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St. Augustine, Florida Historical Markers

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10 Hildreth Drive Marker and The Fullerwood School image, Touch for more information
By Mrs. Shirley Williams-Galvin, March 5, 2011
10 Hildreth Drive Marker and The Fullerwood School
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 10 Hildreth DriveACCORD Freedom Trail
Fullerwood School was built in 1927 and is the only example in St. Augustine of the work of noted architect A. Ten Eyck Brown (1878-1940), famed for his courthouses, banks, and city halls in New Orleans, Miami and Atlanta. His name is on the . . . — Map (db m40725) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 102 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
This area in the heart of Lincolnville was associated with black education for nearly a century. This lot was the site of the Presbyterian Parochial and Industrial School, headed by Rev. James H. Cooper. It was demolished in 1940 and the grounds . . . — Map (db m40701) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1074 West King StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This was the home of Mrs. Georgie Mae Reed (1926-1995), who took part in one of the most famous events in the civil rights movement that changed America and inspired the world. On March 31, 1964, Mrs. Reed was one of five St. Augustine women who . . . — Map (db m65420) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 111 Lincoln StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Constructed before 1885, this is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Lincolnville, an historic neighborhood founded by freed slaves after the Civil War. It was home to two generations of the Moran family. Horace Moran was the chef at the . . . — Map (db m21194) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 112 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
This house was built between 1904 and 1910 on what was then called Central Avenue. The name was changed in 1986. There are many streets in America named to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but this one is special because he actually walked on it . . . — Map (db m17915) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 113 DeHaven StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This was the home of Oscar Turner (1898-1987) and his wife Mabel (1903-1978). Their daughter, Mattie, married educator and coach A. Malcolm Jones, the principal of Richard J. Murray High School, for whom the recreational field at the nearby Willie . . . — Map (db m40698) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 120 DeHaven StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This house was built in the 1920s and purchased a decade later by Jutson Ayers, who worked as an alligator wrestler for a quarter of a century at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm before his death in 1958. His widow, Mrs. Rena Ayers, gave important . . . — Map (db m17914) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 156 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
The house at 156 Central Avenue was built in the 1950's for Mrs. Janie Price, a nurse at Flagler Hospital. She had taken her nurse's training at Grady Hospital in Atlanta in the 1940s and while there had attended dances with students from Morehouse . . . — Map (db m7627) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 160 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
The southern half of Lincolnville was, in colonial times, a plantation called "Buena Esperanza" (Spanish for "Good Hope"). During the Flagler Era of the 1880s, it was bought by Standard Oil millionaire William Warden and developed as a residential . . . — Map (db m40699) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1740 Siege
In 1740, General James Oglethorpe of Georgia, vowed to "take St. Augustine or leave my bones before its walls." The Spanish Governor Manuel de Montiano vowed in turn to "shed his last drop of blood" in defense of the town. Neither had to keep their . . . — Map (db m46349) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 177 Twine StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The event that brought the civil rights movement in St. Augustine to international attention was the arrest of Mary Parkman Peabody (1891-1981), the 72-year old mother of the Governor of Massachusetts, for trying to be served in a racially . . . — Map (db m7610) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1872 North PrivySt. Augustine Lighthouse
This small brick structure was originally a privy (outhouse), likely built before the house sometime between 1872 and 1875 (there was also one in the south corner). It was turned into a shed after indoor plumbing and bathrooms were added to the . . . — Map (db m126898) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1872 South PrivySt. Augustine Lighthouse
These bricks are the remains of the south privy (outhouse), built for use primarily by tourists rather than the keepers’ families. At some point during its history this outhouse was converted into a toilet. The smaller brick square just to the . . . — Map (db m126954) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1886 WellSt. Augustine Lighthouse
Just to the east of this well stood the original wooden kitchens, used prior to adding the brick kitchens on either side of the keepers’ house. The well had a pump handle, like the one you see between the two old kitchens in the picture to the . . . — Map (db m126897) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1888 Outdoor KitchensSt. Augustine Lighthouse
This is one of two brick kitchens added in 1888, replacing former wooden kitchens that were located closer to the lighthouse tower. Before indoor air conditioning and safer cooking techniques, kitchens were detached from houses to protect them from . . . — Map (db m126957) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 1902 Steam-Powered Tractor
Gaar Scott & Company, established in 1895 in Richmond, Indiana, manufactured a long line of tractors, threshing machines, and steam engines from 1842 through 1911, including this 1902 model. This enormous cast-iron and steel tractor, weighing some . . . — Map (db m126113) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 222 Riberia StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Bethel Baptist Church was founded in 1939 by Rev. William Banks, the former pastor of St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church on Washington Street, and other members from that congregation. Land was acquired on Riberia Street, and the church building . . . — Map (db m21207) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 262 West King StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Leo C. Chase, Sr., who had previously managed the Huff Funeral Home in Lincolnville, opened one of the oldest businesses in St. Augustine, this funeral home in 1955. His son, Arnett Chase, took over after his father's death in 1977. Another son, Leo . . . — Map (db m40723) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 31 King StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The Ponce de Leon Shopping Center opened in 1955 as the first downtown shopping center in St. Augustine. It was designated by Morris Lapidus (1902-2001), Florida's most famous mid-twentieth century architect, and is the only example of his work in . . . — Map (db m7696) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 33 Bernard StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Bernard Street is one of three historically black residential streets in the North City area, dating back to the Flagler Era. At the west end of the street were a lumber yard, steam laundry, and ice plant that provided employment. Other residents . . . — Map (db m17913) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 5480 Atlantic ViewACCORD Freedom Trail
This beach cottage attracted international attention in 1964, and a photograph taken here of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pointing to a bullet hole in the window has become one of the iconic images of the civil rights movement. It was the winter home . . . — Map (db m40697) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 56 Park PlaceACCORD Freedom Trail
This house, overlooking Maria Sanchez Lake, was built in the 1950's for a distinguished family of educators. James G. Reddick was a longtime principal of Excelsior School and his wife Maude was the supervisor of black schools in St. Augustine in the . . . — Map (db m21187) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 57 Chapin StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
57 Chapin Street was once the home of Willie Galimore (1935-1964), the most famous athlete to come from St. Augustine. A three-time Pittsburgh Courier All-American football player at Florida A & M University under the legendary coach Jake Gaither, . . . — Map (db m7732) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 570 Christopher StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This was the home of Rev. Roscoe Halyard and his wife Flora, both active participants in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Rev. Halyard, who was associated with Zion Baptist Church and worked as a carpenter, made trips to both Tallahassee and . . . — Map (db m21208) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 64 Washington StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
64 Washington Street was the Florida State Headquarters of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during and after the civil rights demonstrations of 1964. SCLC was founded in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. after the successful . . . — Map (db m7607) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 650 Julia StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This house was built in 2008 by Habitat for Humanity for one of the Ancient City's civil rights heroes, Audrey Nell Edwards. Along with JoeAnn Anderson Ulmer, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton, she was one of the "St. Augustine Four." As young . . . — Map (db m40724) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 21 — 76 Washington StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The St. Augustine office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was located in this building from the 1970's until the early 1990's. The organization's roots in the Ancient City began much earlier. William English . . . — Map (db m21181) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 79 Bridge StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The Rudcarlie Building at 79 Bridge Street was built in the 1950's by Dr. Rudolph N. Gordon (1901-1959) and named for the members of his family. Rudolph, Carlotta, and Rosalie. It was the first medical/dental office constructed in St. Augustine . . . — Map (db m7640) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 8 Dr. R.B. Hayling PlaceACCORD Freedom Trail
The house at 8 Scott Street was built in the 1950s as part of Rollins Subdivision, a new residential area where many prominent black St. Augustinians made their homes. In the early 1960s it was the residence of Dr. Robert B. Hayling and family. A . . . — Map (db m7628) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 8 inch Columbiad
A part of the armament of historic Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos) before, during and after the Civil War Presented to the City of St. Augustine by the U.S. War Department June 12, 1900 — Map (db m46800) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 81 Bridge StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This Victorian house in the historic Lincolnville neighborhood (founded by freed slaves after the Civil War) became a civil rights landmark in 1964. It was a gathering place for people in the movement, where they could meet, rest, seek solace, and . . . — Map (db m40729) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 84 Bridge StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Trinity United Methodist Church is the oldest congregation in historic Lincolnville and one of the oldest Protestant congregations in Florida. Its origins date to the early American period, in the 1820s, when a Methodist missionary came to St. . . . — Map (db m21206) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 84 St. Benedict StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
The narrow streets and small building lots of this area mark it as the earliest part of Lincolnville, founded by freed slaves after the Civil War and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An earlier house that stood on this site . . . — Map (db m102339) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 94 South StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
This has been the home to the Whites, one of the outstanding families active in the 1963-1964 civil rights movement in St. Augustine. Parents James (a decorated Buffalo Soldier from World War II) and Hattie Lee White both took part in demonstrations . . . — Map (db m40700) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 96 Evergreen AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
Zion Baptist Church, with its distinctive double towers, was built in 1921 to house a congregation originally organized in 1886. It is the last house of worship passed by many funerals on their way to several nearby cemeteries, including the one . . . — Map (db m7803) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — 97 M.L. King AvenueACCORD Freedom Trail
97 Martin Luther King Avenue was built in the 1920s by Frederick E. Martin, a prominent Lincolnville businessman whose name is set in the tile inside the front door. It was a popular confectionery and sundries store under many owners, drawing some . . . — Map (db m7727) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — A Microcosm of Urban Archaeology in Downtown St. Augustine, Florida
Introduction St. Augustine's colonial downtown district exists as the most enduring location of European origin in the United States, having been settled since 1572. A diverse array of archaeological resources, the result of 400+ years of . . . — Map (db m102336) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — A National Cemetery System
Civil War Dead An estimated 700,000 Union and Confederate soldiers died in the Civil War between April 1861 and April 1865. As the death toll rose, the U.S. government struggled with the urgent but unplanned need to bury fallen Union . . . — Map (db m127668) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Acosta HouseReconstructed 1976
Built between 1803 and 1812 by Jorge Acosta (c.1764-1812), a native of Corsica, and husband of Margarita Villalonga, born in St. Augustine of Minorcan parents. — Map (db m102394) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — African OriginsFort Mose Historic State Park
Fort Mose (Moh-Say) was a multicultural community of people originally from West and Central Africa, along with some Native Americans. Some of the residents of Mose, like Francisco Menéndez, fought in the 1715 Yamasee War against the . . . — Map (db m126973) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Alcazar Hotel / City Hall
Built by Henry Flagler, the Alcázar Hotel opened as a companion to the Ponce de León in 1888. The building, one of the first multi-storied structures in the country constructed with poured concrete, was designed by John M. Carrere and Thomas . . . — Map (db m115580) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Anderson Cottage
By the year 1870, a widowed Clarissa Fairbanks Anderson had built on her property, known as “Markland,” a gable-roofed, frame “winter cottage” for guests. In 1885, her son, Dr. Andrew Anderson, Jr., sold part of the . . . — Map (db m100592) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Andrew Young CrossingPeaceful Protest for Civil Rights
At this location on June 9th, 1964, Civil Rights Movement Leader Andrew Young led a march from Lincolnville to the Plaza de la Constitución where they met violent opposition. Young had been sent to St. Augustine by the Reverend Martin Luther King, . . . — Map (db m107336) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Avero HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1735-1743 (Restored 1979)
The Avero family lived on this property from 1712 until 1804 even before the existing building was constructed, with the exception of the British occupation period during 1763-1783. The restoration was undertaken to approximate the character of the . . . — Map (db m111092) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Balcón de los ReyesBalcony of the King
From this balcony, Their Majesties Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia of Spain extended greetings to the people of St. Augustine. April 1, 2001 — Map (db m127491) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-526 — Black Catholic Heritage
This block of property owned by the Catholic Church contains three historic buildings that embody an important part of African American heritage of St. Augustine. It was part of Yallaha orange grove plantation before the Civil War and was . . . — Map (db m102735) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Bloody MoseFort Mose Historic State Park
In 1740, the English attacked St. Augustine, but departed after a bloody battle at Fort Mose. Georgia Governor James Oglethorpe invaded Florida with a sizable force, including Lower Creeks and Uchise Indian allies. Fort Mose inhabitants . . . — Map (db m126968) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — British EnslavementFort Mose Historic State Park
Once in English Carolina, the enslaved Africans were forced into labor and had no legal standing and few rights. Africans labored on indigo plantations, and as lumbermen and cattlemen. They produced materials for shipbuilding and cleared . . . — Map (db m126965) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — British Quarters
During the American Revolution, St. Augustine was a base for British military activity in the South. The English added second floors in this and other rooms to make more space for storage and quarters. — Map (db m46536) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — CannonCañones
Although the Castillo's high walls and moat were a substantial obstacle to anyone trying to capture the fort, the cannon here on the gundeck (or terreplein) were the were the real strength of the fort. With a range of over a mile, the cannon could . . . — Map (db m46346) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Canova-Dow and Canova-de Medicis HousesTerritorial Period, Built ca. 1840
These two buildings, at 42 and 46 Bridge Street, are among the few Territorial Period buildings left in the city which represent the time period between 1821 and 1845. Antonio Canova purchased the property and built these structures for his sons. . . . — Map (db m111551) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Canova-Prince Murat HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1815
Building patterns were influenced by the royal decree of 1573 to situate buildings and walls along the street edge for defensive purposes. The Prince Murat house is one of the remaining Spanish Colonial buildings and is significant for its . . . — Map (db m108318) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Casa AveroSt. Photios — National Greek Orthodox Shrine
Built 1749 - Restored 1979This shrine is dedicated to the memory of the 400 Greeks who arrived in St. Augustine in 1768, took on fresh supplies, then journeyed south to help settle the colony of New Smyrna, Florida. After ten difficult years, the . . . — Map (db m46789) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Casa de Nicolas de OrtegaArmourer
Built ca. 1740 Reconstructed 1967 A house representative of the first Spanish period with minor British modifications. The reconstruction of this residence was made possible from contributions of A.D. Davis and J.E. Davis Winn Dixie . . . — Map (db m107554) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Casa Horruytiner
Pedro Horruytiner y Pueyo was the first documented owner of this house, a member of a prominent Spanish family. Don Pedro Benedit Horruytiner and Don Luis de Horruytiner were governors of Florida during the First Spanish Period (1565-1763). It . . . — Map (db m111752) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Cast Iron Gun
. . . — Map (db m46814) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Castillo de San MarcosNational Historic Civil Engineering Landmark
National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark American Society of Civil Engineers 1852 Castillo de San Marcos ASCE 1976Map (db m127741) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Castillo de San MarcosCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Castillo de San Marcos (English) Explore the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States. For hundreds of years Castillo de San Marcos has watched over St. Augustine. From the upper gun deck, see how this massive fort guarded . . . — Map (db m127753) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
This Spanish fort, begun in 1672, stood firm against English attacks and helped Spain to hold Florida for many years. During the American Revolution it was a British stronghold. Later it became a U.S. Military Prison. — Map (db m127652) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
This Spanish fort, begun in 1672, stood firm against English attacks and helped Spain to hold Florida for many years. During the American Revolution, it was a British stronghold. Later it became a battery in the U.S. coastal defense system. — Map (db m127654) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Cathedral Basillica of St. AugustineSecond Spanish Period, Built 1793-1797
The Cathedral Basilica is a significant structure representing the oldest Roman Catholic parish in the United States, architectural designs by Mariano de la Rocque (1797) and James Renwick (following an 1887 fire), and the successes of historic . . . — Map (db m112492) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Chain GangsThe Convict Lease System
Following the Civil War and the reconstruction period the state of Florida found itself in debt. As a way to offset some of the state’s expenditures, newly elected governor George Drew put into practice the convict leasing system in 1877. . . . — Map (db m79584) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Chapel of St. MarkCapilla de San Marcos
In time of danger, the chapel was a spiritual haven for both soldiers and townspeople. Before the altar, the priest offered mass. The walls were white, with a red band at floor level. The holy water fonts are still in place. — Map (db m46538) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Closing the Door / Protegiendo el accesoFort Matanzas National Monument
Closing the Door (English) The Spanish built Fort Matanzas to protect the southern approach to St. Augustine. Spanish ships from Cuba used this waterway to resupply the town during the 1740 British siege. After the siege, they built this . . . — Map (db m127495) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Cofradia Site Coquina Wellca. 1614-1657
The 1990 excavation of this coquina block well revealed furniture fragments from the 1600s, a rarity among St. Augustine's artifacts. Most likely, the well was built in the early 1600s and filled quickly about 1670 with household items from a . . . — Map (db m93269) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Coquina - Foundation of St. Augustine
Wooden Buildings Offered Little Protection Founded in 1565, St. Augustine suffered Indian attacks, pirate raids, and military invasions. Within the first hundred years, nine wooden forts were burned, destroyed by storms, or had simply rotted . . . — Map (db m127408) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Coquina in These WallsCoquina en Estas Paredes
Coquina in these Walls (English) Special to the architecture of Government House and St. Augustine's defenses, churches, and residences is coquina, a rare native shell stone formed over a long period of geological time and quarried since . . . — Map (db m127486) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Cordova Hotel/County Courthouse
Designed and built by Franklin W. Smith, the Casa Monica Hotel opened in January 1888. The medieval Spanish style structure was one of the earliest multi-storied buildings in the United States constructed of poured concrete. In April 1888, Henry M. . . . — Map (db m129656) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Covered WayCamino Cubierto
The man-made hill around the fort, called the glacis (gla'sis), "covers" or protects this area from enemy fire. Capturing a fort's covered way usually involved a bloody assault. — Map (db m46548) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Crumbling Coquina / Piedra frágilFort Matanzas National Monument
Crumbling Coquina (English) Fort Matanzas was built using coquina, a local limestone. This porous limestone is made from millions of seashells pressed together for thousands of years. The Spanish coated the fort walls with plaster . . . — Map (db m127498) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Crumbling Coquina / Piedra frágilCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Crumbling Coquina (English) Castillo de San Marcos was built using coquina, a local limestone. This porous limestone is made from millions of seashells pressed together for thousands of years. The Spanish coated the fort walls . . . — Map (db m127745) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Dade Pyramids
These three pyramids cover vaults containing the individually unidentified remains of 1468 soldiers of the Florida Indian Wars 1835-1842 The Florida Indian Wars began with the murder of an Indian agent at Fort King on December 25, 1835. . . . — Map (db m77411) HM WM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-592 — Davis Shores
Until the 1920s the northwest corner of Anastasia Island was a swampy lowland with occasional peaks of high ground. In 1925, wealthy Florida land developer D.P. Davis purchased the lowlands and raised them in a massive 1,500 acre dredge and fill . . . — Map (db m47390) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Deadly Crossfire / Fuego CruzadoCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Deadly Crossfire (English) The Spanish built the star-shaped Castillo de San Marcos in the late-1600s. The star design responded to the advent of a deadly new weapon: the cannon. The fort's complex shape meant a battery of cannons on the . . . — Map (db m127750) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Defense in Depth / Capas de defensasCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Defense in Depth (English) Enemy troops would have encountered an obstacle course of rising slopes, low walls, and ditches before reaching the Castillo's walls. The Spanish built this extensive defensive system to help protect the fort. . . . — Map (db m127289) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Don Pedro Menéndez de Aviles1519 - 1574
(Front):Illustrious son of Aviles, Spain Governor and Captain General, Conquistador, Adelantado in Perpetuity of Florida. Founded St. Augustine September 8, 1565 * * * * * * * * * * Statue was a gift of the people of the city of Aviles, . . . — Map (db m47053) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Don Toledo/Gaspar Papy HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1803-1817
Following the typical model of Spanish Colonial site planning, this structure is situated on the street edge and features coquina stone construction with a protective stucco finish. The exposed fireplace is a reminder of another structure that was . . . — Map (db m108056) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-107 — Dr. Peck House
The stone walls of this building date from before 1750 and were part of a house owned by the Royal Treasurer late in the First Spanish Period. During the British Period it served for a time as the home of Governor John Moultrie. In 1837 Dr. Seth S. . . . — Map (db m46797) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — El Pueblo de Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de MoseFort Mose Historic State Park
Great Seal of the State of Florida:"In God We Trust" On the shore of Robinson Creek, ¼ mile east of this marker, was the site of a Spanish mission for Indians left homeless during Queen Anne's War. Since 1688, Negro slaves . . . — Map (db m126969) HM WM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Elk's Rest100 Washington Street — Lincolnville
Fountain of Youth Lodge No. 649, Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World and Pride of Fountain of Youth Temple No. 413. Completed in November 1958. This lodge, called Elks Rest, was at the early center of political and . . . — Map (db m77259) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Engulfed in Flames / Devorada por las llamasCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Engulfed in Flames (English) Spanish soldiers watch in horror as English troops set fire to their homes. They are helpless. The drawbridges are up. The soldier-settlers and their families are sheltered within the crowded fortress. Except . . . — Map (db m127748) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Escape & FlightFort Mose Historic State Park
In 1693, Spain’s King Charles II proclaimed that any English slave who reached Spanish Florida would be granted freedom upon converting to Catholicism. By sea and land, Africans fled to St. Augustine on a dangerous journey with a strong . . . — Map (db m126966) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Espinosa-Sanchez HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1702-1756
One of the few Spanish Colonial buildings remaining in St. Augustine and among a smaller group from the First Spanish Period, this structure suffered two fires and underwent many major alterations. The first documented property owner, and possible . . . — Map (db m111252) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — EvacuationFort Mose Historic State Park
Spain ceded Florida to England in 1763, and Mose residents departed with other colonists for Cuba. During Fort Mose's final years, life on the frontier grew more difficult. Constant attacks by English and Indian raiding parties drove Mose . . . — Map (db m126971) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-595 — Evergreen Cemetery
Established in 1886 outside the city limits when St. Augustine closed its small urban graveyards due to overcrowding. Evergreen became the region's largest Protestant cemetery of the late 1800s and early 1900s. The design was strongly influenced by . . . — Map (db m73842) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Father Miguel O'Reilly HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1690-1763
A tabby interior wall provides evidence that a portion of this building remains from the First Spanish Period before coquina stone construction took its place. Tabby was a form of construction that produced a cement slurry with an aggregate of . . . — Map (db m107452) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fernandez-Llambias House
This house was already extant in 1763, when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. It was then a one-story, two-room, shingle-roofed coquina stone structure owned by Pedro Fernandez. A British owner added the loggia. In 1784, when the Spanish . . . — Map (db m77290) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Firing StepsBanquetas
After loading their muskets, the soldiers mounted these steps to fire over the parapet at the enemy. — Map (db m46512) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — First Baptist Church of St. Augustine89 St. Francis Street — "Lincolnville"
Established in 1872 through the efforts of Mrs. Hannah Jordan, a devoutly Christian sojourner who, like its first pastor, Rev. Father C. Felder, believed in leading by the example of hard work. The church has flourished at this location—since . . . — Map (db m77291) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-848 — First Spanish Muster Site in Florida
The first muster of Spanish militiamen in the newly-established presidio (fortified encampment) of St. Augustine took place in September of 1565. During the onset of the San Mateo hurricane Adelantado Pedro Menendez de Aviles assembled 500 regular . . . — Map (db m92865) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-223 — Flagler Memorial Presbyterian Church
St. Augustine had no Protestant church when it became an American town in 1821. At first a united Protestant church was favored. Many denominations sent missionaries such as Presbyterian Eleazer Lathrop, who first arrived in 1821. By October, . . . — Map (db m106338) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — FloridaThe Sunshine State
Colonized by Spaniards, 1559 • Site of first settlement in U.S., 1565 • Acquired by U.S. from Spain, 1819 • Admitted as 27th state, 1845 • Now nation's fastest growing state • 1963 population 5,639,900 • State song ~ "Old Folks at Home" • State Bird . . . — Map (db m5999) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-636 — Florida East Coast Railway - General Office Buildings
Henry M. Flagler built the Florida East Coast Railway (FEC) to link his resort empire and establish the east coast of Florida as “The American Riviera.” Flagler, partner with John D. Rockefeller in Standard Oil, developed the Atlantic . . . — Map (db m77255) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Florida Memorial University
Founded 1879—Live Oak, Florida Jacksonville, Florida—1892-1918 St. Augustine, Florida—1918-1968 Miami Gardens, Florida—1968-Present Students of Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College, in the early 1960s . . . — Map (db m67672) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Former St. Johns County JailACCORD Freedom Trail
This building, designed by architect F. A. Hollingsworth, opened in 1953 as the St. Johns County Jail, replacing an earlier jail building on San Marco Avenue that subsequently became a tourist attraction. A decade later, this building played a . . . — Map (db m40728) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort Marion
In 1821, the United States assumed control of Florida and federal troops occupied the fort. It was renamed Ft. Marion, for the Revolutionary war hero Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox." In order to modernize the fort's defensives, the east portion of . . . — Map (db m46542) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort Matanzas National Monument
The Spanish built Fort Matanzas in 1740-42 to control Matanzas inlet, the "back door" to St. Augustine. Much earlier, in 1565, Spain had bloodily crushed here a French challenge to her control of Florida by killing the remnants of a French colony . . . — Map (db m127607) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort MoseFort Mose Historic State Park
All that remains of Fort Mose is underground - on the island before you, and in the surrounding salt marsh. Working together, archaeologists and historians have pieced together the story of Fort Mose using historic documents, maps, aerial . . . — Map (db m126972) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort Mose IFort Mose Historic State Park
In 1738, after more than 100 runaways arrived from Carolina, the Spanish governor established Fort Mose. As Africans continued to flee Carolina, frontier skirmishes between the English, Spanish, and their Native American allies threatened . . . — Map (db m126967) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort Mose IIFort Mose Historic State Park
Twelve years after the Bloody Mose battle, Mose residents returned to the frontier and constructed a second fort and community. Mose's fort, houses, and surrounding fields were destroyed during the siege of St. Augustine. From 1740-1752, . . . — Map (db m126970) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fortress Facelift / Nuevo dueño, obras nuevasCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Fortress Facelift (English) Through treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1821. Built to defend the city, the Castillo remained a defensive post when ownership changed. Renamed Fort Marion, the Americans made the Castillo . . . — Map (db m127738) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-637 — Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park
The Fountain of Youth Park commemorates the 1513 arrival of Juan Ponce de Leon in Florida and the legend of the Fountain of Youth. People have lived on this site for over 3,000 years, since the Archaic Period of Florida’s history. In 1565 . . . — Map (db m79574) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Four Centuries----Five Flags
Spaniards first settled Florida permanently at the site of St. Augustine in 1565. They raised their vivid red and white flag to establish possession of the land for their king. The Spanish flag flew over the little garrison town for 235 years, . . . — Map (db m112507) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Frederick Douglass
On this site, where the "Genovar Opera House" once stood, Frederick Douglass spoke to the residents of St. Augustine on Sunday, April 7, 1889. Born into slavery in 1818, Douglass rose in the pre-Civil War years to become a leading exponent of the . . . — Map (db m46795) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Fuente de los Caños de San Francisco
The set of masks that decorate this fountain was a gift to the City of St. Augustine by its sister city in Spain, the City of Avilés, birthplace of Pedro Menéndez, founder of St. Augustine in 1565. Presented in 2005 to the people of St. Augustine . . . — Map (db m46680) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-954 — Fullerwood Park Historic District
Fullerwood Park reflects multiple periods of housing growth for St. Augustine's middle class. The district exhibits design characteristics from the periods of World War I, the 1920s Florida land boom, and post-World War II. The district, featuring . . . — Map (db m110519) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Garcia-Dummett HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1791, enlarged 1888
The house was built as a residence for Gaspar Garcia and Spanish characteristics are still evident including how the building relates to the street edge and the coquina stone building material protected under a stucco finish. Later, a third floor . . . — Map (db m108143) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Gault StreetACCORD Freedom Trail
Gault Street was one of the historically black residential streets in North City. Many residents worked at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Fountain of Youth, laundries and ice plants that were once located in the area. Three . . . — Map (db m7580) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — General Biassou House
Here on this site, 42 St. George Street, stood the home of the nation's first Black general, Jorge Biassou, who came to St. Augustine from his native Haiti in 1796 as an officer of the Spanish military. Biassou was one of the original leaders . . . — Map (db m70944) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-311 — Gonzalez-Alvarez House(The Oldest House)
For more than three centuries this site has been occupied by St. Augustinians. Beginning about 1650, a succession of thatched wooden structures were their homes. This coquina stone house was built soon after the English burned St. Augustine in 1702, . . . — Map (db m77288) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — González-Alvarez HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1727, enlarged after 1763
This building is significant because of the site's early Spanish Colonial history and architectural features that represent both Spanish periods and the British period. A significant restoration based in archaeological, documentary and physical . . . — Map (db m112506) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Government House and the PlazaCasa Gubernamental y la Plaza
Government House & Plaza (English) St. Augustine's Plaza is the city's heart and soul. Dominating the west end of the Plaza since the 16th century, with a view of all activities on the Plaza and in the harbor, the Governor's House was . . . — Map (db m127546) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Government House: Changing of the GuardCasa Gubernmental: Cambio de la Guardia
Government House: Changing of the Guard (English) Until 1763, the Governor's House was Spanish Florida's capitol. When Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain, the British governors of East Florida made Governor's House their official . . . — Map (db m128190) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Government House: Legacy of AuthorityCasa Gubernamental: Legado de Autoridad
Government House: Legacy of Authority (English) Government House is a landmark in the history of our nation's government. From the 16th century, a building on this site served as an administrative center — as official governor's . . . — Map (db m127476) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Government House: National SignificanceCasa Gubernamental: Significado Nacional
Government House: National Significance (English) Government House is nationally significant as the first known Federal government restoration of a historic building to accommodate modern governmental functions. Today's Government House . . . — Map (db m127484) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-295 — Grace United Methodist Church
Grace United Methodist Church is a reminder of the tremendous physical impact Henry M. Flagler had on St. Augustine. This complex of structures resulted from a compromise between Flagler and the congregation of Olivet Church. That group of northern . . . — Map (db m47060) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Grace United Methodist ChurchFlagler Era, Built 1887
Designed by New York architecture firm Carrere and Hastings in the Spanish Renaissance Revival style, the building is an example of Henry Flagler's influence on the built environment of St. Augustine. Furthermore, the poured concrete construction . . . — Map (db m112511) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Guarding the Back Door / Vigilando dos entradasCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Guarding the Back Door (English) The Spanish built the Castillo de San Marcos along the winding, shallow channel of the Matanzas River. Any ships entering the inlet faced the fort head on, unable to deploy their guns broadside. The . . . — Map (db m127749) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Henry M. Flagler1830 - 1913
Builder of the Florida East Coast Railway The Ponce de Leon Hotel (Flagler College) and the Hotel Alcazar (The Lightner Museum) in St. Augustine. This bronze statue was installed to recognize his achievements in developing the State of . . . — Map (db m126120) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Historic Shrine of Our Lady of La LecheBuilt 1915
Mission Nombre de Dios featured a stone chapel of La Leche as early as 1702. That chapel was damaged and subsequently dismantled, rebuilt, and destroyed in 1728. Another reconstruction was undertaken in 1875 by Bishop Augustin Verot that was . . . — Map (db m111215) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Hotel AlcazarFlagler Era, Built 1887-1889
The Hotel Alcazar was constructed by Henry Flagler, Standard Oil Company co-founder and developer of the Florida East Coast Railway. The Alcazar was part of a trio of Moorish and Spanish Renaissance Revival styled resorts that depicted Flagler's . . . — Map (db m112489) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Huguenot Cemetery
Before Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821, this land was owned by Spain. In 1807 parcels of land to the north of the city gate were granted to residents interested in farming. However, as a defense measure, Governor Enrique White set out a . . . — Map (db m46704) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Indian Prisoners
The fort was a prison for several hundred Plains Indians in 1875-78 (Comanche, Kiowa, Arapahoes, and Cheyenne) and in 1886-87 (Chiricahua Apaches). Originally confined in these casemates, they were soon moved to the terreplein to live in wooden . . . — Map (db m46535) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Invincible? / ¿Invencible?Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
(English) Invincible? After marching through miles of wilderness, the Castillo is within sight, seemingly close. But can it be taken? A treacherous obstacle course of rising slopes (glacis), low walls (covered way), and a . . . — Map (db m127742) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — It Begins / Ya comienzaCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
It Begins (English) After days of watching the British prepare, bursts of smoke signal their attack from Anastasia Island. The sentry in the San Carlos watchtower in front of you yells and rings the bell. His quick action alerts the . . . — Map (db m127744) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Juan Ponce De Leon
The Discoverer of Florida Juan Ponce de Leon landed near this spot 1513 Reverse:Presented to the City of St. Augustine by Andrew Anderson, M.D. 1923 — Map (db m19432) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — King's BakeryBritish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1782
This is the only known building with its origin in the British Period that exists in St. Augustine. Until Marine Street was developed, the Bakery was contiguous with the St. Francis Barracks property. The British converted and expanded the Spanish . . . — Map (db m112509) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-591 — King's Road
The British laid the original route for King's Road between 1772 and 1775 in an effort to encourage settlement into this area. Extending from St. Mary's, Georgia to Andrew Turnbull's Minorcan colony at New Smyrna, King's Road intersects Palencia . . . — Map (db m47650) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — La Florida's El Camino Real
In the 1600s, Spanish Florida's Royal Road connected St. Augustine with the missions of North Florida.

From the time St. Augustine was established in 1565, Spanish military and religious authorities began extending their reach beyond the town . . . — Map (db m101066) HM

Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — La NecesariaThe Necessary
These two rooms were used as latrines. From the Spanish plan of 1763. — Map (db m127655) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Lighthouse and Keepers HouseLighthouse built 1871-1874, House built 1876
The St. Augustine Lighthouse began as a Spanish watchtower and is St. Augustine’s oldest brick structure. Rare proof exists of African Americans on site during its construction. The 1876 house includes an uncommon coquina basement that stored . . . — Map (db m126958) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-353 — Lincolnville Historic District
Once the site of Indian Villages, colonial plantations and orange groves, Lincolnville began as a settlement of emancipated slaves in 1866. African-Americans, who trace their origins to the City's 16th century founding, played an integral role in . . . — Map (db m102736) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Lines of DefenseLineas de Defensa
Surrounding defenses made St. Augustine a walled town. From here you can see a reconstructed part of the Cubo Line, the log wall which barred the land approach. It extended from the fort, past the City Gate, to the San Sebastián River. — Map (db m46509) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Llambias HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1763, enlarged by 1788
This building is significant for its Spanish and British Colonial architectural influences and in 1954 became one of the first examples of a private residence to undergo a documented restoration. Characteristics of the "St. Augustine Plan" of . . . — Map (db m108073) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Los FloridanosFlorida's First European Families 1565-1763
"Los Floridanos" referred to the children born to the Spanish settlers of St. Augustine during the First Spanish Period (1565-1763). Translated it means "The Floridians" and record of this title can be found in many Spanish Government documents, . . . — Map (db m46633) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-434 — Major Dade and His Command Monuments
On December 28, 1835, during the Second Seminole War, a column of 108 U.S. Army soldiers dispatched from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to relieve the detachment at Fort King (Ocala) was surprised by a strong force of Seminole Indians near Bushnell in Sumter . . . — Map (db m77413) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Marin HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1791-1799
Coquina stone was quarried on Anastasia Island for use as a construction material, and after the Castillo was completed the material became widely used for private homes as a superior alternative to wood frame construction. Francisco Marin, a . . . — Map (db m111550) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Markland
Markland, the Anderson family home, has been a local landmark since 1843. Dr. Andrew Anderson, a prominent civic leader, laid the foundations of the coquina shellstone house in 1839 just before his death in a yellow fever epidemic. The original . . . — Map (db m77212) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Massacre by MenendezFort Matanzas National Monument
Massacre by Menendez of Ribault and his men September 1565 — Map (db m127496) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Matanzas BayBahia de Matanzas
On this shore in 1586, Sir Francis Drake burned San Agustín and a new wooden fort called San Juan. In 1668, John Davis, an English corsair, sacked the town and almost captured its wooden fort. Many other pirates, seeking Spanish treasure ships, were . . . — Map (db m46202) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Middle PassageFort Mose Historic State Park
During the 18th century, thousands of enslaved Africans faced starvation, torture, and even death on their journey to the Americas, a voyage known as the middle passage. What was the Middle Passage? The Middle Leg of a 3-part Voyage: . . . — Map (db m126964) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-111 — Mission Nombre de Dios
On this site, September 8, 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés landed with a band of settlers to found St. Augustine, first permanent Christian settlement in the United States. Father Francisco López de Mendoza Grajales, Spanish diocesan Priest, offered . . . — Map (db m47569) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Mission Nombre de Dios
In this vicinity, on September 8, 1565, having arrived with Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and Spanish citizens, Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales led the first parish mass in what is now the United States of America. At a makeshift rustic . . . — Map (db m80699) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Mission of Nuestra Señora del Rosario de La Punta
From the late 1720s to the early 1750s the green space just beyond this wall was the site of the church and cemetery for the mission community of La Punta (FL Site #8SJ94). This mission was home to refugee Yamassee and Apalachee Indians who had fled . . . — Map (db m92980) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Multi-Use Moat / ¿Un foso sin agua?Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Multi-Use Moat (English) It smells and sounds like a farmyard. Mooing cows, ducking chickens, and snorting pigs are penned in the moat. The 1702 British siege made staying in town dangerous. Townspeople moved into the fort for . . . — Map (db m127746) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-911 — Nelmar Terrace Historic District
The Nelmar Terrace area has been the site of portions of a Timucuan Indian village, a plantation under British Governor James Grant in the 1770s, and parcels of Spanish land grants after 1784. From 1844-1869 the area was the southern part of the . . . — Map (db m100892) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Nine Mile Road
Nine Mile Road was so named because its early eastern terminus at the Kings Road, built in 1775, near U.S. Highway Number 1, is nine miles north of St. Augustine. Between the terminus of Nine Mile Road at the Kings Road and State Road Number . . . — Map (db m67695) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Northern Defense Lines
. . . — Map (db m46451) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Nuestra Señora de la SoledadOur Lady of Solitude, Church and Hospital
On this site, Spanish colonists built the chapel of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad shortly after 1572. A hospital was attached in 1597, thus becoming the first hospital in the continental United States. In 1687 the chapel was . . . — Map (db m108377) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Nuestra Señora de los RemediosOur Lady of Remedies
On this site, the City Archaeology Program uncovered remains of the west wall of the late 16th century church, Los Remedios, which served as the parish church of St. Augustine from 1572 until 1702. Burned by Francis Drake in 1586 and . . . — Map (db m93381) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Officers' Quarters
The houses on this post are known as the Officers' Quarters. St. Francis Barracks commanding officer from 1875 to 1883, Brevet Brig. Gen. Frederick Dent, lobbied for this construction. Dent allegedly asked First Lady Julia Dent Grant, his sister, to . . . — Map (db m131196) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-242 — Old Spanish Chimney and Well
These ruins are all that remain of what was probably a Spanish barracks which housed the quarry overseer, master masons, and stonecutters who were involved in the construction of the Castillo de San Marcos. The quarry, located directly across the . . . — Map (db m106439) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-229 — Old Spanish Quarries(Anastasia Island)
About 200 yards south-east of this point are the remains of the King's Coquina Quarries. (Coquina, a type of limestone composed of mollusk shells and sand, is found along the north-east coast of Florida.) Coquina was used in the building of many . . . — Map (db m28361) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Old Spanish Trail Zero Milestone
Old Spanish Trail Zero Milestone St. Augustine Fla. to San Diego Calif. — Map (db m39787) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Old World Showdown / Reyes y feFort Matanzas National Monument
Old World Showdown (English) One of the first colonial conflicts between European nations happened near here in 1565. Spain had already claimed Florida when France established Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville. This . . . — Map (db m127497) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Oliveros House
Built c. 1798 by Sebastian Oliveros, a Corsican mariner and trader. This historic house was reconstructed by L.C. Ringhaver in 1965. — Map (db m102362) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-729 — Orange Street School
St. Augustine High and Grade School opened in October 1910, with an enrollment of more than 400 students in grades 1-12. The new public school, billed locally as "the finest in Florida," was the inspiration of W.S.M. Pinkham, Mayor of St. Augustine . . . — Map (db m93383) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Our Lady of La Leche
The present chapel is the fourth building on this foundation. Erected first by 1615 this Shrine of Our Lady fell victim three times—to war, pirates and storms. The last reconstruction began in 1918. The devotion to Our Lady of La Leche . . . — Map (db m111216) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Peña-Peck HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1750
Three major phases of town growth are depicted in this house. The first phase is represented in the first floor's L-shaped plan of coquina during the First Spanish Period, the second is an eastern wing built in the British Period, and the final is . . . — Map (db m102382) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Pirate Attacks
Before the construction of the Castillo, the people of St. Augustine were periodically raided by pirates. Since the town was never prosperous anyway, the loss of what little there was meant hard times and near starvation for all. — Map (db m46200) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Plaza de la Constitución
The oldest public space in America, the plaza was laid out by Spanish Royal Ordinances in 1573. Its Constitution Monument may be the only remaining monument in the Western Hemisphere celebrating the Spanish Constitution of 1812. The Ordinances . . . — Map (db m46801) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Plaza-Courtyard
There were several attempts to capture St. Augustine. Twice (1683 and 1702) the townspeople fled to these walls for protection. — Map (db m46532) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-240 — Ponce de Leon Hotel
The magnificent structure was erected between 1885 and 1887 by Henry M. Flagler, the hotel and railroad magnate whose activities contributed greatly to the development of Florida's eastern coastal area. Designed by the New York architectural firm . . . — Map (db m5994) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Prisoners of War in St. Augustine During the American Revolution
From the onset of the American Revolution in 1775, the British Crown Colony in East Florida was a Loyalist bastion. In its capital, St. Augustine, the British lodged as prisoners many American Patriots and their French allies. Most of these . . . — Map (db m46802) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-117 — Public Burying Ground
During the yellow fever epidemic of 1821, this half-acre plot was set aside as a public cemetery. Many Protestant pioneers to the new Florida Territory are buried here. Often such burials, made at public expense, went unmarked. The Presbyterian . . . — Map (db m46703) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Public Market Place
The first public market was established in this Plaza by Governor Mendez de Canzo in 1598. Here, for the first time a standard system of weights and measures was introduced in this country for the protection of the consumer. On this site a market . . . — Map (db m46816) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Public Well
The well was used from 1823 to the early 1880's. The remnants lay buried and forgotten until city of St. Augustine public works employees discovered the well, with assistance from the St. Augustine Archaeological Association, while renovating the . . . — Map (db m46811) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — RampRampa
This stairway, probably constructed between 1752 and 1756, replaced a smooth incline used to haul guns to the top of the fort. — Map (db m46199) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Reading the Cannon / Claves de cañonesCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Reading the Cannon (English) Every Spanish bronze cannon and mortar has its own story. Each was individually cast, so by examining the engraved lettering and scrollwork, you can discover its origins and the Castillo's ties to Spain. Read . . . — Map (db m127747) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Record Building (Cordova Apartments)Built 1906, addition 1924
This building housed the local newspaper for one hundred years and is important for its association with Florida's first independent female editor Nina Hawkins. Architecturally, it is significant for the Italian Renaissance Revival design. Prominent . . . — Map (db m111553) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-858 — Remnant of Rodriguez Arsian House
These low stone walls are the remnants of a building constructed during the First Spanish Period (1513-1763) from native rock known as coquina. The building belonged to Antonio Rodriquez Arsian, a soldier whose family lived in St. Augustine for . . . — Map (db m100740) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Reverend Goldie M. Eubanks(Anointed Leader) — 172 Palmo Street, Lincolnville
Home of Rev. Goldie M. Eubanks, Senior, his wife Hattie and nine children. Humbled by Family and Fatherhood, Leadership and Christian Fellowship, and driven by a cry from within his inner soul to make this world a better place, this self-styled . . . — Map (db m7080) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Robert L. Ripley
Robert L. Ripley was an internationally famous artist, writer, radio personality, movie maker, and world explorer. Mr. Ripley visited over 200 countries, and during his travels amassed an eclectic collection of artifacts, curiosities and . . . — Map (db m93169) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Rodriguez-Avero-Sanchez House(An Original House)
Fernando Rodriguez, sergeant in the Spanish Army at the Castillo de San Marcos Fort, built his house on this site during the first Spanish occupation (1565-1763). In 1760, he commissioned Juan Perez, Master Builder, to add the northeast coquina room . . . — Map (db m102365) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Rodriquez-Avero-Sanchez HouseFirst Spanish Colonial Period, Built prior to 1761
This house is a significant example of the evolution of Spanish Colonial dwelling which began as a small, wooden, single-room Spanish domicile. An expanded ground floor built with coquina stone and a second wood floor with dormers was added prior to . . . — Map (db m102366) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Rosario RedoubtUncovered in 2008
Below here lies a segment of the foundation for the Rosario Redoubt, an eight-foot tall masonry fortification constructed in 1762 along the Rosario Line, which formed a part of the colonial city defensive system. — Map (db m70533) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — S.D.W. Smith, Ancient City, Mt. Horeb #20545 King Street "New Augustine"
This Masonic Lodge, built in 1947 with George Morgan as Worshipful Master, was originally organized in 1925 and represents a merger (in 1984) of Prince Hall Lodges—S.D.W. Smith No. 481, Ancient City No. 26, and Mt. Horeb No. 20. This facility . . . — Map (db m76918) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Safe Haven / Refugio seguroCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
English: Safe Haven Farmers bring crops and food from their fields surrounding the town. Open for trade during the day, but locked up at night, this city gate is the entrance to early 1800s civilization. Here in St. . . . — Map (db m128083) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Saint AugustineFirst Permanent European/African/Native American Settlement on U.S. Mainland.
Beginning in the early 1500s and continuing for more than three centuries, about 12 million African were transported across the Atlantic Ocean into slavery, in what has come to be known as the Middle Passage—the largest forced migration in . . . — Map (db m80700) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Sanchez House
This house was built circa 1809 by Francis Xavier Sanchez and his wife, Mary Hill of Charleston, lately of Virginia. That is the probable reason for the English colonial interior rather than the usual Spanish. This house was retouched for posterity . . . — Map (db m46790) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Sanchez-Burt HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built 1816-1829
Historic records indicate that in 1816 a wooden structure occupied this property and by 1829 it was replaced with this prominent two-story coquina stone structure. Concerted efforts to preserve this structure began during the preservation movement . . . — Map (db m102380) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Santo Domingo RedoubtThe Defensive System of Colonial St. Augustine
Following the 1702 English siege of St. Augustine, the Spanish began construction of a system of peripheral fortifications to protect the town based on the principle of defense-in-depth. Between 1704-1821, the Spanish completed the outworks of the . . . — Map (db m46580) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Santo Domingo RedoubtCartography of the Presidio de San Agustin de la Florida
Historians and archaeologists consulted Colonial and Territorial Period documents to locate the site of the Santo Domingo Redoubt, which was also referred to at various times as the Tolomato Redoubt. Archeological excavations of the Santo Domingo . . . — Map (db m46581) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Santo Domingo RedoubtArchaeology
In 1704, following the English siege of 1702, the Spanish built the Cubo Line to protect the town's northern sector. In the 1730s, they rebuilt the line in anticipation of an English attack from Georgia. In 1808, a time of upheaval in the Spanish . . . — Map (db m46609) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Santo Domingo RedoubtGarrison Life in 1808
The Infantry Regiment of Cuba was formed in 1786-1789 as a result of Spanish military reforms introduced in the second half of the 1700s. The Regiment consisted of three battalions. The First and Second Battalions were assigned to Havana and . . . — Map (db m46631) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Saving the Seawall / Salvando el malecónCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Saving the Seawall (English) Hurricanes, waves, and rain have weakened the fort's historic 1840s seawall. In 2011, the National Park Service created a living seawall using coquina boulders. Silt filling the space between the two . . . — Map (db m127740) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Segui-Kirby Smith HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1790
The two-story coquina stone structure was built prior to 1800 to replace a two-story structure that had a rubble masonry first floor and wood frame second floor. Typical of Spanish Colonial site planning, the building is constructed on the street . . . — Map (db m112493) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-110 — Sentinels of the Coast
Since early times, coastal towers were important in the defense of St. Augustine. From the wooden lookout here in 1586, Spanish sentries warned of approaching English raiders under Sir Francis Drake. Later the tower was built of stone. It served . . . — Map (db m47391) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Sentry BoxGarita
It enabled the sentry to watch outside the fort to the front and sides, and sheltered him from weather and enemy fire. These turrets were red against the white walls of the fort. You can help save the remaining red plaster by not touching it. — Map (db m46514) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Shiloh Missionary Baptist Church271 W. King Street — New Augustine
This spiritual and civic citadel was established in 1929 with Rev. R.H. Whittaker as spiritual leader, and Chairman of the Board of Deacons, D.P. Mims. This church, the gateway to New Augustine, experienced phenomenal growth under the inspired . . . — Map (db m77284) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Sisters of St. Joseph - Florida Motherhouse
October 15, 1650 - Sisters of St. Joseph are founded in Le Puy-en-Velay, France September 2, 1866 - First colony of eight Sisters from Le Puy reach Picolata Landing on the St. Johns River on their journey to St. Augustine January 15, . . . — Map (db m126652) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Sizzling Salvo / Al rojo vivoCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Sizzling Salvo (English) The furnace fire is blazing hot. A team of soldiers prepares hot shot to fire at wooden warships — heating cannonballs until they glow. During a naval attack, one soldier tends the coal fire and loads the . . . — Map (db m127739) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Slave Market
From 1605 to 1765 there stood on this site a guard house and watch tower Under British rule it became the market and place of public auction ever since called the slave marketThis tablet authorized by the following committee appointed by the city . . . — Map (db m46818) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Solana HouseSecond Spanish Colonial Period, Built ca. 1805
The coquina stone, for construction of this and other Colonial structures in St. Augustine, was quarried on Anastasia Island and requires a stucco finish to protect the native shellstone from the elements. Several buildings are located on this site . . . — Map (db m111471) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-804 — Solla-Carcaba Cigar Factory
The Solla-Carcaba Cigar Factory, completed in 1909, is the last remnant in St. Augustine of the cigar industry, whose local origins date to the 1830s. Political unrest drove many Cuban cigar makers to Florida after 1868. Their numbers in St. . . . — Map (db m77391) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Solla-Carcaba Cigar FactoryBuilt 1909
This building is a significant example of St. Augustine's industrial heritage in cigar manufacturing at the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, the building represents a masonry vernacular style because of the use of local materials like the . . . — Map (db m111253) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — F-194 — Spanish Dragoon Barracks
A first Spanish period two-story coquina, shingle roofed structure, 33' x 19', erected on the east side of this lot became the barracks for the Spanish dragoons in 1792. Each story had two rooms. One upper room contained a rack for 20 muskets and 40 . . . — Map (db m47058) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Spanish Stronghold / Ciudadela españolaCastillo de San Marcos National Monument
Spanish Stronghold (English) Castillo de San Marcos symbolizes Spain's vast New World empire. Built between 1672 and 1695, the coquina fort replaced a series of wooden forts that had protected St. Augustine for more than 100 years. . . . — Map (db m128186) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Spreading the Wealth Since 1900The Modern Solution for the original “Dirty Job”!
You think your job is tough? Try being a manure spreader in the 1800s. Imagine the relief for farmers when the first practical manure spreader was introduced to the farm in 1900. It was developed and patented by Joseph . . . — Map (db m79592) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — St. Augustine Alligator FarmMain Building and Alligator Pen, Built 1937
The two original structures represent one of the oldest private zoos and continuously operated tourist attractions in Florida. Contemporary structures have filled in the property among the original Mediterranean Revival characteristics as the . . . — Map (db m111254) HM

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