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Locust Grove, Virginia Historical Markers

 
Marker on Saunders Field image, Touch for more information
By Bill Coughlin, November 10, 2007
Marker on Saunders Field
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “A Wild, Wicked Roar”The Battle of the Wilderness
The arrival of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s Second Corps here along the Orange Turnpike on the morning of May 5 challenged the Union march through the Wilderness. The Federals responded with a massive attack. At midday more than 12,000 Federal . . . — Map (db m6008) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “Stonewall” Jackson’s Arm — The Battle of Chancellorsville
Here, in the Jones family cemetery, lie the remains of “Stonewall” Jackson’s left arm. The Confederate general lost the limb during the Battle of Chancellorsville, where he was mistakenly shot by his own troops. Surgeons removed the . . . — Map (db m3895) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — 140th New York State Vols.
First Brigade First Division Fifth Corps Number engaged 529 Casualties 23 killed 118 wounded 114 missing May 5, 1864 — Map (db m6047) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A Military Scene — The Battle of the Wilderness
As one of the few large open areas in the Wilderness, the broad fields north and east of Ellwood assumed instant importance during the battle here. While fighting raged a miles to the west, the fields around Ellwood filled with artillery and wagon . . . — Map (db m12947) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A.P. Hill Escapes CaptureThe Battle of the Wilderness
On the morning of May 6, General A.P. Hill stretched his battle lines across the Chewning farm, closing a dangerous gap in the Confederate line. Before Hill's troops arrived, a Union regiment broke into the clearing from the east, startling the . . . — Map (db m19162) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — An Uneasy PartnershipThe Battle of the Wilderness
At the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, Grant would not only struggle against Lee’s army, but also against the conservative, sometimes timid, methods of the Union Army of the Potomac. George G. Meade, commander of that army, . . . — Map (db m6026) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Archeology at Ellwood — The Battle of the Wilderness
The National Park Service acquired Ellwood in 1977. Since then, archeologists have conducted three studies of the site: test excavations around the base of the house (1978) and in the cellar (1979), and a geophysical survey of the grounds (1984). . . . — Map (db m12948) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Arm of Stonewall Jackson
Arm of Stonewall Jackson May 3, 1863 ——— — Map (db m3846) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 20 — Battle of the Wilderness
Ewell's Corps, the left wing of Lee's Army, moving down this road from Orange, came into conflict near here with Warren's Corps of Grant's Army, May 5, 1864. The fight moved to and fro until Ewell finally drove Warren back and entrenched here. Late . . . — Map (db m5450) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the Wilderness
Here May 5, 6, 1864, 70,000 Confederates under Lee defeated 120,000 Federals under Grant. Confederate loss 11,500. Federal 18,000. This battle, fought with conspicuous bravery, in a Wilderness on fire, will take it’s place among the great battles of . . . — Map (db m6007) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the WildernessWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
The Armies The Army of the Potomac Throughout the winter of 1863-1864, the armies rested and refitted on opposites sides of the Rapidan River. The ranks of the Union army swelled with thousands of new draftees and recruits - soldiers whose . . . — Map (db m7393) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Clash on the Orange TurnpikeWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
The Battle of the Wilderness On May 5, 1864, Lee moved swiftly eastward through Orange County and struck the Federals along two roads - the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike. Two bloody, largely separate battles exploded. They would . . . — Map (db m7392) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Collision of GiantsWilderness Exhibit Shelter — North Wall
Collision of Giants By 1864 the war had become not just a clash of armies, but of ideas. To be resolved on the fields of Virginia and Georgia that year was not only the fate of the Union, but also the fate of Southern society. The armies on both . . . — Map (db m6077) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z 176 — Culpeper County / Orange County
(East Facing Side): Culpeper County Area 384 Square Miles Formed in 1748 from Orange and named for Lord Culpeper, Governor of Virginia, 1680-1683. The Battle of Cedar Mountain, 1862, was fought in this county (West Facing Side): . . . — Map (db m4322) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — EllwoodThe Battle of the Wilderness
“The house stands on Wilderness Run, in a lonely place about half a mile south of the Culpeper plank road; it is a good-sized farmhouse, built of wood, square, with two porticos and painted a dove color. From the apex of the roof a hospital . . . — Map (db m6121) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Face OffMine Run Campaign
"Men, there is no use denying it, but three-quarters of you are to be left in that marsh with your toes turned up; but remember the Fourteenth never quailed yet, and I'll shoot the first man who does it now." Lt. Col. Samuel Moore to the men . . . — Map (db m4692) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Fighting on the Evening of May 5, 1864
Confederate General Leroy A. Stafford of Louisiana fell mortally wounded in this vicinity during the afternoon fighting. General Ewell, however, continued to reinforce this line, extending it farther to the north, your left. When the Federals . . . — Map (db m7382) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — First Blood in Saunders FieldThe Battle of the Wilderness
"The regiment melted away like snow. Men disappeared as if the earth had swallowed them." -Captain Porter Parley 140th New York Infantry Shortly after noon on May 5, the battleline of the 140th New York burst from the woods to your right-rear . . . — Map (db m6022) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J 34 — Germanna
Here Governor Alexander Spotswood established a colony of Germans in 1714. At that time the Rapidan River was the frontier of Virginia. On August 29, 1716, Spotswood left from this place with the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe on his exploring . . . — Map (db m3900) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J–35 — Germanna Ford
One of the principal crossings of the Rapidan River from colonial times. Here a part of the Army of the Potomac crossed the river, April 30, 1863, preceding the Battle of Chancellorsville. Here a part of Meade’s army crossed on the way to Mine Run, . . . — Map (db m3586) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon Flank Attack TrailThe Battle of the Wilderness
In this field and its surrounding woods fell nearly one-third of the men killed or wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness. The two-mile Gordon Flank Attack Trail tracks the Battle of the Wilderness in all its horrible forms: the open-field Union . . . — Map (db m7378) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Attack Falters
Union reinforcements rushed to the sound of fighting as twilight turned to darkness in these gloomy woods. The Confederates lost direction and momentum in the smoky gloaming, and eventually the firing died away. Gordon's attack had achieved only a . . . — Map (db m7389) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Flank Attack
The right flank of the Union line rested here in the early evening of May 6. Two Union brigades occupied this area with the benefit of neither strong works nor substantial artillery support. Suddenly, the Rebel yell echoed through the forest. North . . . — Map (db m7388) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant Comes to VirginiaThe Battle of Fredericksburg
This short trail leads to "Grant's Knoll." For three days Gen. Ulysses S. Grant made his headquarters here, issuing orders that would determine the fate of armies and men. President Abraham Lincoln had recently appointed Grant general-in-chief over . . . — Map (db m7403) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant’s HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness
On May 5, 1864, this knoll was bordered by a second growth of scraggly pines and scrub oak. From here Grant and Meade could see little of the battle. Instead, they relied on subordinates to keep them apprised of the situation at the front. In the . . . — Map (db m6024) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — John Gordon Proposes a Flank Attack
On the morning of May 6, Confederate General John B. Gordon occupied the far Confederate left, in this vicinity, with his brigade of Georgians. Gordon reconnoitered to his left and front and discovered the Union right flank to be vulnerable to an . . . — Map (db m7384) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Key TerrainThe Battle of the Wilderness
The fighting in the Wilderness centered on two thoroughfares: the Orange Turnpike and the Orange Plank Road. Between them yawned a gaping void of dense trees and brush, broken only by a few fields and the track of the Parker's Store Road, still . . . — Map (db m19164) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Mine Run Campaign
Amidst numbing cold and stinging rain, in late 1863 Union General George G. Meade and his Army of the Potomac attempted a year-end stroke against Robert E. Lee. This effort climaxed along Mine Run, two miles in front of you. Since . . . — Map (db m4693) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 10 — Mine Run Campaign
Meade, advancing south from the Rapidan River to attack Lee, found him in an entrenched position here on November 28, 1863. Heavy skirmishing went on until December 1. Then Meade, thinking Lee's lines too strong to assault, retired across the . . . — Map (db m4695) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Morning of May 6
On the morning of May 6, the main focus of the battle shifted more than two miles south, to the Orange Plank Road. Here, north of the Orange Turnpike, both armies planned early morning attacks as diversions to prevent the enemy from detaching more . . . — Map (db m7383) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z 167 — Orange County / Spotsylvania County
(East Facing Side): Orange County Area Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, . . . — Map (db m4321) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 15 — Robinson's Tavern
Near here stood ancient Robinson's Tavern. Here Meade wished to concentrate his army in the Mine Run Campaign, November 1863, but one corps, coming up late, disarranged his plans. Here Ewell, moving east from Orange in the Wilderness Campaign, . . . — Map (db m4694) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Saunders FieldBattle of the Wilderness
"The Last crop of the old field had been corn and among its stubble that day were sown the seeds of glory." Morris Schaff, USA Staff Tucked away in the Wilderness's trackless forest were several small clearings, where families with names . . . — Map (db m19069) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Struggle on the Orange Plank RoadWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
Crisis at the Crossroads Crises followed one after another on May 5. No sooner had Grant and Meade learned about Ewell's approach on the Orange Turnpike than they discovered General A.P. Hill's corps moving up the Orange Plank road. If Hill . . . — Map (db m7394) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The "Enchanted Castle" at Germanna, circa 1720-1750
Home of Colonial Governor Alexander Spotswood and formerly the site of Fort Germanna, 1714 Archaeological excavation by Mary Washington College, Center for Historic Preservation — Map (db m64139) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Walking Trail
“The ground in my front for about 500 yards was thickly wooded and brushy, and beyond that was a cleared field owned by a man named Payne.” — Gen. Edward Johnson, CSA “On account of the density of the . . . — Map (db m43158) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmUnexpected Encounter
“There was a sudden commotion in the train ahead and several of the ambulances turned and came back in confusion. General [George H.] Steuart promptly ordered them back to their places, faced the brigade into line to the left and deployed . . . — Map (db m43160) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmStalemate at the Crossroads
“Gen. [Edward] Johnson … cheered us on to the fight with ‘Hurrah for North Carolina, go it North Carolina—give it to them boys!’ … The Federals were as thick as black birds in our front.” — Capt. Thomas Boone, 1st . . . — Map (db m43162) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmBaptism of Fire
“[It was] … as warm a contest as this regiment was ever engaged in. … It seemed as if the enemy was throwing minie-balls upon us by the bucket-full, when the battle got fairly under way.” — Member of the 3rd North Carolina . . . — Map (db m43163) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Worm Fence
“We gained a slight rise in the land behind an old worm fence. The enemy had fallen back under cover of a piece of woods well in our front. Soon they came out in splendid battle array, with waving banners, and charged our position. It was a . . . — Map (db m43165) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Stonewall Brigade
“We soon struck the Yankee skirmishers and drove them back through the woods to an open field, where we ran into French’s entire corps and into about the hottest place that could be imagined.” — Capt. William B. Colston, 2nd . . . — Map (db m43167) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Confederate Wheel
“Several efforts were made to charge the hostile line, but as these attempts were made by single brigades, without proper deliberation and without co-operation on the part of the other forces to the right and left, they naturally resulted . . . — Map (db m43168) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmA Fruitless Campaign
“In the fight of Johnson’s Division on last Friday I was under as warm a musketry fire as I have experienced for a good while—certainly worse than I have been in since Sharpsburg.” — Lt. Col. Alexander S. . . . — Map (db m43170) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — OC 22 — The Campaign of 1781Lafayette's Maneuvers
In the campaign of 1781, the Marquis de Lafayette marched through the Wilderness to rendezvous with Brig. Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne. On 3 June 1781, Lafayette's army camped to the south of the Wilderness Bridge across Wilderness Run from Ellwood. The . . . — Map (db m25877) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate Defense
Confederate troops commanded by General Richard S. Ewell arrived on this ridge line on the morning of May 5. Ordered by General Lee not to initiate a battle, Ewell placed 10,000 men along this high ground on either side of the Orange Turnpike . . . — Map (db m7379) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate LineThe Battle of the Wilderness
Dick Ewell was raring for a fight. When a subordinate approached him early on May 5, 1864, and asked Ewell about his orders, the balding, pop-eyed general piped up cheerily: "... Just the orders I like - to go right down the [turnpike] and strike . . . — Map (db m72886) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Culpeper Mine Road
The road trace in front of you is the Culpeper Mine Road, typical of the woods trails that composed the primitive transportation network in the Wilderness. Even a path like this possessed military significance, and Confederate troops from the famous . . . — Map (db m7380) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Federals Fall Back
In front of you are the remains of trenches manned by the Union army on May 5-6, 1864. When Gordon attacked these works from the north, your left, the Federals abandoned them and fell back to a new position one mile to your front and right. The . . . — Map (db m7391) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Fighting Ends in StalemateWilderness Exhibit Shelter — South Wall
Stalemate Two days of bitter fighting had left the bleak Wilderness landscape charred and smoking from fire. Corpses littered the contested ground, now scarred by miles of earth-and-log entrenchments. Unwilling to attack Lee's strong position, . . . — Map (db m7397) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Higgerson FarmThe Battle of the Wilderness
Before you are the fields of the Higgerson Farm, one of only a few major clearings on the Wilderness Battlefield. On the afternoon of May 5, Union troops swept across this open space, bound for bewildering combat in the thickets to the north and . . . — Map (db m6038) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignMeade vs. Lee
“The promptness with which this unexpected attack was met and repulsed reflects great credit upon General Johnson and the officers and men of his division.” — Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA “The delay in the movements . . . — Map (db m42085) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignThe Battle of Payne’s Farm
“The brave officers and men of this division, attacked by a greatly superior force from an admirable position, turned upon him and drove him from the field, which he left strewn with arms, artillery and infantry ammunition, his dead and . . . — Map (db m42089) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The WildernessDark, Close Wood — The Battlefield Becomes a Park
Marker Front: The Wilderness of today looks little like the tangled landscape soldiers found here in 1864. For decades before the war, loggers had cut and recut these forests to fuel nearby iron furnaces, leaving behind an impenetrable . . . — Map (db m59518) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Union HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness
Ellwood stood in the midst of the Wilderness, a dark, forbidding forest characterized by stunted trees and densely tangled undergrowth. When the Confederates challenged General Ulysses S. Grant’s advance through the Wilderness on May 5, 1864, the . . . — Map (db m6123) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Locust Grove — The Chewning FarmThe Battle of the Wilderness
On the ridge ahead of you stood the Chewning house, an important landmark on the Wilderness Battlefield. Sixty-nine-year-old William V. Chewning scratched out a living on this 150-acre farm during the war with the help of his wife Permelia and their . . . — Map (db m7454) HM

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