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Richmond, Virginia Historical Markers

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Drewry's Bluff Trail image, Touch for more information
By Bernard Fisher, October 17, 2010
Drewry's Bluff Trail
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — "A Very Neat Chapel"
The little white chapel that stood here was built by soldiers of the garrison and held 150 people. Different ministers came from Richmond each week to preach. A small burial ground was located just 50 yards beyond the chapel—a reminder that . . . — Map (db m37025) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — A Perfect Gibraltar
After the repulse of the Union Navy on May 15, 1862, Drewry’s Bluff became famous as a tangible symbol of Confederate resistance. Work crews made up of impressed slave labor continued construction of the fort, eventually completing a four-sided, . . . — Map (db m55349) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — A Permanent Post
By 1863 the Drewry’s Bluff post expanded into a military city. Hundreds of Confederate soldiers, sailors, and Marines camped on these grounds. The Confederate States Naval Academy held classes in buildings and aboard the side-wheeled steamer CSS . . . — Map (db m46891) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-3 — Ampthill Estate
Built before 1732 by Henry Cary, this was the home of Colonel Archibald Cary, a Revolutionary leader of Virginia. The house was moved, 1929-30, to its present location off Cary Street Road in Richmond's West End. — Map (db m24997) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-8 — Battle of Drewry’s Bluff
From this point the Confederates, on May 16, 1864, moved to attack the Union Army of the James under Butler advancing northward on Richmond. — Map (db m14893) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Battle of Drewry’s BluffDrewry’s Bluff - 1862
May 15, 1862 When Federal gunboats round the bend, they enter a shooting gallery. Confederate soldiers and marines along the riverbanks rake the decks with musket fire. These batteries, ninety feet above the water, are perched too high for . . . — Map (db m14897) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Bellwood Elk HerdWapiti (Cervus canadensis)
Around the turn of the 20th century, James Bellwood, an agriculturalist and the owner of this property set aside a few acres to be used as a wooded preserve and imported a pair of elk from Yosemite National Park and Washington State. The elk became . . . — Map (db m73984) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — O-27 — Bethlehem Baptist Church
Formerly Spring Creek Church. Organized, July 25, 1790. Benjamin Watkins, founder and first pastor, 1790-1831. Located four miles northwest, 1790-1855. Then four miles southwest, 1855-1897. Moved to this location, 1897. Home church of Nannie Bland . . . — Map (db m31545) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Bombproof and WellDrewry’s Bluff – 1862 / 1864
The soldier is sitting in the doorway of the bombproof, a shelter during heavy bombardment. — Map (db m15496) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Camp Beall
“Drewry’s Bluff, at least for the present, is the headquarters of the Corps, and I may consequently reasonably expect to stay here for some time at least.” Henry Lea Graves, 1862 From 1862 to 1865, the training of . . . — Map (db m55347) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Cary’s Mill Overlookcirca 1750 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
Archibald Cary established an iron forge on the south bank of Falling Creek in 1750. The Chesterfield forge, as it was known, converted pig iron into bar iron. Initially unprofitable and shut down, the forge would be restarted and become . . . — Map (db m101039) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Covered WayDrewry’s Bluff – 1862 / 1864
During battle, supplies could be brought into the fort through the Covered Way, a tunnel protected from shell-fire. — Map (db m15498) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Cultural History — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The history associated with Falling Creek Park spans more than 400 years. Numerous industries existed along the creek from the 17th to the early 20th century. The earliest industry that existed at this location was the first iron furnace . . . — Map (db m101036) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Drewry’s BluffRichmond Battlefield — Richmond Nat’l Battlefield Pk – 1862/64
The presence of the Confederate bastion here at Drewry’s Bluff was one reason that most of the Civil War action around Richmond occurred north of the James River. Strong earthen fortifications and river obstructions, erected in 1862, effectively . . . — Map (db m15080) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-15 — Drewry’s Bluff
A mile east is Drewry's Bluff, James River fortification of Richmond, 1862-1865. Earthworks remain. — Map (db m16020) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-5 — Drewry’s Bluff
This bluff on the James River, a mile east, was fortified by Captain A. H. Drewry in 1862. A Union fleet, attempting to pass it, was driven back, May 15, 1862; and thereafter it served as a bar to attacks on Richmond by water. On June 16, 1864, . . . — Map (db m16021) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — 7 — Drewry’s BluffCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
John Smith recalled visiting the Arrohateck Indian capital during a May 1607 expedition led by Christopher Newport. The town was located on the northern shore of the James River opposite of here and was noted on John Smith’s 1612 Map of Virginia. . . . — Map (db m37032) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Drewry’s Bluff TrailRichmond National Battlefield Park
Along this trail the first shots were fired in the campaign to capture Richmond that would last from 1862 to 1865. This one-half mile trail will take you to the Confederate fort named Fort Drewry by southerners and Fort Darling by the Federals. On . . . — Map (db m15169) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Drewry's Bluff
(left panel) Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the . . . — Map (db m37022) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Duty Above and Beyond
“Mr. President, these are the young heroes of Fort Darling…. The President took them all by the hand and personally thanked them for their magnificent conduct and example, ordered that each one should receive a Medal of honor and to be . . . — Map (db m37027) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Falling Creek Iron Works1619-1622
Vanished now but for a trace, Falling Creek is the site of the first industrial ironworks in the New World. The close proximity of iron ore, wood for fuel and power provided by the falling water made the Falling Creek site perfect for this . . . — Map (db m32587) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-4 — Falling Creek Ironworks
Nearby on Falling Creek is the first ironworks in English North America. It was established by the Virginia Company to supply iron for the colony and for export to England. Construction began in 1619. The works, including a blast furnace, were . . . — Map (db m16015) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Falling Creek Stone Bridge1826-1828 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The site of Virginia’s first wayside park was established in 1934. It was developed to serve as a picnic area by the Virginia State Highway Department and the Chesterfield Garden Club in 1933-1934. A State Historical Marker located in . . . — Map (db m101031) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Falling Creek Stone Bridge1826-1828 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The site of Virginia’s first wayside park was established in 1934. It was developed to serve as a picnic area by the Virginia State Highway Department and the Chesterfield Garden Club in 1933-1934. A State Historical Marker located in . . . — Map (db m101042) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Finishing Fort Drewry
Immediately after the battle, men of Chesterfield County’s own Southside Artillery, along with others, worked to strengthen the fort. The section before you was likely their first project. Eventually the earthworks around you formed an enclosed . . . — Map (db m37029) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — 59 — Fort DarlingDefences of Drewry's Bluff
Eastward 150 yards was the Confederate Fort Darling which constituted, with the works at Chaffin’s Bluff across the James, the main defence of the approaches to Richmond by water. Often the target of Federal fire, Fort Darling held out till Richmond . . . — Map (db m14278) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Fort StevensButler’s Campaign Ends — Bermuda Hundred Campaign
“Neither army, however, manifested any disposition either to advance or retire. It was a case of stand and fire, each endeavoring to cripple the other the most, and gain, if it could, some advantage here or there. The enemy’s one battery . . . — Map (db m14895) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Fort Stevens
Built in 1862, Fort Stevens was part of the Confederate inter-defense line of Richmond. This fort was named for Col. W.H. Stevens, who was in charge of the construction of Richmond’s defenses. Most fortifications were built quickly and made of earth . . . — Map (db m14903) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Historic Route 11913-1926 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The United Daughters of the Confederacy conceived of the Jefferson Davis Highway in 1913, along the same series of roads in Virginia that U.S. Route 1 later followed. The Virginia General Assembly officially designated the United Daughters of the . . . — Map (db m101041) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Historic Route 11913-1926 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The United Daughters of the Confederacy conceived of the Jefferson Davis Highway in 1913, along the same series of roads in Virginia that U.S. Route 1 later followed. The Virginia General Assembly officially designated the United Daughters of the . . . — Map (db m101045) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Historic Village of Bensleycirca 1909 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
Located at this site was the beginning of one of the earliest residential communities in Chesterfield County. Historic Village Of Bensley Created by Albert Bensley in 1909, the Village of Bensley was marketed as a modem, convenient . . . — Map (db m101037) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Historic Village of Bensleycirca 1909 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
Located at this site was the beginning of one of the earliest residential communities in Chesterfield County. Historic Village Of Bensley Created by Albert Bensley in 1909, the Village of Bensley was marketed as a modem, convenient . . . — Map (db m101044) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Hot Shot and Wooden Ships
It was the end of an era: the advent of the ironclad made traditional wooden-hulled warships obsolete. Despite this, the Confederates used a centuries-old device here: the hot-shot furnace. Inside the furnace, solid shot were heated red-hot. Clay . . . — Map (db m55350) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Iron Furnace Overlook1619-1622 — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
This is the location of the first iron furnace established in the New World, started in 1619 and completed in 1622. Iron ore had been extracted from James River outcrops as early as 1608, and these samples were shipped to England. The Virginia . . . — Map (db m101038) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — May 15, 1862—The Battle of Drewry's Bluff
When Federal gunboats rounded the distant bend in the James, they entered a shooting gallery. Confederate soldiers and Marines along the riverbanks raked the decks with musket fire. Confederate guns here in the fort opened fire. The river . . . — Map (db m37028) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Natural History — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The Falling Creek Ironworks site is located seven miles south of Richmond, along Falling Creek, adjacent to Jefferson Davis Highway. The location also serves as a gateway to the area and is a draw for visitors to the Falling Creek Greenway with . . . — Map (db m101040) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Natural History — Falling Creek Ironworks Park
The Falling Creek Ironworks site is located seven miles south of Richmond, along Falling Creek, adjacent to Jefferson Davis Highway. The location also serves as a gateway to the area and is a draw for visitors to the Falling Creek Greenway with . . . — Map (db m101043) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Old Westham Bridge
The road ahead once led to a stone and steel bridge that connected the 20th century community of Southampton behind you with the colonial village of Westham on the north shore. Prior to its construction, the closest car link between Henrico . . . — Map (db m23938) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — O-37 — Providence United Methodist Church
Established by 1807, the Providence Church congregation of the Methodist Episcopal Church became one of the first Methodist congregations in Chesterfield County to build a permanent house of worship when it constructed a meeting house here before . . . — Map (db m22698) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-9 — Second Battle of Drewry's Bluff
The Second Battle of Drewry's Bluff, or the Proctor's Creek engagement, began on 14 May 1864 when part of Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Army of the James feigned an attack toward Richmond from Bermuda Hundred. After two days of skirmishing, . . . — Map (db m16022) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Site of First Iron Foundry in America
Site of First Iron Foundry in America Established in 1619 — Map (db m16036) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — The Bermuda CampaignMay 1864
As part of Ulysses S. Grant’s overall strategic plan to win the Civil War, Gen. Butler’s Federal army advanced up the James River in the spring of 1864 in an effort to operate against Richmond from the south while the Army of the Potomac approached . . . — Map (db m14904) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — The First Marine Medal of HonorDrewry’s Bluff — Richmond National Battlefield Park, NPS
On May 15, 1862, during the Battle of Drewry’s Bluff, Southern marksmen in rifle pits – including two companies of Confederate States Marines – swept the gun deck of USS Galena, severely limiting its ability to fight. The U.S. . . . — Map (db m14901) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — The USS Monitor
During the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of 1862, a variety of innovative weapons saw action. But nothing captured the public’s attention more than ironclad warships, in particular the USS Monitor. After its epic duel with the CSS . . . — Map (db m55346) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — S-2 — Warwick
Located eight miles downstream from Richmond, Warwick was an important 18th-century James River port and manufacturing center. During the Revolutionary War, Warwick's craftsmen turned out clothing and shoes, and its mills ground flour and meal for . . . — Map (db m16014) HM
Virginia (Goochland County), Richmond — SA-24 — Tuckahoe
Perhaps the oldest frame residence on James River west of Richmond, Tuckahoe was begun about 1715 by Thomas Randolph. The little schoolhouse still stands here where Thomas Jefferson began his childhood studies. Famous guests here have included . . . — Map (db m25625) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — A National Cemetery System
Civil War Dead An estimated 700,000 Union and Confederate soldiers died in the Civil War between April 1861 and April 1865. As the death toll rose, the U.S. government struggled with the urgent but unplanned need to bury fallen Union . . . — Map (db m89722) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — A. P. Hill
Front of Monument: Born in Culpepper Co. November 9th 1825 Killed before Petersburg April 2nd 1865. Back of Monument : His remains were interred here June 24, 1891. — Map (db m19813) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-48 — Action at Osborne's
On 27 April 1781, Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold led the British army's 76th and 80th Regiments, the Queen's Rangers, and some other units in an assault at Osborne's in Chesterfield County. The Americans posted a number of Virginia Navy ships near here . . . — Map (db m9607) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 104-a — Adèle Goodman Clark
Adèle Goodman Clark fought tirelessly to champion both women’s rights and the arts in Virginia. Clark gained prominence for pro-suffrage speeches and writings as a founding member in 1909 of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia. She used her . . . — Map (db m47379) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA-108 — Appointed to Serve
Founded by the Presbyterian Church U.S. in 1914, the Assembly’s Training School was the church’s first coeducational "lay workers" school. Through the school, women barred from seminary received a theological education. Among the earliest faculty . . . — Map (db m78771) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Battle at Meadow BridgeForcing a Crossing
On May 12, 1864, this crossing of the Chickahominy River was the scene of a sharp engagement between Union and Confederate cavalry The previous day, Gen. Philip Sheridan and his Union troopers fought and defeated Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his . . . — Map (db m15217) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Battle of Darbytown RoadLee’s Last Advance North of the James
A massive two-pronged Union attack on September 29, 1864, captured New Market Heights and a section of Richmond’s outer defenses including Fort Harrison. Not wishing to concede a vital part of his line to the enemy, Confederate commander Robert E. . . . — Map (db m3688) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-26 — Belmont
Edward J. Warren, a farmer, was the first owner of the house on 100 acres in 1858. Warren, a private in the 34th Virginia Infantry, was captured by Union troops and held prisoner at Fort Monroe. The property is first referred to as Belmont in the . . . — Map (db m24750) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Black Troops Attack at Chaffin’s FarmFort Gilmer – 1864
Confederate Fort Gilmer loomed as a major obstacle to any advance on Richmond. On the afternoon of September 29, 1864, several regiments of black troops stormed these works only to be driven back. A portion of the 7th United States Colored Troops, . . . — Map (db m24823) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Bombproof and CasemateFort Harrison – 1864
Bombproof Federal soldiers are standing at the entrance to a bombproof, built of earth-covered logs to shelter troops during bombardment. Magazines of similar construction stored powder and ammunition. Casemate This gun embrasure was . . . — Map (db m15487) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-4 — Brook Road
According to tradition, the Marquis de Lafayette marched his colonial troops from the north into Richmond on portions of present-day Brook Road late in April 1781. Established in 1812, the Brook Turnpike Company constructed a turnpike along this . . . — Map (db m15847) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-16 — Campaign of 1781
The roads through Henrico County were important routes for the Revolutionary War campaign of 1781. To avoid British Gen. Charles Cornwallis's troops advancing from Petersburg, the Marquis de Lafayette left Richmond by 27 May and marched northward . . . — Map (db m15853) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-27 — Cedar Hill
Cedar Hill was constructed ca. 1820 and originally stood off Creighton Road near the Hanover County line. During the Civil War, units of Kershaw's Division of the Army of the Confederate States set up camp at Cedar Hill and built fortifications on . . . — Map (db m36265) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W-3 — Charles City Road
This strategically important road ran from the Williamsburg Road southeast past White's Tavern, across White Oak Swamp, and into the Riddell's Shop intersection with the Long Bridge and Darbytown roads, eight miles distant. As Gen. Robert E. Lee's . . . — Map (db m15923) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Chickahominy BluffRichmond Battlefield — Richmond Nat’l Battlefield Pk – 1862/64
On this ridge overlooking the Chickahominy River, General Lee, President Davis, and many other prominent Confederate officers gathered to await the start of the operations that came to be called the Seven Days Campaign. They expected . . . — Map (db m14977) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Chickahominy Bluff1862 Seven Days' Battles
(left panel) Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the . . . — Map (db m34663) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Civil War Balloonists
Dedicated to the intrepid and patriotic men: the Civil War Balloonists, Union and Confederate, known and unknown who against ridicule and skepticism laid the foundation for this nation’s future in the sky. Inscribed hereon are the names of . . . — Map (db m24824) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Confederate BulwarkFort Johnson - 1864
Fort Johnson was perfectly situated to protect Richmond. From this commanding ridge the Confederate garrison looked out across the treeless landscape that offered an open field of fire for their guns. A deep ditch protected by sharpened stakes added . . . — Map (db m15087) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Confederate Fortifications
These northernmost fortifications along Brook Road operated as an early warning system for Confederate troops defending Richmond. Earthworks designed for artillery, located on each side of the road, blocked sudden enemy advances against the capital. . . . — Map (db m15945) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — CounterattackFort Harrison – 1864
The day after Federals captured Fort Harrison, Robert E. Lee personally directed savage Confederate counterattacks against this section of earthworks. Union forces had already closed and strengthened the rear of the fort. Armed with new repeating . . . — Map (db m15485) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Dabbs HouseLee’s First Headquarters — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In May 1862, Gen. George McClellan’s Union army was poised on the outskirts of Richmond threatening the Confederate capital. Here, in the Dabbs House, Robert E. Lee, as new commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, opened his headquarters on June . . . — Map (db m15930) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA-31 — Dahlgren's Raid
Col. Ulric Dahlgren's Union cavalry passed through this area late in the evening of 1 March 1864 before defeating the Richmond Armory Battalion at the Battle of Green's Farm, just south on Three Chopt Road. Dahlgren led his command toward Richmond . . . — Map (db m16013) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W-1 — Darbytown Road
During the Seven Days' Campaign, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's and Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's Confederate divisions moved east along Darbytown Road toward its junction with the Long Bridge Road. This junction is about three miles southwest of Riddell's . . . — Map (db m15921) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W-101 — Darbytown Road / Pioneer Baptist Church
The Battle of Darbytown Road, 7 Oct. 1864, was the last large Confederate offensive north of the James River. Gen. Robert E. Lee personally supervised the operation. Attacking from the west astride the Darbytown Road, Lee’s infantry shattered the . . . — Map (db m16302) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Deep Bottom LandingA Vital Link
After the Battle of Cold Harbor in June 1864, Grant and Lee shifted their armies to Petersburg; but Grant did not wish to abandon the Richmond front entirely. He had Gen. Benjamin Butler position a small force from his Army of the James here at Deep . . . — Map (db m15697) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Defending Richmond
"The fortifications constructed by the Confederate army in this vicinity & about Richmond are miles in extent & I must add that they are as strong, if not the strongestin the world." - Julian Scott, Union Army Veteran May 1865 From the war's . . . — Map (db m55720) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Emek Sholom Holocaust Memorial — Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999
On November 6, 1955, the New American Jewish Club, a group of immigrants and survivors of the Nazi purge of European Jewry, gathered here to unveil the three center sections of this Holocaust memorial, one of the first such memorials in North . . . — Map (db m74268) HM WM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-104 — Emmanuel Church at Brook Hill Episcopal
Built directly west by John Stewart of Brook Hill and consecrated by the Right Reverend John Johns on 6 July 1860, Emmanuel Church (Episcopal) is a classic example of late-antebellum Gothic Revival architecture. Considerable military activity took . . . — Map (db m24729) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — PA-240 — Engagement at Malvern Cliffs
On 30 June 1862, as Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his troops to attack Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's retreating Union army at Glendale, Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes brigade of Confederate troops moved down New Market Road on Lee's right. Union . . . — Map (db m9247) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — First Lieutenant Jimmie W. Monteith, Jr.
Commemorating the beautiful life of First Lieutenant Jimmie W. Monteith, Jr. He died June 6, 1944 on the shores of Normandy and lies buried at St. Laurent, France. Age 26 years. A Virginian by birth, descending from a long line of her . . . — Map (db m61634) WM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Fort Harrison TrailFort Harrison - 1862/1864
Both Federals and Confederates occupied this fort. Originally these earthworks were part of the 1862 Richmond line of defense. When Federal troops overran the fort in 1864, they built more than half the earthworks you will see on the tour, and . . . — Map (db m15484) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Gabriel’s Insurrection
Just to the north where Brook Road crosses Brook Run creek was the rendezvous point for the largest U.S. slave revolt ever planned. It was to be here on August 30, 1800, that Gabriel, a slave from nearby Brookfield Plantation, called for hundreds of . . . — Map (db m15944) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Gabriel’s RebellionA Failed Insurrection
Adjacent to this park, in a location known as Young’s Spring (1), Gabriel, a slave of Thomas Prosser, was appointed leader of the rebellion in the summer of 1800. He lived on Brookfield Plantation (2) in Henrico County. His objectives were to . . . — Map (db m24744) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-102 — Gabriel's Rebellion
Gabriel, a slave of Thomas Prosser of nearby Brookfield plantation, planned a slave insurrection against Richmond on 30 Aug. 1800. The slaves intended to kidnap Governor James Monroe and compel him to support political, social, and economic equality . . . — Map (db m15850) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-14 — George Thorpe
On April 3, 1620, The London Company hired George Thorpe to manage the land and tenants for the proposed "university and college" on 11,000 acres on the north bank of the James River above Henrico Town. The agricultural activities of the tenants . . . — Map (db m9606) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 3-a — Grace Evelyn Arents
Grace Arents was a visionary social reformer and philanthropist whose quiet determination and generosity transformed Richmond. Her passions were children, nature, books, architecture, and her church. To aid the poor, “Miss Grace” . . . — Map (db m54174) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-29 — Henrico Town
In 1611, Sir Thomas Dale established the second English settlement in Virginia called Henrico in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King James I. The town was located four miles southwest on a peninsula of high land on the James . . . — Map (db m9612) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-2 — Intermediate Defenses
Here ran, east and west, the intermediate line of Richmond defenses during the Civil War. Near this spot on 1 March 1864 Union Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick halted his raid that was intended to free Union prisoners and lower morale in the . . . — Map (db m16010) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-22 — John Marshall's Farm
Near this location stood Chickahominy Farm, the country residence of U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall. Spending weekends at the farm with his wife, Marshall wrote that farming provided many hours of "laborious relaxation." Born in 1775, Marshall . . . — Map (db m20730) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA-57 — Joseph Bryan Park
Before becoming a park, this property was part of the Young family's Westbrook estate in the 1700s and later Rosewood, home of the Mordecai family. It was a gathering place for participants in Gabriel's Rebellion in 1800. During the Civil War, . . . — Map (db m24751) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — EA-3 — Laurel Historic District
Laurel, first named Hungary Station, was the location of a spur railroad line to the coal fields in western Henrico County. During the Civil War the station here was burned, and Colonel Ulrich Dahlgren's body was secretly buried here in March 1864 . . . — Map (db m10650) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-11 — New Market Road
Legend indicates that the road was once an Indian trail. In the early nineteenth century, a "new market" was established in Richmond to replace the old one in Williamsburg. This road was eventually referred to as New Market Road. The 1819 Wood's . . . — Map (db m9241) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-32 — Nine Mile Road
First known as New Bridge Road, the name “Nine Mile” comes from the distance between Richmond and Seven Pines ending at Williamsburg Road. In 1888, Richmond City and Seven Pines Railway Company established a route along the road. This . . . — Map (db m53979) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-114 — Old Dominion Building
William Lawrence Bottomley (1883-1951), the well-known architect who planned a number of sophisticated Colonial Revival houses for wealthy Richmond-area clients, also designed this large utilitarian structure. In 1946, Atlantic Rural Exposition, . . . — Map (db m29193) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-17 — Outer Defenses
By 1864, a complex series of fortifications north of Richmond and the James River protected the capital of the Confederacy. The outer line of western defenses crossed the road (then called the Deep Run Turnpike) here. The intermediate defensive line . . . — Map (db m16012) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — O-5 — Outer Fortifications
On the hilltops here ran the outer line of Richmond fortifications, 1862-1865. — Map (db m14971) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-6 — Outer Fortifications
The Exterior Line of Richmond's Civil War defenses crossed Brook Road near here. Occasional Union cavalry raids threatened from the north, making this portion of the city's elaborate earthen defenses especially significant. Union troops briefly . . . — Map (db m47370) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-43 — Pleasants V. Pleasants
John Pleasants, Sr., nearby landowner and Quaker, requested in his will that his slaves be freed when each became 30 years old. Pleasants died in 1771, but it was not until 1782 that some of his slaves gained freedom when the Virginia General . . . — Map (db m9604) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-28 — Pocahontas
Matoaka, nicknamed Pocahontas ("playful one"), the daughter of Powhatan, was born about 1595. At age eleven, she befriended Captain John Smith and later visited the English colonists. In 1613 Samuel Argall kidnapped Pocahontas to use her as a . . . — Map (db m9613) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-49 — Powhatan
In this vicinity is believed to be the birthplace of Wahunsunacock, better known as Powhatan. A village stood nearby that also bore the name Powhatan. By the time the English arrived in 1607, Powhatan was acknowledged as the paramount chief of about . . . — Map (db m16300) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-30 — Proposed First University in English America
A "University and College" was authorized by the Virginia Company charter of 1618 at Henrico Town but never opened. Some 10,000 acres on the James River upstream from the new town were to provide agricultural income for the school. The college's . . . — Map (db m9610) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 1 — Richmond DefencesIntermediate Line
Here ran the intermediate line of Richmond defences. Built in 1862-64, these defences included 25 inner forts and batteries, beyond which this continuous earthwork encircled the city. The third or outer line was distant from the capitol 4 to 7 . . . — Map (db m14218) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 35 — Richmond DefencesKilpatrick’s Raid
At this point, where the intermediate line of the Richmond defences crossed Brook Road, Confederate forces on March 1, 1864, repulsed Kilpatrick’s Raid, undertaken to release Federal prisoners in Richmond. On the same day, another column, under Col. . . . — Map (db m14243) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 36 — Richmond DefencesThe Dahlgren Raid
Here March 1, 1864, two regiments of Confederate local defence troops under Col. John McAnerney defeated Federal cavalry under Col. Ulric Dahlgren, who sought to destroy Richmond and to release Federal prisoners there. On the same day Kilpatrick was . . . — Map (db m14244) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 43 — Richmond DefencesCrossing of the Intermediate Line
Near this spot the Eastern face of the Intermediate Line of the Richmond Defences crossed the Williamsburg Road. About one-fourth mile Eastward was the Junction of Williamsburg and Charles City Roads, two of the main lines of the Federal advance on . . . — Map (db m14252) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 48 — Richmond DefencesIntermediate Line
At this point the Intermediate Line of the Confederate defences of Richmond crossed this, the Darbytown Road. This line was continuous around Richmond and lay between the outer defensive system and the inner forts. — Map (db m14257) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 33 — Richmond DefencesThe Outer Line
Here the outer line of the Confederate defences of Richmond crossed Brook Road. This line, here distant five miles from the capitol, was built in 1862-64 and extended in a half-circle from the James River near the present University of Richmond to . . . — Map (db m16007) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 34 — Richmond DefencesThe Outer Line
Here stood part of the outer line of the Confederate defences of Richmond, built in 1862-64. On the right the line crossed Brook Road and ran North and South along the ridge where Emmanuel church stands. On the left it extended four miles Westward, . . . — Map (db m16008) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Richmond Locomotive Works
We thank you for your support This building was once the home of the Richmond Locomotive Works, one of the world's most famous steam locomotive builders. Steam engines powered the industrial revolution in the United States, and . . . — Map (db m32339) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Richmond National Cemetery
National Cemetery During the Civil War, Union and Confederate armies fought multiple battles for control of Richmond. Thousands of Union soldiers perished. They are now buried in Richmond National Cemetery and six other national cemeteries . . . — Map (db m89723) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Rocketts Landing
East 1607-1707 Native Settlements and Early Colonization May 24, 1607: days after landing at Jamestown, Christopher Newport left his fellow English colonists to explore the James River. Accompanied by “five gentlemen, . . . — Map (db m54831) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-108 — Saint Joseph’s Villa
Saint Joseph’s Villa, founded 25 Nov. 1834 and incorporated 3 Oct. 1868, is one of the oldest-operating children’s institutions in the United States. For 143 years administered by the Catholic Daughters of Charity as an orphanage and girls’ school, . . . — Map (db m1919) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — PA-163 — Seven Days BattlesGlendale (Frayser's Farm)
Here stood the center of Longstreet's line of battle in the afternoon of June 30, 1862. The Confederates, coming from the west, attacked the Union line just beyond. The battle lasted all afternoon, with varying fortunes and much hand-to-hand . . . — Map (db m16180) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Seven Days' Battles Begin
By the final week of June 1862, the Union army lay sprawled east of Richmond, on both sides of the flooded Chickahominy River. General George B. McClellan planned to move that army within artillery range of Richmond; Confederate leader Robert E. Lee . . . — Map (db m34665) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-3 — Sheridan Maneuvers East
In 1864, Brook Road provided the most direct avenue of approach from the north for Union cavalry raids on Richmond. After defeating Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's Confederate cavalry at Yellow Tavern, four miles north of here, on 11 May 1864, Union . . . — Map (db m54168) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-16 — Skipwith Academy
Grey Skipwith, Sr., a midshipman in the Confederate navy purchased the original site, formerly "Fort Hill", a Civil War parade ground, in 1890. Lord Alfred Bosson designed Bekeby, an English style Tudor mansion, in 1927 for Admiral Grey Skipwith, . . . — Map (db m25611) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Spring ParkHealing Waters
The earliest record of the property shows that Samuel Williamson owned the 400 acre tract in 1796. His son, Dabney, who inherited the property, owned a slave by the name Lewis who participated in Gabriel’s Rebellion in 1800. Lewis attempted to . . . — Map (db m24748) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Stuart's RidePassing through the Lines — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
(Preface): In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a . . . — Map (db m55719) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Surprise AttackFort Harrison – 1864
In the predawn darkness Federal soldiers storm over this outer wall. Hundreds of Confederates are asleep in their tents. Although the Federals are able to overrun Fort Harrison, General Hiram Burnham, commanding the lead brigade is killed. His . . . — Map (db m15090) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-40 — Surrender of Richmond
At daybreak on 3 April 1865, Federal troops formed to march into Richmond. A cavalry detachment under Majors Atherton H. Stevens, Jr. and Eugene E. Graves moved up the Osborne Turnpike to its junction with New Market Road. Here they met Richmond . . . — Map (db m16298) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 12 — The Dabb HouseGeneral Lee's Headquarters.
In the residence at the end of this lane, General R.E. Lee had headquarters from June 1 to June 26, 1862. Hither for conference came “Stonewall” Jackson, Longstreet, Stuart, A.P. Hill, D.H. Hill and other of his lieutenants. Here the . . . — Map (db m15929) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-20 — The Flood of 1771
On May 27, 1771, a wall of water came roaring down the James River valley following ten to twelve days of intensive rain. As water swept through Richmond, buildings, boats, animals, and vegetation were lost. About one hundred fifty people were . . . — Map (db m9248) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Fort ParapetFort Harrison – 1864
Fort Harrison (renamed Fort Burhham) as it appeared in 1864-65. At the time of construction, Fort Harrison was surrounded by open fields. — Map (db m15486) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Fort Under Attack
The Confederate fortifications at Brook Hill were occupied forceably three times by Union cavalry during the Civil War. The initial raid during the night of May 4, 1863 by General Stoneman’s troops was of relatively little consequence. On March 1, . . . — Map (db m15946) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-23 — The Markel Building
The Markel Corporation commissioned architect Haig Jamgochian, a Richmond native, to design their headquarters in 1962. The aluminum clad conical structure was inspired by a baked potatto wrapped in foil served to Jamgochian while attending an . . . — Map (db m25620) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Seven Days BeginChickahominy Bluff – 1862
June 26, 1862 “We expect to be in Richmond in a fortnight,” writes a young officer in the 7th Maine. With Federal troops close enough to set their watches by Richmond’s church bells, General Robert E. Lee orders his men to . . . — Map (db m14972) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Three-Chopt Road
This boulder marks the beginning of the Three-Chopt Road The British Legion under Command of Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton, passed over this road in June, 1781, when returning from the raid upon Charlottesville. Along the intersecting River . . . — Map (db m16048) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-5 — Turkey Island
Soon after landing at Jamestown in May 1607. Captain Christopher Newport, while exploring the James River discovered Turkey Island (two miles south). He named it for the large number of wild turkeys there. In 1684, William Randolph purchased Turkey . . . — Map (db m9249) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Turkey Island Mansionca. 1768
Archeologists uncovered building foundations near this location of a house believed to have been designed by Ryland Randolph in the late 1760s. Ryland Randolph (1738-1784) was the great-grandson of Pocahontas and the grandson of William Randolph and . . . — Map (db m70544) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-33 — Varina
The name derives from the resemblance of the tobacco introduced and grown by John Rolfe in 1614 to a variety grown in Varina, Spain. Varina was established as a town in 1680 and became the civil, judicial, and ecclesiastical center of Henrico . . . — Map (db m9608) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W-181 — Virginia Air National Guard
In 1947, Virginia received its first Air Guard unit designated as the 149th Fighter Squadron. Founded by the Virginia legislature in 1946 and recognized by the National Guard Bureau in 1947, it is directly descended from the historic 328th Fighter . . . — Map (db m24852) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Well
This depression is all that remains of a well that was dug to provide water for the soldiers of Fort Harrison. It was probably built by Confederates before the battle, and like the fort was captured on September 29, 1864. — Map (db m15493) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-19 — Westwood Club
Derived from a 1921 design by renowned golf architect Donald Ross, Westwood Golf Club served the public from 1927 to the mid-1930's. Following a change in ownership, Westwood Supper Club occupied the clubhouse from 1936 until 1950, when the Officers . . . — Map (db m25619) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-1 — Wilton
Five miles southwest. The house was built by William Randolph, son of William Randolph of Turkey Island, early in the eighteenth century. It was Lafayette's headquarters, May 15-20, 1781, just before Cornwallis crossed the James in pursuit of him. — Map (db m24846) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Wilton
Wilton, an impressive example of Colonial American architecture and celebrated for its fully paneled interiors, was built c. 1753 for William Randolph Ill and his wife Anne Carter Harrison Randolph, both members of politically active families. This . . . — Map (db m86726) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-7 — Yellow Tavern
Just south of here on Brook Road (present-day U.S. Route 1) is the site of Yellow Tavern. North of the tavern, on 11 May 1864, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart deployed his Confederate cavalry to confront Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's Union cavalry as it . . . — Map (db m10652) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E-103 — Young's Spring
Just one block southwest at Young's Spring on Upham Brook, slaves often congregated on weekends to hold religious services and social gatherings. This is where Gabriel, a slave of William Prosser, planned the slave rebellion scheduled for 30 August . . . — Map (db m24740) HM
Virginia, Richmond — "For God And Country"1917 — 1918
In honor of the men and women of the City of Richmond, Virginia, who gave their lives in The World War for the principles of justice, freedom and democracy. Erected by their comrades of the five Richmond posts of the . . . — Map (db m90097) WM
Virginia, Richmond — "Richmond"
William Byrd II of Westover, owner of the land around the falls of the James River, wrote in his diary on September 19, 1733: …we laid the foundations of two large Citys. One at Shacco’s, to be called Richmond and the other at the point of . . . — Map (db m16145) HM
Virginia, Richmond — "The Great Chief Justice"
Born in Fauquier County, John Marshall was admitted to the bar there in 1780 following service in the Revolutionary army. In 1783 he married Mary Willis Ambler and lived the remainder of his life in Richmond where until 1797 he accepted President . . . — Map (db m22610) HM
Virginia, Richmond — “I must save the women of Richmond!”
. . . — Map (db m16216) HM
Virginia, Richmond — E-232 — Loving v. Virginia
Richard Loving and Mildred Jeter, defined under Virginia’s 1924 Racial Integrity Act as an interracial couple, married in June 1958 tn Washington, D.C and returned home to Caroline County, Arrested in July for violating Virginia’s laws against . . . — Map (db m108166) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1200 Block East Cary Street
Because of Shockoe Slip’s convenience to both canal and rail transport, many different businesses contributed to its economic make-up. Some of the buildings in this block housed concerns that would be expected in the area, such as a cigar . . . — Map (db m40665) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1201 East Cary Street
This building, now the home of the popular Tobacco Company Restaurant, was originally built in 1866, just one year after the Evacuation Fire. Erected during the most difficult period Richmond has ever experienced, the structure was considered . . . — Map (db m40664) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1300-1304 East Cary Street
This corner has long been dominated by restaurants and saloons which served the commercial area’s workers and clientele. Often commission merchants occupied the upstairs offices. This handsomely detailed building erected on a site which extends . . . — Map (db m40672) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 13th Street Bridge
The keystone inscription bears the initials of the two owners of the Haxall-Crenshaw Mill, which once stood here. The old 13th Street Bridge and the arch on the bank of the canal opposite this spot were built by Richard B. Haxall and Lewis D. . . . — Map (db m23820) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 2307 E. Broad Streetc. 1818
Part of Carrington Row, this row house was built in 1818 by the sons of Ann Adams Carrington. The architecture was inspired by the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Robert Mills. The home was designed by builder-architect Otis Mason. It is the . . . — Map (db m67425) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 28th St Draw Bridge / Great Shiplock Canal"The Tidewater Connection"
28th St Draw Bridge The lift bridge before you was built by the Norfolk and Southern Railroad in 1929 to serve the paper mills along the Pamunkey River at West Point. A moveable bridge was always necessary to allow . . . — Map (db m47385) HM
Virginia, Richmond — A Bateau Pole
This pole is a reproduction of the poles used by Bateau polemen. The crew of a Bateau consisted of two polemen, who walked on boards running the length of the boat on either side and a steersman who used a sweep at the stern. To navigate upstream, . . . — Map (db m23922) HM
Virginia, Richmond — A Legacy on Leigh StreetMaggie L. Walker National Historic Site
This Italianate mansion was once the bustling home of pioneering African American entrepreneur Maggie Lena Walker (1864- 1934). Walker lived here for the final thirty years of her life and greatly expanded the home to accommodate four generations of . . . — Map (db m94571) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-69 — Adams-Van Lew House
Richmond mayor Dr. John Adams built a mansion here in 1802. It became the residence of Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900) whose father obtained it in 1836. During the Civil War, Elizabeth Van Lew led a Union espionage operation. African Americans, such . . . — Map (db m15926) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Adapting Power
The Raceway and Earlier Uses of the Site This raceway brought water from the James River and Kanawha Canal to power waterwheels, and later turbines, that drove machinery. During its earliest use, the raceway contained at least two overshot . . . — Map (db m24411) HM
Virginia, Richmond — African Americans and the WaterfrontRichmond Riverfront
African Americans and the waterfront The Richmond waterfront is steeped in African American history. From the early days when Richmond was a colonial trading post, free, indentures, and enslaved African Americans lived and worked in the . . . — Map (db m23856) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Albemarle Paper
In 1916, the Dixie Paper Company opened a paper mill in the building of the closed Brown’s Island electric plant. By 1919, the mill was taken over by Albemarle Paper Company, which had been operating a paper mill just upriver at Hollywood since . . . — Map (db m24107) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Alexander H. Stephens House Site
Alexander H. Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States of America Lived in the house that stood here in 1861 This tablet is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, A.D., 1912, — Map (db m16272) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-58 — Alfred D. “A.D.” Price
Born into slavery in Hanover County in 1860, Alfred D. “A.D.” Price moved to Richmond in the late 1870s. Soon after coming to Richmond, he set up a blacksmith shop, which expanded into a livery stable and the funeral home that stands . . . — Map (db m5601) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-30 — Ampthill
A short distance south is Ampthill House, built by Henry Cary about 1730 on the south side of James River. It was the home of Colonel Archibald Cary, Revolutionary leader, and was removed to its present site by a member of the Cary family. — Map (db m20529) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-47 — Anna Maria LaneSoldier of the American Revolution
Near the Bell Tower in Capitol Square stood the barracks of the Public Guard. There, from 1801 to 1807, lived John Lane and his wife, Anna Maria Lane, the only documented woman veteran of the Revolutionary War to reside in Virginia. She disguised . . . — Map (db m4624) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Arnold’s Picket Driven In
Arnold’s Picket driven in Jany 4th 1781 By Col. J. Nicholas (south face) This pylon, re-created in granite and containing a replica of the original 1834 inscription, was re-dedicated April 17, 1991, by the Sons of the Revolution in . . . — Map (db m16099) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Arthur Ashe Monument — Monument Avenue Historic District
[Inscription on east face of monument:]Arthur R. Ashe, Jr. 1943 - 1993 World Champion, Author, Humanitarian, Founder of Virginia Heroes, Incorporated, Native of Richmond, Virginia. This Monument was placed at Monument Avenue and . . . — Map (db m22823) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 12 — Auction HousesRichmond Slave Trail
There were several dozen such houses in Shockoe Bottom, typically selling human “goods” along with corn, coffee, and other commodities. Some sales were part of a larger business; other auctioneers dealt exclusively in slaves. Most slave . . . — Map (db m41822) HM
Virginia, Richmond — E-1 — Bacon’s Quarter
Nathaniel Bacon (1647–1676), leader of Bacon’s Rebellion, acquired land in 1674 at Curles Neck in Henrico County and property near the falls on the north side of the James River that became known as Bacon’s Quarter in what is now present-day . . . — Map (db m1895) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-48 — Barton Heights Cemeteries
The Burying Ground Society of the Free People of Color of Richmond established its cemetery (later renamed Cedarwood) here in 1815. African Americans eventually founded five more cemeteries here: Union Burial Ground (later called Union Mechanics), . . . — Map (db m1028) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Basin Race
The Great Basin of the James River & Kanawha Canal covered three square blocks directly in front of this plaque: between Cary and Canal, and 8th and 12th Streets. By 1834, millers had realized the Basin’s water could be used to turn waterwheels, and . . . — Map (db m26573) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-71 — Battle of Bloody Run
Nearby is the site where Chief Totopotomoy of the Pamunkey died in 1656. The English colonists had become concerned over the recent settlement nearby of the Rickohockans along the falls of the James River. They called upon Totopotomoy to assist in . . . — Map (db m16046) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bell Tavern
To mark the site of Bell Tavern used as a Recruiting Station during the War of 1812 Erected by the Dorothy Payne Madison Chapter N.S.U.S. Daughters 1812, VA — Map (db m27774) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle IsleCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
James River Park System The Virginia Company of London instructed the first English colonists to choose a river for their settlement and to “let Captain Newport discover how far that river may be found navigable.” Following this . . . — Map (db m23719) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle
During the winter of 1863-1864, the island visible from this spot held up to 8,000 Union army prisoners. After the outbreak of the Civil War, prisoners poured into Richmond. Camps built only as transport stations soon became permanent. Over the . . . — Map (db m24097) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle and Old Dominion Iron and Nail Works
Once called Washington’s or Broad Rock Island, Belle Isle was bought by Captain John Smith from Chief Powatan in 1608. Early travelers found the island natural and idyllic and current visitors only see hints of the island’s industrial past. In 1815, . . . — Map (db m24375) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Hydro Plant
In front of you are the remains of a hydroelectric power plant. It powered the trolley system on the south of the river and the steel company at the east end of the island. To your left and up are the remains of the Transformer . . . — Map (db m64046) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Prison
Directly in front of you, in mid-river, is Belle Isle. Despite the large number of Union prisoners brought to Richmond during the Civil War, the city had only two full-time prisons. Libby Prison for Union officers, a mile and a half downriver, was . . . — Map (db m26595) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Prison Camp Monument
During the Civil War over 1,000 Union soldiers perished in the 6 acre prison site before you. Of those who survived, in bothe Northern and Southern camps, many were exchanged in such wretched condition that they were often unfit to return to duty. . . . — Map (db m64035) HM WM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Rolling Milling and Slitting ManufactoryApprox. 1815-1900
Through the arched doorway mules pulled carts of scrap iron from England. Water powered the machinery. European immigrants and black slaves provided the labor. The nails, wire and horseshoes were famous throughput the South. Sign donated by . . . — Map (db m64045) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bill “Bojangles” Robinson
. . . — Map (db m1915) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Birthplace of Cardiac Transplantation
This site commemorates the pioneering basic, clinical and translational research that laid the foundation for successful cardiac transplantation. On this campus, Dr. Richard Lower performed the first heart transplant in Virginia on May 25, 1968. . . . — Map (db m19180) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-75 — Black Hawk (1767-1838)
Black Sparrow Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak) led the Sauk Nation in defense of land taken from them in the 1830s. Displaced from three Midwestern locations, the Sauk resisted another federal relocation. Led by Black Hawk, the Sauk fought . . . — Map (db m24336) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bowers Brothers Coffee and Tea Building104 Shockoe Slip
Richmond’s flour, milled here in Shockoe Slip, was known all over the world for its high quality. On their return from delivering flour and the popular Virginia tobacco, ships were laden with coffee, tea, and exotic spices, which were then sold by . . . — Map (db m40670) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-68 — Branch Public Baths
John Patterson Branch (1830–1915), banker, philanthropist and community leader, erected Richmond’s first public bath here in 1909 at 1801 East Broad Street as a gift to the city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, cities such as . . . — Map (db m1902) HM
Virginia, Richmond — S-1 — British Invasion of Richmond, January 1781
On 4 Jan. 1781, British troops led by Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold landed at Westover in Charles City County and began marching to Richmond. Learning of the threat, Governor Thomas Jefferson directed the removal of public records and military stores . . . — Map (db m1905) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-46 — Broad Street Station
Broad Street Station served passengers of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railway and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad from 6 Jan. 1919 until 15 Nov. 1975. The Neoclassical Revival station was the only commercial building designed by John . . . — Map (db m9209) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Brown’s Island
Brown’s Island was created when the Haxall Canal was extended west to the Tredegar Iron Works. Encircled by the waterways that provided power and transportation to flour mills, foundries, and paper companies, Brown’s Island has been at the . . . — Map (db m24095) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Brown’s Island
Brown’s Island is named for Elijah Brown who acquired it in 1826. Brown came from Rhode Island in 1811 to be a gunsmith at the Virginia Manufactory of Arms. In 1818, he entered the Public Guard, which was stationed at the Manufactory, and served . . . — Map (db m24105) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Brown's Island Disaster
On March 13, 1863, an explosion destroyed much of the Confederate States Laboratory, a munitions facility on Brown's Island in the James River. 47 workers died, mostly girls under the age 17, who helped fill manpower needs and whose small hands . . . — Map (db m79713) HM WM
Virginia, Richmond — Burnt District
More than 1,000 buildings burned between 4th and 15th Streets, from Main Street to the river. “The sky in the direction of Richmond is lurid with the glare of burning houses. …It was as if a great battle were going on around us.” . . . — Map (db m24290) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk
(front panel) Railroads Richmond has been a railroad center since the 1830’s. In 1838, the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad had its main depot and shops at 8th & Byrd streets. A short north-south link, the R&P was the parent . . . — Map (db m26586) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk First envisioned by George Washington in 1774, the canals were to be part of a continuous transportation route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. By 1789, initial construction of portions of the canal around the . . . — Map (db m23793) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux . . . — Map (db m23854) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for . . . — Map (db m23866) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for . . . — Map (db m23887) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Cannon over the Camp
The Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp that stood before you here was a prison without walls. Federal soldiers were confined by the James River and by the low earthen "dead line," such as the one replicated in front of you, surrounding the camp. About . . . — Map (db m64041) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canons and Corpses
Big guns on the hill deterred riots - in the over crowded prison encampment to your left. Few escaped, most died of starvation, dysentery, and disease. In total about 1,000 perished. The cemetery, now empty, was to your right where trees grow today. — Map (db m13994) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-77 — Charles Sidney Gilpin1878–1930
Charles Sidney Gilpin grew up here in Jackson Ward. He apprenticed in the Richmond Planet print shop before beginning his theater career and becoming one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. Gilpin is best known for his title . . . — Map (db m107932) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chesapeake & Ohio RailwayChartered 1869
Origins in the James River & Kanawha Canal Co. (1785) and the Louisa Railroad (1836). Headquarted in Richmond. Profits came from hauling WVA coal to Newport News shipyards. Merged with B&O in 1972 to form Chessie System. Chessie System merged with . . . — Map (db m70491) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital
On this hill stood Chimborazo Hospital 1862-1865 Established by Surgeon General S.P. Moore, C.S.A. Directed by Dr. James B. McCaw. At that time, it was the largest military hospital in the world. It consisted of 150 buildings and 100 tents . . . — Map (db m15507) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital1861-1865
In this park Dr. James B. McCaw developed for the Confederate States of America a military hospital which was then the largest in human history. It received 17,000 wounded, served more than 76,000 patients, and had a mortality of less than 10%. Dr. . . . — Map (db m16047) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital
On this 40-acre plateau the Confederates built Chimborazo Hospital, one of the largest and best-known Civil War military hospitals: 78,000 sick and wounded Confederate soldiers passed through the hospital from 1861-1865. Chimborazo’s neat rows of . . . — Map (db m34784) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Christopher Newport Cross / Canal WalkRichmond Riverfront
Christopher Newport Cross On May 24, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport and a party of explorers who had landed at Jamestown just days earlier arrived at the site of modern-day Richmond. Hoping to find a passage to the Pacific, they found . . . — Map (db m23819) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Christopher Newport Monument
Capt. Christopher Newport John Smith Gabriel Archer Hon. George Percy With gentlemen, mariners, soldiers numbering twenty-one explored James River to the falls, and set up a cross Whitsunday, May 24th 1607 This monument is . . . — Map (db m23818) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-90 — Church Hill Tunnel
About 200 feet east is the western portal of the Church Hill Tunnel. On 11 Dec. 1873, Chesapeake and Ohio locomotive number 2 passed through the tunnel, marking the completion of one of the longest tunnels in the United States. The tunnel was being . . . — Map (db m54853) HM
Virginia, Richmond — City Locks River Gauge
The building before you holds equipment that measures the level of the James River leaving Richmond How it works: The gauge is a tube of air with a standard amount of pressure inside. How much the river water rises up the tube determines . . . — Map (db m61821) HM
Virginia, Richmond — City of Richmond Bicentennial
On July 2, 1782, the people of Richmond gathered near this site to elect twelve citizens and constitute their first city government, known as the Common Hall. The next day, the Richmond Common Council held its first meeting on the same site and . . . — Map (db m16306) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Civil War POW Camp
You are looking at the nationally significant site of the notorious Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp where during the Civil War thousands of captured U.S. soldiers were confined. After the war began in 1861, military prisoners jammed Richmond’s . . . — Map (db m64034) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Civil War Visitor CenterRichmond National Battlefield Park
You are standing amid the remains of the Tredegar Iron Works, the nation’s largest and best-equipped ironworks in 1860. Some Tredegar iron industries operated until the 1950s. Today, Tredegar’s Pattern Storage Building, constructed around 1867, . . . — Map (db m24474) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Coburn Hall — Virginia Union University
Coburn Hall was constructed in 1899 and named for Maine governor Abner Coburn. It held Virginia Union’s original chapel and library collection. Many legendary pastors and scholars preached and lectured in Coburn Hall, including Dr. Martin Luther . . . — Map (db m108984) HM

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