiances
Col. Alfred Royal Wynne (1800-1893) was a trader and merchant in Castalian Springs. In 1828, he built this stagecoach inn along the Knoxville road. Although Wynne was a slaveholder and a Democrat, he also was a staunch Unionist and strongly opposed . . . — Map (db m82970) WM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Gallatin — Gallatin Public SquareHeart of Federal Occupation
Early in 1861, Gallatin and Sumner County were divided over secession, but after the fall of Fort Sumter, residents voted almost ten to one in favor. Support of the Confederacy never wavered, as Capt. Benjamin S. Nicklin, 13th Battery, Indiana Light . . . — Map (db m68408) HM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Gallatin — RosemontThe Political War Within the War
Rosemont, a Greek Revival—style mansion completed in the 1840s, was the home of Judge Josephus Conn Guild, a state senator and representative who also served as a Lt. Colonel in the 2nd Tennessee Mounted Volunteers during the Seminole War. He . . . — Map (db m68405) HM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Gallatin — The Clark HouseSumner County Courthouse
This is the home of four brothers who served in the Confederate army, as did many of Sumner County’s young men. Their father, William F. Clark, a Protestant minister, died in 1847 at the age of forty-one, leaving his wife, Emma Douglass Clark, to . . . — Map (db m82973) WM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Gallatin — Trousdale PlaceElder Statesman's Home
This was the home of William Trousdale (1790-1872), governor of Tennessee (1849-1851) and U.S. minister to Brazil (1853-1857). During the Union army’s occupation of Gallatin from 1862 to 1870, its commanders regarded former governor Trousdale as the . . . — Map (db m68416) HM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Goodlettsville — Mansker CreekLouisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad, among Tennessee’s most strategically important lines, closely followed Mansker Creek here, and a railroad bridge stood two miles downstream. To protect the railroad and the bridge, several companies of Union . . . — Map (db m74324) HM
Tennessee (Sumner County), Portland — Cold Spring SchoolSite of Camp Trousdale
In May 1861, the Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation to raise and equip the Provisional Army of Tennessee and train the units at camps throughout the state. Camp Trousdale was established—initially at Richland (present-day . . . — Map (db m82978) HM
Tennessee (Tipton County), Covington — Tipton County in the Civil WarBehind the Lines
"The end of an evil year in the history of America—what another year will bring forth remained to be seen—perhaps and most likely the bloodiest war ever known in America, God forbid!" — Tipton County Court Clerk John T. . . . — Map (db m74738) HM
Tennessee (Tipton County), Randolph — Twin DefensesForts Randolph and Wright
The village of Randolph played a significant early role in the Confederate defense of the Mississippi River. Here in April 1861, the state built training camps for the Provisional Army of Tennessee that Gov. Isham G. Harris had established. As part . . . — Map (db m74747) HM
Tennessee (Trousdale County), Hartsville — Surprise at Hartsville"...by whose fault"
On the morning of December 7, 1862, the Confederates attacked the Union garrison camped on a bluff overlooking the Cumberland River two miles south of here. Under cover of darkness and falling snow, Morgan and 1,300 men had crossed the icy . . . — Map (db m68491) WM
Tennessee (Union County), Maynardville — Divided LoyaltiesCivil War in Union County
The Civil War made civilian life in Union County difficult and dangerous. Most residents opposed secession and were staunch Unionists. men joined such Federal regiments as the 1st Tennessee Infantry and the 2nd and 9th Tennessee Cavalry. Others . . . — Map (db m100481) HM

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