“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Columbus, Georgia Historical Markers

"Kinfolks' Corner" building. image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, February 4, 2017
"Kinfolks' Corner" building.
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — "Kinfolks' Corner"
From the 1840's, this building stood among others of its type at this historic downtown intersection. Known traditionally as "Kinfolks' Corner," the area was the meeting place for generations of citizens from Columbus and neighboring Alabama . . . — Map (db m101317) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-2 — "Torch Hill"
On the summit of the rise to the east is the site of "Torch Hill", home of Dr. Francis Orray Ticknor (1822-1874), author of the famed war story, "Little Giffen of Tennessee". Dr. Ticknor was a physician at the Confederate Hospital on Upper Broad St. . . . — Map (db m49073) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — “Columbus Stockade Blues”
“Way Down in Columbus, Georgia, Wanna be back in Tennessee, Way down in Columbus Stockade, Friends have turned their back on me.” The “Columbus Stockade Blues” by Thomas Darby and Jimmie Tarlton, was written and . . . — Map (db m43077) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — “Ma" Rainey Home
Gertrude Pridgett “Ma” Rainey, 1886-1939, famed “Mother of the Blues”, lived in this house after 1935, during retirement in her native city. In 1904 she introduced “blues” as part of her traveling act. For 30 . . . — Map (db m42592) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — “The Folly”
A dwelling has existed at 527 First Avenue since 1831 when Alfred Iverson wed Julia Forsyth, daughter of Georgia Governor John Forsyth. Elected to Congress in 1846, Iverson served in the Senate until Georgia seceded from the Union. Two sons served . . . — Map (db m22408) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-5 — “Wildwood”
Augusta Jane Evans Wilson, author of St. Elmo and other popular Victorian novels, was born May 8, 1835, in "Wildwood" the early Georgian home northeast of this marker. She was the daughter of Sarah Howard and Matthew R. Evans.

This historic . . . — Map (db m42359) HM

Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 1918 Diamond Jubilee 1993 Camp Benning / Fort Benning
Side 1: In October 1918, the Infantry School of Arms was established on 80 acres of land near here. Camp Benning, later Fort Benning, was named in honor of Confederate Infantry General Lewis Benning, a Columbus resident. The camp’s first . . . — Map (db m23176) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 700 Broadway
Situated on a lot that was part of Edward Lloyd Thomas’ original 1828 plan for the city, this c. 1870 Victorian townhouse is the only one of its design in Columbus. Among the families which inhabited this house was that of Stirling Price Gilbert . . . — Map (db m22940) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Alma Woodsey Thomas
Side 1: Alma Thomas, nationally known African-American artist, was the eldest of four daughters born to John Maurice Thomas and Amelia Whitaker Cantey. Highly cultured and socially involved, the Thomas family owned this Victorian home . . . — Map (db m58269) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Augusta Jane Evans (1835-1909)
Augusta Jane Evans (Wilson), one of the most popular American novelists of the nineteenth century and a native of Columbus, at the age of fifteen wrote her first novel, "Inez: A Tale of the Alamo," as a Christmas gift for her father. She is . . . — Map (db m101321) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Battle of Columbus
South face At 8:00 P.M. Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865, Federal forces, trying to secure the crossing of the Chattahoochee River, attacked strong defences near Columbus, Georgia. In the face of heavy musketry and artillery fire, the . . . — Map (db m101340) HM WM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Battle of Columbus
Unaware of Robert E. Lee's surrender, General James H. Wilson's Union Cavalry swept across Alabama as boys and old men tried to defend Columbus. Cannon from the C.S.S. Chattahoochee, similar to nearby replicas, were mounted here to . . . — Map (db m101488) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Birthplace of Robert Winship WoodruffDecember 6, 1889
Son of Ernest and Emily Winship Woodruff. Honored citizen, noted industrialist and philanthropist, a Georgian of universal friendships and acclaim. Through his vision and leadership the product “Coca-Cola” became the world’s refreshment. . . . — Map (db m17808) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Bricks & Clay Products — Heritage Park
For millions of years, the Chattahoochee River flooded its banks, dropped its silt, and created vast deposits of clay. Because of this accumulation of clay, brick making began south of Phenix City at least as early as 1940. The Bickerstaff family . . . — Map (db m101353) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Brigadier General Henry Lewis Benning
Born in Columbia County, Georgia, on April 2, 1814, Henry L. Benning attended Franklin College prior to practicing law in Columbus. As a local attorney and state Supreme Court Judge, Benning played an active role in Georgia’s secession in 1861. . . . — Map (db m57107) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Bullard-Hart-Sampson House
Built 1887 by Dr. William L. Bullard, Columbus physician and pioneer ear, eye, nose and throat specialist, this house is a splendid example of Second Empire Victorian architecture. It was designed by L.E. Thornton of New York.

The Bullard . . . — Map (db m44423) HM

Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-16A — Camp Conrad
Main entrance to site of Camp Conrad, where a brigade of 3,500 troops was stationed in the winter of 1898-99 (Spanish-American War). Camp site occupied space between Third and Sixth Avenues and 29th and 33rd Sts. Brigade was composed of 160th . . . — Map (db m42184) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Carson McCullers — 1917 - 1967
The family of author Carson McCullers moved to this house in 1927. Here Lula Carson Smith spent her formative years 10-17 and here she began to write, putting on shows in the two sitting rooms, using the sliding doors as curtains and drafting . . . — Map (db m43085) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Carson McCullers (1917 - 1967)
With her critically acclaimed first novel, "The Heart is a Lonely Hunter," published at age twenty - three, Carson McCullers was on her way to becoming one of the most widely read writers of her time. Born Lula Carson Smith in Columbus, McCullers . . . — Map (db m101320) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Church of the Holy Family
Front: This is the mother church of Roman Catholicism in this area, serving as the only Catholic Church in Columbus from 1880 to 1958. The first Catholic church, the Church of Sts. Philip and James, was built in 1835 on what is now Chapel . . . — Map (db m43639) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Circus Train Wreck MemorialCon. T. Kennedy Shows
In memory of their comrades who lost their lives in a railroad wreck near Columbus, GA. Nov. 22, 1915. Reverse We’ll not forget thee, we who stay To work a little longer here. Thy name, thy faith, . . . — Map (db m101662) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-24 — City Mills<------<<<<
Site of the oldest manufacturing operation on the Chattahoochee River at Columbus. April 3, 1828, the State of Georgia, through Governor George R. Gilmer, issued a grant to Seaborn Jones for Lot No. 1 (5 1/2 acres) in the reserve at the Coweta Fall. . . . — Map (db m42192) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-3 — City of Columbus
This city of Columbus was created as a trading town by an act of the General Assembly of Georgia, December 24, 1827. The location designated was on the Chattahoochee River near the Coweta Falls. This spot was selected because it was at the head of . . . — Map (db m22802) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-2 — Civil War Women’s Riot
On April 11, 1863, during the American Civil War, sixty-five Columbus women armed with knives and pistols rallied at this site and marched down Broad Street raiding the stores of speculators before police could restore order. During the war many . . . — Map (db m42506) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-26 — Col. W. L. Salisbury
This park is named for Col. W. L. Salisbury (1830-1878), soldier, editor, banker, distinguished citizen of Columbus whose contribution to progress and culture in his native city was outstanding. His home was on the east side of this block. He was a . . . — Map (db m22772) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Colored Department of the City Hospital / Doctors and Nurses
Colored Department of the City Hospital The first City Hospital, c. 1841, was located on the South Commons. Called “the Pest House,” its clients were charity patients. The second City Hospital, c. 1894, was built across from . . . — Map (db m45385) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbian Lodge No. 7, Free & Accepted Masons Columbus, Georgia
Organized October 9, 1828, Columbian Lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Georgia in December 1828, as No. 28. In 1849 it became No. 7. It is the oldest Lodge in western Georgia. First Worshipful Master was Luther Blake. The Lodge was organized . . . — Map (db m23053) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbus' First Jewish Cemetery
Since Biblical times when Abraham purchased land to bury his wife Sarah, it has been considered a religious obligation for Jews to set aside land for interring their dead. Often before congregations were established burial societies were formed to . . . — Map (db m57359) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-13 — Columbus Iron Works»—→
Established 1853, was operated by the Confederate government as Naval Iron Works, making cannon, other war munitions, and two gun boats. This plant was credited with making the first breech-loading cannon. At south end of Dillingham Street . . . — Map (db m43729) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbus Iron Works
Organized in 1853, this facility produced steam engines for the Confederate Navy before being burned by Federal troops in April of 1865. Functioning again by September of the same year, the firm manufactured cast and wrought iron . . . — Map (db m101522) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbus Museums
Created in the early 1950s as the city's first comprehensive museum, the Columbus Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1251 Wynnton Road, features permanent exhibits of fine and decorative arts, southeastern Indian artifacts, and regional history and . . . — Map (db m101324) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-23 — Columbus Steamboat Wharf
The Columbus Steamboat Wharf, about 700 ft. from here, was used as a river boat landing for 111 years. 210 steamers arrived from Jan. 26, 1828 when the first steamer, the "Fanny" docked at the wharf until Apr. 1, 1939 when the "George W. Miller" . . . — Map (db m101254) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbus Symphony Orchestra
The second orchestra to be formed in America, the Columbus Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1855 by Herman Saroni, a German conductor and student of Mendelssohn, who was drawn to the city because it "had built for herself a reputation of culture." . . . — Map (db m109739) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Columbus’ First Theater
(Side 1): A pioneer theatrical entrepreneur, Sol Smith, 1801-1869, built many theaters in the Deep South, including New Orleans and Mobile and the first permanent theater west of the Mississippi in St. Louis, a city that he and partner Noah . . . — Map (db m22838) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Confederate Boats
Located on the bank immediately to the north was the C.S.A. Naval Yard. The facility which built the ironclad Ram "Muscogee" and renovated the gunboat "Chattachoochee." Sunk in the river in 1865, these boats were salvaged during the . . . — Map (db m101486) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-27 — Confederate Dead
More than 200 soldiers from every Confederate state are buried in two separate plots in Linwood Cemetery. Many of these men died in the several Confederate hospitals located in Columbus, 1862-1865. Numbers fell in the battle here, Easter Sunday, . . . — Map (db m45985) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-28 — Confederate Hospitals
In February 1864, to relieve the serious overcrowding of Confederate hospitals in the Atlanta and Dalton areas, Columbus was chosen as the site of a 1,500 bed army hospital. Eight buildings on Broad Street, including two saloons and the Court House, . . . — Map (db m45732) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-15 — Confederate Memorial Day
The first Confederate Memorial Day service in Columbus was held on this site (St. Luke Methodist Church) on April 26, 1866. The program was under the auspices of the Ladies’ Memorial Association, which was organized in the early Spring of 1866 for . . . — Map (db m56674) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Confederate Siege GunNational Civl War Naval Museum
1861-1865 Mounted by Camp Benning, U.C.V. Aug. 1898 — Map (db m61860) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Confederate Supply
Columbus industries supplied more goods to the Confederacy than any other southern city except Richmond. Existing factories expanded; merchants launched new manufactories; and the C.S.A. established an arsenal and a quartermaster . . . — Map (db m101491) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Dedicated to the Veterans of 1898 to 1902
“You triumphed over obstacles which would have overcome men less brave and determined” President McKinley Dedicated to the Veterans of 1898 to 1902 Camps and Auxiliaries of the Department of Georgia United Spanish War . . . — Map (db m57362) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Dr. Pemberton’s Country Home
This house served as the residence of Dr. Pemberton between 1860-1869. Dr. Pemberton enjoys international prestige as the originator of the formula for Coco-Cola. He moved into this house from the white frame cottage located at 11 Seventh Street. . . . — Map (db m22646) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Dr. Thomas H. Brewer
A Pike County, Alabama native of African-American descent, Dr. Brewer was born November 16, 1894. His office was located at 1025 1/2 First Avenue. Brewer emerged as a chief spokesman for the Civil Rights of the Negro and was described by Roy Wilkins . . . — Map (db m10975) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-18 — Eagle & Phenix Mills
In 1851 the Eagle Mill, one of the pioneer textile plants of Columbus, was built on this site to manufacture cotton and woolen goods. During the War the mill manufactured goods for the Confederacy and the State of Georgia. Products included grey . . . — Map (db m43730) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Early Industrial Center
The tremendous energy of the Chattahoochee made Columbus an important manufacturing center. Falling water powered textile, grist, saw, and paper mills. By 1860, the city's production of cotton and woolen goods ranked second within . . . — Map (db m101495) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Early Residences
On this block stood the residences of families who contributed to the early development of the city. These included the house built prior to 1840 by William Waters Garrard, planter, adjacent to his cotton warehouses at the north end of the block; . . . — Map (db m43093) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Educational Institutions
Built in 1843, the Wynnton Male Academy (now Wynnton School Library) is considered the oldest such school facility in continuous use in the state. This building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Industrial High School, . . . — Map (db m101326) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Empire Mills
G. W. Woodruff began grist operations in 1861 on this site previously occupied in 1847 by E.T. Taylor Cotton Gin Company and in 1841 by William Waters Garrard’s cotton warehouse. Empire Mills ran night and day during the Civil War and was spared in . . . — Map (db m46944) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Ernest Woodruff / Robert Winship Woodruff
Ernest Woodruff Ernest Woodruff was born in 1863 at 1420 2nd Avenue. He first worked for his father, George Waldo Woodruff, in his Columbus Empire Flour Mills, then as President of Joel Hurt’s Atlanta Streetcar Company, and as . . . — Map (db m101269) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Eugene J. Bullard, 1895-1961 / World’s First Black Combat Aviator
Eugene J. Bullard, 1895 - 1961 Bullard grew up in a small shotgun style house near this site. His father, William, was a laborer for the W. C. Bradley Company. Eugene completed the fifth grade at the 28th Street School. Shaken by the death . . . — Map (db m45865) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — First African Baptist Church
The initial congregation of this church was formed by slaves who had attended Ephesus Baptist Church (later First Baptist), since its organization on February 14, 1829. When a new church was built in 1840 the slaves worshipped in the older building. . . . — Map (db m44025) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — First Baptist Church
On February 14, 1829, twelve persons met and organized under the name Ephesus Baptist Church of Columbus. The northern half of this block had been designated for religious purposes in the state survey of 1828, and a small meeting house was built for . . . — Map (db m44359) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — First Black Public School
Near here, in July 1872, the first local public school for black students was opened. The school was the result of an action by the City Council directing the Trustees of the Columbus Public Schools to set up classes for blacks. For the first of . . . — Map (db m23120) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — First Presbyterian Church
(Side 1): The Presbyterians were granted one of the original church lots in the 1828 Columbus plan. It was on the North side of Chapel St. between Second and Third Avenues. The fourteen charter members, received in 1830, were: Edward . . . — Map (db m43943) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Fit for Man and Beast
This watering fountain at Broadway and 10th Street represents the last one of several located in each block down Broadway. It is Columbus' oldest public fountain, dating back to the earliest days of the city. Called the Man and Beast fountain, it . . . — Map (db m22376) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Fort Benning
Camp Benning began on Macon Road in 1918 as a temporary World War I encampment. The present fort was created in 1922 and was named in honor of Columbus lawyer, legislator, jurist, and Confederate Major General Henry L. Benning. The . . . — Map (db m101496) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Fourth Street Baptist Church
In 1900 the Mt. Canaan Baptist Church was established under the leadership of the Reverends John Bellamy and Willis Carter when a few men and women met under a fig tree on Third Avenue to worship. In 1901 Rev. Bellamy separated from Mt. Canaan to . . . — Map (db m57846) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Friendship Baptist Church
Founded in 1892 at 4th Avenue and 6th Street, the church moved to its permanent home here in January of 1897. The first minister was Rev. J. S. Kelsey, who served the church from 1897-1901. The present building was completed under his leadership. It . . . — Map (db m57857) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Frontier Wars
The Creek Indian War of 1835-1836, which centered on Columbus, began when a group of Indians revolted rather than move from East Alabama to Oklahoma they attacked travelers and settlers and threatened Columbus. State militia . . . — Map (db m101487) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Garrett and Sons / Cargill-Wright Company
Garrett and Sons Joseph Simpson Garrett, a whiskey, tobacco, and groceries merchant, constructed this building in 1883 for his business, Garrett and Sons. This wholesale business was regarded as the first of its kind in Columbus. Garrett . . . — Map (db m44518) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-8 — General Benning
Opposite this marker stood the home of Henry Lewis Benning (1814-1875), the Confederate Brigadier General for whom Fort Benning was named. He was married in 1839 to Mary Howard Jones, daughter of Colonel and Mrs. Seaborn Jones. General . . . — Map (db m46996) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — George Parker Swift I
George Parker Swift, I, pioneer cotton manufacturer of Georgia, was born Sept. 1, 1815, in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. He moved to Georgia in the early 1840’s and started the Tribune Mills at Waymanville, Upson County, first making cotton thread and . . . — Map (db m42159) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Gertrude "Ma" Rainey1886 – 1939 — "Empress of the Blues"
. . . — Map (db m101400) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-17 — Haiman's Sword Factory
Site of Haiman’s Sword Factory, the largest plant of its type in the South during the War Between the States. Louis and Elias Haiman came to Columbus from Prussia in the 1830s and established a tinsmith shop. At the War’s start they established a . . . — Map (db m69948) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-25 — He Helped Bring And Keep Fort Benning
Mallory Reynolds Flournoy (Oct. 21, 1882 - Apr. 26, 1920), leader in establishing Fort Benning and the Infantry School on the 182,000 acre military reservation south of Columbus, lived here. The son of John F. Flournoy, outstanding citizen and . . . — Map (db m42531) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-6 — Hero's Memorial
North of this marker in the Porterdale Cemetery is the grave of Bragg Smith over which the City of Columbus erected a marble memorial to commemorate an outstanding deed of heroism. The text reads: “Erected by the City of Columbus to mark . . . — Map (db m57367) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — High Uptown Historic District / Garrett-Bullock-Delay House
High Uptown Historic District This area, known as “High Uptown,” contains historic residential structures that were built by affluent business and community leaders of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These homes are . . . — Map (db m44465) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Historic Riverdale Cemetery
Side 1: In 1890, availability of lots at Linwood Cemetery, the oldest institution of the Columbus city government, was becoming scarce. At that time, the city acquired additional property on 10th Avenue which became Riverdale Cemetery. . . . — Map (db m82689) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Holsey Chapel Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
Side 1: In 1884, a group of black citizens banded together to organize a church. They appealed to the Commissioners of Columbus, Georgia, and obtained a lot on Eighth Street. The first church was completed in 1886 and called Everett . . . — Map (db m57864) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Horace King (1807 - 1887)
Born a slave in South Carolina, Horace King moved to this region with his master, John Godwin, who secured the contract for the first bridge across the river. King supervised the building of this span in 1833. Freed in 1846, King . . . — Map (db m101401) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Industrial District
In the south, the best surviving concentration of nineteenth century hydro-mechanical and electrical engineering systems relating to grist and textile mills is located along this river. In 1978, the U.S. Department ov the Interior . . . — Map (db m101492) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Jewish Section of Riverdale Cemetery
Side 1: The earliest recorded Jewish burials in Columbus were in historic Linwood Cemetery and in the Raphael Moses family cemetery, Esquiline. When the City of Columbus established Riverdale Cemetery in 1890, Temple Israel purchased a . . . — Map (db m22943) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — John McIlhenny Home
John McIlhenny, Civil Engineer, City Council member, and Mayor of Columbus 1873-1874, lived in this house in the 1860’s. Mr. McIlhenny is recognized as the father of the Columbus public school system. Authorized by the Georgia Legislature in . . . — Map (db m22799) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — John Stith Pemberton — Heritage Park
Beginning in the 1850s, John Pemberton manufactured wholesale drugs and chemicals in Columbus and operated drug stores here. He moved to Atlanta in 1870 and began selling Coca-Cola from his drugstore. By 1886, he had organized a company to . . . — Map (db m101352) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Kirven's Department Store
In 1886, J. Albert Kirven and his brother Richard moved their growing department store from No. 90 Broad to this location at 1136 Broadway. With $500 of his own savings and a $2500 loan from his sister, J. Albert Kirven purchased the bankrupted Acee . . . — Map (db m101413) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-20 — Ladies Defender
A muzzle loading cannon cast in Columbus in 1861 from brass contributed by the ladies of the city from their domestic furnishings and utensils. Used about a year in the Confederate Artillery, it was captured by Federal troops at Shiloh, Tenn., April . . . — Map (db m101274) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-1 — Last Land Battle in War of 1861-65
The last important land battle of the War Between the States was fought here April 16, 1865, resulting in the capture of Columbus by Federal forces. The engagement began directly west of Columbus in Alabama and ended on the Georgia side of . . . — Map (db m42113) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Leonard SpringColumbus’ Original Source of Water
In 1839 citizens first called for the development of a water works system. On this site is located the original source of water for drinking and general household use for Columbus. Beginning in 1844, Leonard Spring, with a discharge of 200,000 . . . — Map (db m22484) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Liberty Hill Baptist Church
Organized in 1869 by slaves, the first church building was built on land donated by Mrs. Emma Jones and Mrs. Nora Felton. The church was called the Bush Arbor Church because of the construction and materials used. Reverend Phil Owens was the first . . . — Map (db m22970) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Linwood Cemetery
A part of the 1828 plan of Columbus, Linwood contains graves of pioneer citizens and their descendents, as well as the tombs of some 200 Confederate soldiers. Among those buried here are Anna Caroline Benning (1853-1935), who formed the . . . — Map (db m46947) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Lummus Cotton Gins
On this site in 1847 stood the E.T. Taylor Cotton Gin Manufacturing Company. In 1854 it became the W.G. Clemons, Brown & Company and operated as such until the Civil War. In 1867 Franklin H. Lummus controlled the company and the name . . . — Map (db m43091) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-7 — Martin J. Crawford(1820-1883)
On the adjoining lot stood the large columned home of Martin Jenkins Crawford, Lawyer, Member of the General Assembly of Georgia, twice Judge of the Superior Court of the Chattahoochee Circuit, Member United States Congress, and of the provisional . . . — Map (db m43079) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Mass - Produced Ice Machines
Since the 1830s, the city's foundries and machine shops have fabricated a variety of items: cotton gins, steam engines, riverboats, saw and cane mills, pulleys, gears, stoves, pots, and farming implements. The most significant . . . — Map (db m101494) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-1 — Mildred L. Terry Branch Library
The first public library for African Americans in segregated Columbus, the Colored/Fourth Avenue Library, opened on January 5, 1953. The existence of this facility resulted from covenants and restrictions barring the use of the city’s new public . . . — Map (db m22410) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Moses Dallas: Confederate Naval Pilot/American Slave
Moses Dallas was a lifelong slave whose final years were spent in an unconventional arrangement during America's most tragic period, whose strategic role in a daring raid resulted in his death. A native of Georgia, he was born in the early 1800s, . . . — Map (db m101347) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Nehi and Royal Crown Cola
Side 1 In 1905, a new cola drink was originated in the basement of the wholesale grocery business at this location, where Claud A. Hatcher, a pharmacist, began formulating beverages. His concoctions included Royal Crown Ginger Ale, Cream . . . — Map (db m101263) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Ninth Street Branch YMCA
Side 1: In 1901, George Foster Peabody and his brothers made an offer to the colored men and boys of Columbus to build a YMCA on the condition they raise $1,000, purchase a building lot and get membership of 300 men. On Sunday, . . . — Map (db m57806) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Nunnally Johnson (1897-1977)
Nunnally Johnson was a native of Columbus who left his job as a reporter for "The Columbus Enquirer - Sun" to eventually become one of Hollywood's most successful screenwriter/producers. By the age of thirty-five, Johnson had written two musicals . . . — Map (db m101322) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-4 — Oglethorpe House
On this corner stood the Oglethorpe House, widely known ante-bellum hotel. Built in 1836, the old building was the scene of gala receptions, honoring famous visitors to Columbus. Among these were two Presidents, James K. Polk and Millard Fillmore, . . . — Map (db m101277) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-29 — Oglethorpe Meets the Indians at Coweta
Having received word that the French and Spanish were exploiting the Indians´ grievances against the Carolina traders and encouraging the Indians to war against the British colonists in Ga., Oglethorpe informed the Trustees that he felt it was . . . — Map (db m101255) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Pemberton Cottage
Side 1 From 1855 to 1860 Dr. John S. Pemberton, originator of the formula for Coca-Cola, lived in this house with his family. Dr. Pemberton and his wife Ann Eliza Clifford Lewis had one son, Charles. As a druggist in Columbus, he . . . — Map (db m101281) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Pemberton’s Drugstores, 1857-69
Side 1 Dr. John S. Pemberton, physician, pharmacist, and manufacturing chemist, was one of many druggists in Columbus. Pemberton was a partner in six firms from 1857-1869. His partners included Robert Carter, another druggist, and . . . — Map (db m101273) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Philip Thomas Schley
This house was built circa 1840 on the present site of First Presbyterian Church, by Philip Thomas Schley. Capt. Schley came to Columbus in 1834 at the request of his brother, Georgia Gov. William Schley, to command the Muscogee Blues, a militia . . . — Map (db m43940) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Philip Trammell Shutze1890-1982
A Columbus Native whose birthplace stood close to this site, Shutze became one of the most prominent American architects of the twentieth century. After graduating from the Georgia Institute of Technology and from Columbia University with degrees in . . . — Map (db m45459) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — POW✯MIA Monument
POW✯MIA You Are Not Forgotten Dedicated to all Our Nation's POW ✯ MIA Past – Present Fort Benning Sergeants Major Association 18 September 2004 Rear World War I 06 Apr 1917 . . . — Map (db m101345) WM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-3 — Primus King and the Civil Rights Movement
The modern Civil Rights Movement in Georgia began on July 4, 1944, when Primus E. King, an African-American barber and minister, attempted to vote at the Muscogee County Courthouse in the Democratic Party’s primary election, which barred blacks from . . . — Map (db m101279) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Prize-Winning Newspapers
Since the founding of Columbus in 1828, newspapers have played a vital role in the lives of area citizens. Both daily papers, "The Columbus Enquirer-Sun" (now "The Columbus Enquirer") and "The Columbus Ledger," are Pulitzer Prize-winning . . . — Map (db m101323) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Radcliff School
In the fall of 1914 Radcliff School was organized in Allen Temple A.M.E. Church. At that time it was known as Wynnton Hill School. J. L. Bond was principal and the first head teacher was Mrs. S. A. Cody. When the building burned, the school was . . . — Map (db m22409) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-22 — Red Jacket
Red Jacket, a small brass cannon, was first used in firing a salute of 500 guns when Georgia seceded from the Union. In custody of the Columbus Guards, it fired salutes at the inauguration of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States of . . . — Map (db m46948) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Richard Christmasc. 1763–1848
A veteran of the North Carolina militia in the American Revolution, Christmas is buried here with his wife, Mary Roberson, his son, Nathaniel G. Christmas, and other descendants. Living then in Green County, Ga., he drew a land lot nearby in . . . — Map (db m9949) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — River Commerce
This wharf marks the head of navigation on the river, before the damming of the river. A series of falls (about six hundred yards north of this point) blocked the passage of riverboats. The Georgia Legislature established Columbus . . . — Map (db m101524) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Saint John African Methodist Episcopal Church
This one-story Victorian Gothic structure dates back to 1870. The cornerstone of the church indicates that the building was constructed in 1870 with the basement added in 1890. This suggests that the original wooden church was raised, a basement . . . — Map (db m45599) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Samuel Cooper1754-1841 — Soldier –- American Revolution
Born in Maryland, Cooper served in the South Carolina Militia during the American Revolution and participated in battles at Brandywine, Germantown and Stony Point. After the War he moved to Putnam County, Georgia and later to Muscogee County where . . . — Map (db m17811) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Secondary Industrial School
Side 1: Proposed in 1904 by Carleton B. Gibson, Columbus School Superintendent, the Secondary Industrial School is regarded as the nation’s first public coeducational industrial high school. G. Gunby Jordan, then President of the . . . — Map (db m57617) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Sixth Avenue Passenger Station
The Central of Georgia Railroad’s Station, designed by Bruce and Morgan of Atlanta, GA, was erected in 1901. Featuring massive granite arches, it served as the transportation hub of the city for over 70 years. Threatened with demolition in 1984 this . . . — Map (db m45676) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Soft Drinks
Several of the world's most popular soft drinks originated in Columbus. John S. Pemberton, who in 1859 operated a pharmacy on Broadway, developed "French Wine Coca," the popular drink which was later marketed as "Coca-Cola." Claud A. . . . — Map (db m101493) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Specialist Ross A. McGinnis
The Infantry Honors Specialist Ross A. McGinnis 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Division Medal of Honor Operation Iraqi Freedom 14 June 2009Specialist Ross A. McGinnis distinguished himself by acts of gallantry, and intrepidity above and beyond the . . . — Map (db m61862) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-31 — Springer Opera House
Theater in Columbus found its finest home on February 27, 1871, when Francis Joseph Springer, originally of Alsace, opened his opera house. The Springer’s forty-foot deep stage held a continuous round of shows of every description.

Here . . . — Map (db m47004) HM

Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-9 — St. Elmo
“St. Elmo,” one of the most exquisite examples of the classic houses of America, stands in view of this point. It was built on the old Stagecoach Road, by Colonel Seaborn Jones, for his wife, Mary Howard Jones. Completed in 1833, it was . . . — Map (db m43119) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — St. James AME Church
St. James African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1863. The present church is built on land granted by act of the Georgia Legislature in 1873. It was erected in 1876 under the pastorate of Rev. Wesley J. Gaines, at a cost of $20,000. . . . — Map (db m45680) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Temple Israel
SIDE 1: In 1854 twenty Columbus families banded together to form congregation B’Nai Israel, later known as Temple Israel, one of the first Jewish congregations in Georgia. For almost one hundred years religious services were held on this . . . — Map (db m23477) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-21 — Textile and Banking Pioneer
Site of the home of William H. Young (1807- 1894), a native of the State of New York who migrated to Georgia at the age of 17. Visiting the site of Columbus a year before the city was established, he made his way through the dense forest to the . . . — Map (db m42530) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Cedars
In 1836, John Banks and his wife, the former Sarah Watkins, both natives of Elbert Co., Ga., moved to Columbus, bought this property (then totaling 265 acres) in the fashionable suburb of Wynnton and began construction of this Greek Revival house. . . . — Map (db m22560) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Chattahoochee River
The longest river in Georgia, the Chattahoochee (Creek Indian for "Painted Rocks") begins in the Georgia mountains, flows 435 miles, and joins the Flint to form the Apalachicola, which empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The western . . . — Map (db m101523) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — 106-16 — The Columbus Guards>>>>------->
Site, of the last armory of the Columbus Guards, a noted military company chartered by the Georgia Legislature in 1843 and organized in 1835. They served voluntarily in the Indian War, 1836; the War with Mexico, 1846; the War Between the States, the . . . — Map (db m43951) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Elms
In 1844, Lambert Spencer built a simple Greek Revival home detailed with Doric columns and acanthus leaves. In 1868, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Bowers enlarged and beautified the home. Mr. Bowers added two hexagonal wings and hired an itinerant painter to . . . — Map (db m17820) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Joseph HouseCirca 1842
This historic house is an early example of cottage style Greek Revival. Descendants of Isaac Joseph occupied this house for over one hundred years. Because of her interest in and dedication to historic preservation, Mrs. Gertrude Joseph Wood gave . . . — Map (db m22649) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Ledger-Enquirer Newspapers
The Columbus Enquirer and The Columbus Ledger have been published from this site since 1930. The Enquirer was founded in 1828 by Mirabeau Bounaparte Lamar, later the second president of the Republic of Texas. The Ledger was founded in 1886 by Edward . . . — Map (db m22873) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Pemberton House
Dr. John Styth Pemberton, originator of the formula for Coca-Cola, lived in this regional cottage from 1855-1860, during which time he was a practicing pharmacist in Columbus. This house is dedicated to his memory by The Coca-Cola Company, and is . . . — Map (db m22497) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Rankin House
Side 1: James A. Rankin came to Columbus from Ayrshire, Scotland and in 1839 married Agnes Affleck. Mr. Rankin was a planter and owner of the Rankin Hotel and Rankin Realty Co. This high style Italianate mansion was built between 1860 . . . — Map (db m44370) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — The Spencer House
William Henry Spencer, Negro Educator, lived in this Neo-classical home from 1912-1925, during the time he was Supervisor of the Colored Schools in Muscogee County.

This house is dedicated to his memory by his daughters, and was placed on . . . — Map (db m44024) HM

Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — This Gun
This gun was one of the battery of the Confederate ram, built in Columbus, captured and burned by Wilson Raiders. Apr. 16, 1865 — Map (db m56820) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Thomas Greene Bethune"Blind Tom" — 1849 – 1908
Columbus, Georgia was the home of one of America's distinguished black pianists and composers. A Landmark of American MusicMap (db m101399) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Trinity Episcopal Church
Side 1: The cornerstone of Trinity Episcopal Church was laid in 1890. The present church replaced the congregation’s first building, which stood across the street at 1140 First Avenue. Since its foundation in 1834, Trinity has held . . . — Map (db m44360) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Tyler Home
Where in March 1866, the Ladies Aid Society organized the first Memorial Association honoring Confederate heroes. “One day” each year is theirs. (Reverse side): Ladies Memorial Association Organized March 12, 1865. . . . — Map (db m42140) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Victory Drive
On August 15, 1945, celebrating the surrender of Japan which ended World War II, the Muscogee County Commission unanimously voted to rename the boulevard extending from Columbus to Fort Benning as Victory Drive. Commissioner L.R. Aldridge stated, . . . — Map (db m22139) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — W. C. Bradley and Coca-Cola
Side 1 W. C. Bradley was a Columbus cotton merchant, industrialist, banker, and one of the city’s leading entrepreneurs. He also helped form a business syndicate with Ernest Woodruff to purchase Coca-Cola from the Candlers in 1919. This . . . — Map (db m101266) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Walker – Peters – Langdon House
Moveable, prefabricated houses similar to this Federal Cottage were available for purchase by settlers participating in the Land Lot Sale of 1828. Original owner, Colonel Virgil Walker of Harris County, transferred the lot and “all . . . — Map (db m22673) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — William Bartram TrailTraced 1773-1777 — Deep South Region
William Bartram crossed the Chattahoochee (Chata Uche) River January 5, 1778 to Chehaw and Usseta now Columbus. — Map (db m42160) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — William H. Spencer High School
On this site, on November 29, 1930, the first local high school for colored students opened. The school was the result of a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation and was named in honor of William Henry Spencer, Supervisor of the Colored Schools in . . . — Map (db m58783) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Woodruff Farm House and Log Cabin
The 1840’s Woodruff Farm House was originally located eight miles east of Columbus on land adjoining the old road to Macon, Georgia. The dwelling was enlarged and used as a summer residence by the Woodruff family in the 1920’s. When development . . . — Map (db m22679) HM
Georgia (Muscogee County), Columbus — Wynnton School Library
Erected in 1843 as Wynnton Academy, the present WYNNTON SCHOOL LIBRARY is the oldest such building in continuous use as a school facility in the State of Georgia. This historic site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places . . . — Map (db m58993) HM

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