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York County Virginia Historical Markers

 
Big Bethel Church and Cemetery Marker image, Touch for more information
By Bernard Fisher, July 20, 2013
Big Bethel Church and Cemetery Marker
Virginia (York County), Hampton — Big Bethel Church and Cemetery
Bethel Church moved to this location from Hampton in 1842. The original church built here—the third Bethel Church—was destroyed during the Civil War. The individuals interred here were members of the Big Bethel Baptist Church . . . — Map (db m66889) HM
Virginia (York County), Hampton — Big Bethel UDC Monument
Bethel 1861 To commemorate the Battle of Bethel, June 10, 1861. The first conflict between the Confederate and Federal land forces and in memory of Henry A. Wyatt, Private Co. A, 1st Regiment North Carolina Volunteers. The first Confederate . . . — Map (db m66888) WM
Virginia (York County), Seaford — NP-3 — Seaford
Settlement began here in 1636, when John Chisman patented 600 acres on Crab Neck, a peninsula bounded by Chisman Creek and Back Creek, a tributary of York River. The neck then lay in Charles River Parish in York County, one of the eight original . . . — Map (db m34010) HM
Virginia (York County), Williamsburg — A Union Advance
On May 5, 1862 Lt. George A Custer (who in 1876 made his “Last Stand” on the Little Bighorn River in Montana) led a detachment along the roadway here over “Cub Dam Creek” to occupy the Confederate work on the bluff . . . — Map (db m25794) HM
Virginia (York County), Williamsburg — W-41 — Patrick Napier, Colonial Surgeon
Nearby lived “Patrick Napier of Queenes Creek in the County of Yorke chirurgeon,” one of the earliest surgeons of Scottish descent in Virginia. Born about 1634, and apprenticed to the surgeon general of the Scottish army defeated by . . . — Map (db m73941) HM
Virginia (York County), Williamsburg — Redoubt 12Hancock the Superb — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
You are near the northern end of the Confederate defensive line built in 1861 to protect the eastern approach to Richmond. The “Williamsburg Line” stretched between the James and York rivers and consisted of fourteen forts, commonly . . . — Map (db m10373) HM
Virginia (York County), Williamsburg — W-46 — Vineyard Tract
Here was an experimental farm for the culture of grapes established by the Virginia government in 1769. On this tract stood a hospital of the French-American army, 1781. — Map (db m66920) HM
Virginia (York County), Williamsburg — W-45 — Whitaker's House
A mile north of the road is Whitaker's House, headquarters of General W. F. Smith, Battle of Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. — Map (db m9504) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — A Changed Scene
Most of the high ground around Yorktown was under cultivation in 1781. In the 1770’s the land in front of you was known as “General Nelson's Quarter”. Here and elsewhere houses that stood have crumbled away and, in many instances, woods . . . — Map (db m61592) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Agenois Encampment
The tents of the Regiment Agenois stretched to your right in 1781 with two other French regiments Gatinois and Touraine, beyond. These men, coming from the West Indies, wore linen uniforms, light for the “cold nights” of October in . . . — Map (db m11150) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — American Approach Road
The steep banks of this ravine gave American troops protection from British cannon fire as they moved up to build and man the siege lines. French troops used a similar cover to the west. — Map (db m90414) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — American Encampment1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The American troops encamped in a wood within a mile of the Enemy’s left line – and the French troops encamped on their right.” Lieutenant William Feltman, Pennsylvania Battalion, September 28, 1781 On September 28, . . . — Map (db m10862) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — American Field Hospital1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
I attended at the hospital, amputated a man’s arm, and assisted in dressing a number of wounds. Dr. James Thacher, October 1781 I hastened with all speed to the hospital … to procure another supply from Dr. Craik; and he desired that if . . . — Map (db m11068) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — An Archer House
Yorktown had a "great fire" in 1814. This destroyed all but the foundations of this house, thought to be one of Thomas Archer's "Houses under the Hill." The present restoration is the nineteeth century dwelling built on the older stone foundations. — Map (db m80986) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Aviation Field Yorktown
From July 1919 until August 1921, the U.S. Navy operated an aviation training school at the U.S. Navy Mine Depot, today’s Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. The school provided the first advanced aviation training for naval pilots in bomb, torpedo, and . . . — Map (db m64638) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Baron De Viomenil
This able French officer, who headquartered here, had heavy responsibilities. He directed the French army’s march to Virginia. He planned the assault on Redoubt 9. A decade after serving the cause of Revolution here, he met his death opposing it in . . . — Map (db m11146) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Baron Von Steuben
This general was experienced in siege warfare such as characterized the Yorktown battle and so he was invaluable to Washington. Von Steuben maintained headquarters here with his division of American troops. — Map (db m11121) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Beaver Dam Creek
This sluggish and marshy headwater of the Warwick River generally divided the French and American encampments. Although both forces were under Washington, separate unit organization was respected and preserved through the siege. — Map (db m61591) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Bellfield Plantation
The Bellfield house site and graveyard are located some 300 yards to the east. This was the home of two early Virginia governors, Captain John West in 1632 and Edward Digges who bought the property from West in 1650. Here Digges produced superior . . . — Map (db m39797) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Bourbonnois Brigade Encampment
French infantry troops at Yorktown were organized into three brigades. This brigade, some 1,800 soldiers and officers, was composed of the Bourbonnois and Deux Ponts regiments brought from New York by Rochambeau. — Map (db m90959) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — British Inner Defense Line1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The town was … surrounded by a ditch and thick parapet, having a horn work in the centre, in … which were batteries lined with facines. The parapet ran to the river on the left … The parapet was formed of trees cut in the woods and placed . . . — Map (db m10658) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Brotherhood PreservedColonial National Historic Park
A few weeks before his resignation as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, December 4, 1783, Washington said farewell to his officers: “With a heart full of love and gratitude, I now take my leave of you.”   But the . . . — Map (db m10910) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Capture of Redoubt No. 10
On this line at the Siege of Yorktown on October 14, 1781, at night the Battalions of Gimat, Hamilton and Laurens of the Light Infantry Division of Major-General Marquis de Lafayette, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Hamilton with . . . — Map (db m10617) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — NP-1 — Charles Church
About one mile east, on north (left-hand) side of road (see stone marker and old foundations) stood the last colonial church of Charles Parish, built about 1708 and burned a century later, on the site of two earlier churches of the parish, built . . . — Map (db m34008) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Charles Cox House
The "Trustees to the Portland of York Towne" deeded this corner lot to Charles Cox, "Inholder" and "Planter" in 1706. Cox probably built the house pictured here before selling the property in 1729 to Thomas Nelson, in whose family it remained for . . . — Map (db m99091) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Cheatham Annex
The piers and structures across the water are an extension of the Naval Base at Norfolk. This takes advantage of the excellent York River deep water channel as did Cornwallis when, in 1781, he chose Yorktown as his base. — Map (db m25805) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater
The world’s sixth largest impact crater was created about 35 million years ago when a two to three mile wide asteroid or comet splashed into a shallow sea and shattered Earth’s crust. Debris shot up and everything within 600 miles was killed. A . . . — Map (db m64605) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Chesapeake Bay Watermen
Rugged men and women have made their living on the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers for centuries. Known as watermen, they hand down skills learned by observing water, climate, and wildlife. Consequently, younger generations learn time-honored maritime . . . — Map (db m64636) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Civil War Hot-Air Balloons
In April and May of 1862, Union and Confederate commanders deployed observation balloons near Yorktown during the Peninsula Campaign. Professor Thaddeus Lowe and Brigadier General Fitz-John Porter gathered intelligence about the Confederate defenses . . . — Map (db m64611) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Cole Digges House, circa 1730Historic Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“I hope your Lord will think fit to move His Majesty to appoint another Councillor…I humbly recomend to your Lord for that Purpose Mr. Cole Digges a Gentleman who lives very convenient to the Seat of Government, of an ample Fortune, good . . . — Map (db m100096) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Cole Digges House, circa 1925Historic Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“…an example of all that was fine and most lasting in Colonial domestic architecture…” Clyde F. Trudell, 1938 Throughout its long history, the Cole Diggers House served many roles in the village of Yorktown. Originally used . . . — Map (db m61606) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Colonial Grace ChurchYork-Hampton Parish
"A national shrine at the cradle of the Republic" Erected 1697 • Burned 1814 • Partially rebuilt 1823 • Rebuilt 1926 These are the original walls, built of marl. The bell was cast in London in 1725. Broken during fire of 1814. Recast in . . . — Map (db m83887) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Communicating Trench
To your left is a rebuilt trench dug to protect advancing troops from shell fire --- heavy in this open area. The trench followed a zig-zag pattern so as to keep a bank of earth between the men in the trenches and British cannonading. — Map (db m11188) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Comte de Rochambeau1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
I hasten to impart to you the happiness I feel at the welcome news of your arrival; and as well in the name of the American army as my own name to present you with an assurance of our warmest sentiments for allies who have so generously come to . . . — Map (db m11071) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Cornwallis Headquarters1781 Siege of Yorktown
"…Lord Cornwallis has built a kind of Grotto at the foot of the secretary's Garden where he lives under Ground…" – St. George Tucker, October 11, 1781 On the level plain above you stood the home of Thomas Nelson, former . . . — Map (db m78223) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Custom House, circa 1720
…collectors are hereby impowered to demand, secure, and receive all…the duties, customes and imposts…with full power to go on board any boat, ship or other vessel, or into any house…where he shall have just cause to suspect any . . . — Map (db m80984) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — D’Aboville’s Headquarters
Colonel D’Aboville set up headquarters here near his artillery park. Plantation buildings then existed belonging to Secretary Nelson’s “Quarter.” As ranking artillery officer in Rochambeau’s command, D’Aboville played a major role in . . . — Map (db m11145) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Don't Tread on Me!Caution: Fragile Fortifications
The earthworks in front of you and across the open plain played an integral part in the battle that won American independence. For many American, French, British, and German soldiers, only these fortifications stood between them and the enemy during . . . — Map (db m86167) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Dudley Digges House, circa 1760Historic Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“…Lieutenant-colonel Tarleton directed them to charge into the town, (Charlottesville, Virginia)… and to apprehend, if possible, the governor and assembly. Seven members of the assembly were secured…and several officers and men, were . . . — Map (db m61596) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Early Colonial Custom House
Built in 1706 Yorktown Was made a port of entry at a General Assembly of the Colony and Dominion of Williamsburg the twenty-third day of October 1705 in the fourth year of the reign of her Majesty Queen Anne The Comte de Grasse Chapter The . . . — Map (db m99092) HM WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — East Along Main StreetHistoric Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“Yorktown, a small but pleasant and well built little city, close to the river; has an English church and a courthouse… Upon our arrival the inhabitants fled with their wives and children, leaving behind all their furniture and . . . — Map (db m61612) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — First Allied Siege Line1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The next night, which was the sixth of October … We this night completed laying out the works. The troops of the line were there ready with entrenching tools and began to entrench, after General Washington had struck a few blows with a . . . — Map (db m10829) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Artillery Park
Cannon were repaired and stored here. The time-worn earthworks visible on each side of the road were for protection, probably built by the French soldiers who operated the “Park.” — Map (db m11106) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Artillery Park
This was an open field when the French wing established its ordinance depot. Here incoming cannon, howitzers, mortars, and their accouterments were made ready to move up to their siege line. Damaged pieces were brought back to the park for repairs. — Map (db m11104) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Cemetery
This simple cross is thought to mark the burial place of about 50 unidentified French soldiers killed during the Siege of Yorktown. — Map (db m11144) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Hospital
Across the field to your right, Hudson Allan's plantation building dominated the 1781 scene. Barns and sheds as well as mansions were useful to the French for field hospital purposes. — Map (db m61590) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Soldiers and Sailors
In commemoration of the French Soldiers and Sailors who gave their lives for American freedom -------------------- This memorial is erected near the site of Redoubt 9 second parallel of the trenches of Yorktown captured 14th October 1781 . . . — Map (db m10624) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French TrenchThe 1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
The extreme left of the American and French lines, commanded by the Marquis de Saint-Simon, was held by a French artillery battery. On October 9, it became the first battery of siege guns to fire on the British, aiming at the nearby Royal Welch . . . — Map (db m10966) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — French Trench
This earthwork was manned by the “Regiment Touraine” and formed the western portion of the French and American siege line surrounding Yorktown. From this line the French fired upon ships in the York River and the British fort behind you. — Map (db m11060) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Fusiliers Redoubt
Here, just west of Yorktown, the British built an earthwork to control the road to Williamsburg. This fortification was manned by the Royal Welch Fusiliers throughout the siege. The path leads to the reconstructed redoubt. — Map (db m10967) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — George P. Coleman Bridge
Completed in 1952, the George P. Coleman Bridge is 3,750 feet long. The structure replaced a ferry system that operated here for more than 200 years. The bridge was widened and reconstructed in 1995. Prefabricated in six sections, the entire . . . — Map (db m64634) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — George Washington and Francois De Grasse
Two of the most significant Revolutionary War leaders at Yorktown were General George Washington in command of the Allied ground forces, and Admiral Francois de Grasse in command of the French fleet controlling the nearby waters. Their . . . — Map (db m100097) WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — NP-12 — Goodwin Neck
This area, locally known as Dandy, was part of the land granted to John Chew July 6, 1636, and was sold by his heirs to James Goodwin, a member of the House of Burgesses from Jamestown, August 27, 1668. The area was strategically important both to . . . — Map (db m34011) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Grace Church - circa 1697
"The pews and windows of the Church all broke & destroyed. The church was used as a magazine." York County Records, Claims for Loses of York County Citizens in the British Invasion, Claim No. 31, 1783. Grace Church, a religious . . . — Map (db m79910) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Grand American Battery1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The Works which we carried are of vast importance to us. From them we shall enfilade the enemy’s whole line … ” General George Washington to the President of Congress, October 16, 1781. The capture of British Redoubts 9 . . . — Map (db m10667) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Grand French Battery
These three batteries and redoubt were a continuation of the Grand French Battery complex across the road. Occupying a section 1,000 feet from east to west, this battery complex contained approximately thirty pieces of artillery which bombarded the . . . — Map (db m10934) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Great Fire of 1814
Yorktown was heavily damaged during the Siege of 1781 and many residents abandoned their properties. Those who stayed demolished damaged buildings and repaired others. Everyday life reemerged, but on March 3, 1814, another disaster struck. The . . . — Map (db m64606) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Ground Your Firelocks!October 19, 1781 — Colonial National Historical Park
Under the British Flag (Left of Marker): The garrison marched out between the two lines of American troops reluctantly enough, and laid down their arms. A corporal next to me shed tears, and embracing his flintlock, threw it down, saying, . . . — Map (db m77670) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Headquarters Site of Henry Knox
Knox’s able direction of the assembly and deployment of artillery in the Siege was a key element in the success of the Allied armies. He saw resulting victory, as he related in a note to his wife, as “A great moment for America.” — Map (db m11119) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Headquarters Site of the Quartermaster General
Supplying the American Army was always critical. At Yorktown Colonel Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts, seconded by a man of his own choice, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Dearborn of New Hampshire, held the responsibility for Washington’s Quartermaster . . . — Map (db m11120) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Heavy Artillery at Yorktown
Within a few years of Yorktown’s founding in 1691, a small gun battery was established along the shoreline. Later, Virginia’s Royal Governor Spotswood rebuilt and enlarged the fortification to include 11 cannon. By 1731, the town’s battery of . . . — Map (db m64629) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Home of Thomas Nelson
Foundations of the home of Thomas Nelson President of the Council and Secretary of State of the Colony of Virginia erected in 1725 --------------- First Headquarters of Lord Cornwallis it was destroyed during the Siege of Yorktown in 1781 --------- . . . — Map (db m11102) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — In Solemn StepColonial National Historical Park
At about twelve o’clock, the combined army was arranged … in two lines extending more than a mile …. The French troops, in complete uniform, displayed a martial and noble appearance …. The Americans … exhibited an erect, soldierly air, every . . . — Map (db m10638) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Indian Field Creek
The ground to the south along this creek was the home of the Chiskiack Indians, a small tribe whose leader was a "werowance," or petty chief, under Powhatan. As the English began to settle this area, about 1630, the Chiskiacks moved across the York . . . — Map (db m25806) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — John Smith Explores the ChesapeakeCaptain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail
Captain John Smith explored the Chesapeake Bay in the early 1600s seeking precious metals and a passage to Asia. He traveled the James, Chickahominy, and York rivers in 1607, and led two major expeditions from Jamestown in 1608. Smith and his crew . . . — Map (db m64649) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Join the AdventureCaptain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail
Explore the places Englishman John Smith traveled in the early 1600s. Learn about the thriving American Indian communities he encountered and imagine the bountiful Chesapeake he observed. Experience the natural and cultural richness that exists in . . . — Map (db m64647) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — 32 — KiskiackCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the Pamaunk Flu — www.johnsmithtrail.org
The last major settlement to be abandoned by the Indians on the peninsula south of the York River, Kiskiack was a commercial center when the English arrived in 1607. Positioned just downstream from Powhatan’s headquarters and near the Rickahock . . . — Map (db m66914) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Kiskiak Indians
Algonquin-speaking people occupied eastern Virginia when the English landed at Jamestown in 1607. The Kiskiak, one of their chiefdoms allied under the principal chiefdom of Powhatan, was located near here on the banks of Indian Field Creek. John . . . — Map (db m64627) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Major General Benjamin Lincoln and His Division1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“I am fully convinced that the Siege will not last more than twelve days more and that Cornwallis & his troops must in that time be ours.” Major General Benjamin Lincoln to his wife, October 12, 1781 On May 12, 1780, Major . . . — Map (db m10979) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Marquis de Lafayette and His Division1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“Here we are at last … before Yorktown, and our operations will soon be noisy.” Marquis de Lafayette, Camp before Yorktown, September 30, 1781 In April 1781, with a developing British military campaign in Virginia, . . . — Map (db m11064) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — NP-13 — Mary Aggie And The Benefit Of Clergy
Mary Aggie, an enslaved woman, was convicted of theft in York County in 1730. Lt. Gov. William Gooch, impressed with Mary’s profession of faith when she sued previously for her freedom, supported her 1730 claim for “benefit of clergy,” . . . — Map (db m90953) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Medical Shop (Reconstructed)
Dr. Corbin Griffin was a prominent Yorktown physician active in the American Revolutionary War, serving as a surgeon with Virginia forces. During the siege of Yorktown, he was imprisoned by the British on a ship anchored in the York River. During . . . — Map (db m80985) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Monument to the Alliance and Victory
Yorktown Monument Commissioners , 1881 R. M. Hunt, Architect, Chairman Henry Van Brunt, Architect, J. Q. A. Ward, Sculptor --------------- Oskar J. W. Hansen, Sculptor of Liberty, 1957 Front of Monument: At York on October 19 1781, after a . . . — Map (db m11192) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Moore House1781 Siege of Yorktown
“I propose a cessation of hostilities for twenty four hours, and that two officers may be appointed by each side, to meet at Mr. Moore’s house, to settle terms for the surrender of the posts of York and Gloucester.” General . . . — Map (db m10637) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — N.S. Savannah
N.S. Savannah, a joint project of the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission, was the first nuclear-powered merchant ship. She was built to carry up to 60 passengers and 9,250 tons of cargo. In 1962, after reactor tests . . . — Map (db m64631) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Nathaniel Bacon
Among the tombs in the burial ground of the Ringfield family is a marker to Colonel Nathaniel Bacon who was prominent in Virginia affairs in the last half of the seventeenth century. He was a kinsman but an opponent of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr.-"the . . . — Map (db m25799) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Naval Weapons Station
The piers extending into the York River, just to the right, serve a major Navy installation. Since its establishment in 1918, then as a Mine Depot, it has served our country in two World Wars and the Korean conflict as well as in peace time. — Map (db m25810) WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Naval Weapons Station
Supply, amphibious, and combat ships pass Yorktown on their way to and from the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. The military installation’s pier is located three miles upstream. When the 20-square-mile site was acquired by the Navy on August . . . — Map (db m64640) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Nelson House, circa 1730Historic Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“General Nelson…was excelled by no man in the generosity of his nature, in the nobleness of his sentiments, in the purity of his Revolutionary principles, and in the exalted patriotism that answered every service and sacrifice that his . . . — Map (db m61589) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — News of VictoryColonial National Historical Park
News of the Allies’ victory at Yorktown spread rapidly. On October 20, 1781, Washington sent his aide, Lieutenant Tench Tilghman, to Philadelphia to notify the Continental Congress. Tilghman departed Yorktown by boat, landing near Annapolis on the . . . — Map (db m10841) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Nick's Seafood Pavilion
After a vacation stopover in Yorktown, Nick and Mary Mathews decided to return in 1944 to open a restaurant. The original Nick’s had 35 seats. Later, Nick’s Seafood Pavilion, famous for it’s fine seafood menu and ornate decor, expanded to seat 440. . . . — Map (db m64633) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Outer Works(Reconstructed)
This redoubt is one of several positions which the British built on the only “hard ground” approach to Yorktown. These positions formed a part of the outer line of their defenses. — Map (db m61593) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Pirates in Yorktown?
Pirates plundered ships along the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean routes from the earliest days of New World settlement. William Berkeley, governor of the Virginia colony in 1660, wrote that the “Seas are soe full of Pyrates that it is . . . — Map (db m64604) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Powhatan's Village
Across the York River is the site of Werowocomoco, an Indian Village that was Powhatan's "chiefest habitation" in the early period of the Jamestown settlement. Captain John Smith was a prisoner there late in 1607. — Map (db m25807) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Redoubt 101781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The column marched in silence, with guns unloaded, and in good order: Many, no doubt, thinking that less than one quarter of a mile would finish the journey of life … ” Captain Stephen Olney, 1st Rhode Island Regiment The . . . — Map (db m10838) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Redoubt 91781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“ … once we were inside the redoubt. People of four nations were thrown together: Frenchmen, English, Scots, and Germans ….” Private Georg Flohr, Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment “ … a trait which characterized the French . . . — Map (db m10837) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Redoubts 9 and 101781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“The … batteries were principally directed against … the enemys advanced redoubts on their extreme … left to prepare them for the intended assault …” General George Washington’s Diary, October 14, 1781. The completion of the . . . — Map (db m10817) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Regiment Royal Deux-Ponts (Zweibrücken)1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“With troops so good, so brave, and so disciplined as those that I have the honor to lead against the enemy, one can undertake anything, and be sure of succeeding … ” Colonel en Second Guillaume des Deux-Ponts. The . . . — Map (db m11107) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Ringfield Plantation
The land across this creek was first granted to Captain Robert Felgate in 1630. Sixty years later it was acquired by Joseph Ring, a prosperous planter and one of the trustees of the Town of York when it was founded in 1691. Ring's plantation house . . . — Map (db m25801) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Saintonge Regiment
During the siege the Marquis de Custine was encamped here with his troops. After Yorktown the Marquis served in the French Assembly and commanded armies in France. He was guillotined during the terrible days of the French revolution. — Map (db m90960) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Seat of the County of York
York County, initially named Charles Shire, was created in 1634 when Virginia was divided into eight geographical areas. At first the undefined county boundaries extended far into the northern and western frontiers. The Town of York has served as . . . — Map (db m64613) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Second Allied Siege LineColonial National Historical Park
At the present distance of our batteries … they might fire till Christmas without materially lessening the enemy’s force …. I am impatient to get nearer to the enemy, that our work may be more speedily accomplished, and our ammunition not thrown . . . — Map (db m10831) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Shiloh Baptist ChurchCivil War Yorktown
Shiloh Baptist Church was started in 1863 by former slave and lay minister, John Carey; and Reverend Jeremiah Asher from Shiloh Baptist Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The church sewed the residents of Slabtown, a community established by the . . . — Map (db m90962) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Shiloh Baptist ChurchCivil War Yorktown
Shiloh Baptist Church was started in 1863 by former slave and lay minister, John Carey; and Reverend Jeremiah Asher from Shiloh Baptist Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The church sewed the residents of Slabtown, a community established by the . . . — Map (db m90965) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Site of the Home of Nicolas Martiau
The adventurous Huguenot who was born in France 1591 Came to Virginia 1620 and died at Yorktown 1657 He was a captain in the Indian uprising A member of the House of Burgesses Justice of the County of York In 1635 a leader in the . . . — Map (db m83877) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — SlabtownCivil War Yorktown
There is a large settlement near Yorktown, called Slabtown, settled by the government during the war with those who came within the lines. The colored people there are doing such work as they can get to do, oystering, & c. Testimony of . . . — Map (db m90966) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Soissonois Regiment
These 900 men were quartered here during the Siege. Professional soldiers, many fought again for France on other fields as did the regimental commander Marquis de Saint Maime. He became a Lieutenant-General in 1792 and fought under Napoleon. — Map (db m90961) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Somerwell HouseHistoric Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“On the Peticon of Mungo Somervell to this court for his keeping the ferry in York Town of Same is accordingly granted…” York County Court, September 24,1702 Prior to the American Revolution, the community of Yorktown . . . — Map (db m61605) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — St. Simon’s Headquarters
The Marquis de St. Simon commanded three regiments of French infantry (Agenois, Gatinois and Touraine) brought to Virginia from the West Indies by De Grasse. After the Siege they returned to the “Islands” leaving their sick and wounded . . . — Map (db m11152) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Steamboats on York River
In 1817, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, or the “Old Bay Line,” began regular steamboat service between Baltimore, Maryland, and Norfolk, Virginia. The company’s boats transported mail, crops, freight, and people along the length . . . — Map (db m64610) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Steuben’s Division
The 2,000 men of Major General Baron Von Steuben’s American Division bivouacked in the woods and fields to the right of the road. They were chiefly Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland units, and some others, such as sixty “Delaware . . . — Map (db m11123) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Surrender at YorktownColonial National Historical Park
Near this spot on the afternoon of October 19, 1781 – as silence prevailed among the Allied soldiers and onlookers – all eyes were trained on the approaching British troops. Cornwallis, sending word that he was ill, appointed his second . . . — Map (db m10661) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Surrender FieldColonial National Historical Park
On the 17th, at about 10 o'clock, the British raised a white flag on their walls, beat a parley on their drums, and the firing ceased on all sides. Then the terms of surrender were agreed upon between Washington and Cornwallis, and on the . . . — Map (db m28065) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Surrender Road
The course of the road here is about as it was in colonial times. On October 19, 1781, in the afternoon, the soldiers of Cornwallis’ Army marched this way and filed off into the field on your left. This was the place designated for the formal . . . — Map (db m10918) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Swan TavernHistoric Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
”The Taverns are many here, and much frequented, and an unbounded Licentiousness seems to taint the Morals of the young Gentlemen of this Place...amiable Hospitality…seems…to have found no great Footing: Schemes of Gain, or Parties of . . . — Map (db m83878) HM
Virginia (York county), Yorktown — The “NECK”Gateway to Yorktown
This British redoubt is the sole original earthwork remaining from the siege of Yorktown – but it never came under fire. Cornwallis pulled back to Yorktown from this key defensive position on the night of September 30, 1781, and opened . . . — Map (db m11003) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Adjutant General
This important position on Washington’s staff was filled by Brigadier General Edward Hand of Pennsylvania. His headquarters here were easily accessible to his commanding officer. Quick and effective dispatch of orders and communications was . . . — Map (db m11139) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Betsy
The marker is made up of two panels. Panel 1: The Betsy was built in the port of Whitehaven in 1772 for use in the coal trade. During 1780, the British Navy leased her as a transport assigned to a convoy bound for North America, . . . — Map (db m100098) HM WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Brig Betsy
What remains of the Betsy lies on the bottom of the York River just beyond the end of this pier. A two-masted brig, originally built to carry coal, the Betsy was one of more than a dozen vessels deliberately scuttled, or sunk, by the . . . — Map (db m64603) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Deposit
Eighteenth century siege warfare meant weeks of labor for the soldiers, not only on the trenches, but in the rear areas where special siege materials were made and stored. In constructing the siege lines, engineers and sappers used quantities of . . . — Map (db m10868) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The First Siege Line(reconstructed)
Washington’s troops built works like these when they opened the Siege of Yorktown. These fortifications, together with those of the French, made a circling line that stretched a mile and a quarter, from the York River to Yorktown Creek. — Map (db m10963) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Grand French BatteryFirst Allied Siege Line
The Grand French Battery formed part of the first Allied siege line around Yorktown. French and American soldiers worked through the night of October 6, 1781, to establish the line from a point about one hundred yards to your left (across the road) . . . — Map (db m10839) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Great Valley
I desired you to send the Things you used annually to send me … I … shall not import any more necessaries till the hateful acts are repealed. The Ministry promised to get a Repeal of that imposing the Duties on Glass Paper & Colours; But, tell . . . — Map (db m81772) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Hornwork
To your right the British extended their works outward along the York-Hampton Road a principal entrance into Yorktown which they blocked with this “Hornwork.” It was garrisoned by Colonel Abercrombie’s Light Infantry. — Map (db m10922) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Olympic Flame
Honoring America for the first time the Olympic Flame arrived here to begins its journey to the XIII Winter Olympic Games January 31, 1980 Yorktown, Virginia Where independence was won — Map (db m64641) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Second Siege Line
The low earthworks on either side are part of the French and American advance line. Construction was started when allied artillery fire had sufficiently weakened the British defenses. The line was completed after the capture of Redoubts No. 9 and 10. — Map (db m10935) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Washington – Rochambeau Route to VictoryYorktown Battlefield — Colonial National Historical Park
On August 14, 1781, Generals Washington and Rochambeau received news that a large French fleet under the command of Admiral de Grasse was headed for the Chesapeake Bay carrying 3,000 French soldiers. There the British general, Lord Cornwallis, was . . . — Map (db m11016) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Watermen's MuseumPart of a Network of Special Places — Chesapeake Bay Gateways
The Watermen's Museum is one of the Chesapeake Bay's special places linked together by the Gateways Network. Visitors to Chesapeake Bay Gateways experience first-hand the varied stories and adventures shaped by the extraordinary environment of . . . — Map (db m64645) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The York River
Native North Americans called the York River Pamunkee, combining two words meaning upland and sloping to describe its high banks. English colonists renamed the river Charles, in 1634, and later York, in 1643. The river’s . . . — Map (db m64617) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — The Yorktown Windmill
History of the Original Yorktown Windmill Built in 1711 by William Buckner, the Yorktown Windmill was a guidepost on the York River for nearly two centuries. After retiring from his post as Surveyor General of Virginia, Buckner purchased . . . — Map (db m77781) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Time, Tide and Erosion
On your left is British Redoubt No. 10 partly reconstructed where a fragment of its moat was found in 1956. The remainder of it, as well as parts of adjacent works, was washed to sea during the 175 years of crumbling river banks. — Map (db m11189) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Tobacco Inspection
In 1730, a law was passed requiring that all tobacco exported from Virginia be inspected by officials at one of the public inspection warehouses which were located in port towns or along the rivers throughout the colony. Any tobacco not meeting a . . . — Map (db m64607) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Tobacco Road
"An act for Ports, &c. That from and after the first day of October (1692), all shipps, barques, and other vessells whatsoever, arriveing into, or sayling out of this country for trayd, shall unload and put on shoare, and take from shoar to . . . — Map (db m78107) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — TransAmerica Bike Trail
In 1976, the Adventure Cycling Association established the TransAmerica Trail as part of the United States bicentennial celebration. The Route 76 bike trail runs from Astoria, Oregon, to Yorktown, Virginia, and covers 4,262 miles. It is still . . . — Map (db m64609) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Trophies of WarColonial National Historical Park
An army … consisting of more than seven thousand choice troops, were obliged to surrender their arms to an enemy as much despised as hated; twelve thousand muskets, more than two hundred pieces of iron and brass cannon, and a prodigious quantity . . . — Map (db m10866) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — USS Yorktown
Since the October 19, 1781, victory at Yorktown, Virginia, five U.S. Navy ships have been named Yorktown. The first (1840) was constructed at Gosport Shipyard, the present-day Norfolk Naval Shipyard. The 16-gun ship sloop hit a reef in the . . . — Map (db m64612) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Victory MonumentHistoric Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“Resolved, That … Congress … will cause to be erected at York, in Virginia, a marble column, adorned with emblems of the alliance between the United States and his Most Christian Majesty; and inscribed with a succinct narrative of the . . . — Map (db m10654) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Across the York River in Gloucester County is the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), one of the nation’s leading centers for the interdisciplinary research in coastal oceans and estuarine science. Chartered in 1940 as the Virginia . . . — Map (db m64628) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Virginia Militia1781 Siege of Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
The approaching Season obliges me to recommend to you … to use your utmost Efforts for furnishing the Virginia Troops with Cloathing. You will therefore … adopt … Measures to send them down immediately – As their Troops are to take the . . . — Map (db m11066) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Wars & Yorktown
This lower Chesapeake Bay location has been strategic since early colonial days when a fort was built to protect the colony from warring European powers. In the 17th and 18th centuries, ships loaded with tobacco would form convoys at Yorktown to . . . — Map (db m64630) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Washington’s Headquarters
General George Washington established his headquarters in this area at the junction of the American encampments to the east and the French encampments to the north. Here he set up two tents: a large one for meeting with his staff and for dining, . . . — Map (db m10865) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Washington-Rochambeau Route
General Washington and the French troops under General Rochambeau began the siege of Great Britain's General Cornwallis at Yorktown on September 28, 1781. Cornwallis surrendered his army on October 19 after a siege of 21 days. — Map (db m66913) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Wear Of Centuries
Just ahead the road climbs to the level ground above the millpond. The ravine like depression in which it follows represents more natural wear from horses, carriages and wagons than any recent grading. It is a visible reminder that the roadway here . . . — Map (db m90416) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — West Along Main StreetHistoric Yorktown — Colonial National Historical Park
“York-Town…tho’ but stragglingly built…makes no inconsiderable Figure. You perceive a great Air of Opulence amongst the Inhabitants, who have some of them built themselves Houses, equal in Magnificence to many of our superb ones at St. . . . — Map (db m61611) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Wormley Creek Crossing
The earth dam in front of you creates Wormley Pond which existed in 1781 when Augustine Moore operated a grist mill here. American troops marched over the dam regularly as they moved to and from the Siege line. — Map (db m90415) HM
Virginia (York county), Yorktown — York “Under The Hill”
Initially Yorktown was laid out above the bluffs, but the thin strip of ground here between water and cliff was essential to the town’s commercial life. Port facilities crowded the area – wharves, warehouses and stores as pictured here. These . . . — Map (db m11007) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Z-265 — York County / Warwick County
York County. Area 186 square miles. One of the eight original shires formed in 1634. First called Charles River, which was named for King Charles I. The name was changed in 1643 to York for Yorkshire, England. Cornwallis’s surrender, . . . — Map (db m2960) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York County War Monument
Bacon's Rebellion Edward Baptiste • Edmund Chisman • Henry Freeman, Jr. • Thomas Hansford Revolutionary War John Bowles • John Burcher • Edward Dickenson • James Figg • James Musgrove War of 1812 Tyler Crockett • Carter H. . . . — Map (db m83885) WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York Hall
”..it is hereby enacted…that an house suitable and fitt to hold courts in and as bigg in dimension att least as the present court house now is, be errected built and finished...within the said limitts of York Towne...." Virginia General . . . — Map (db m83883) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York River
Known to the Indians as the Pamunkey, the colonists named it first Charles and then York, both in honor of the Duke of York. While only 26 miles in length, the tidal waters of the York River flow over the deepest natural channel of any Chesapeake . . . — Map (db m25811) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York River Ecosystem
Plants and animals in the York River and its watershed provide many ecosystem services. Forests reduce sediment runoff and excess nutrients, and provide nesting sites for bald eagles, osprey, and herons. Underwater grass beds sustain the young of . . . — Map (db m64618) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York River Ferry
Records indicate that regular ferry service began here as early as 1647 to cross the river between Yorktown and Gloucester Point. Ferries were licensed by the Virginia House of Burgesses and tolls, equipment, and services were regulated by colonial . . . — Map (db m64637) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — York Under Siege 1781
Early in October French-American forces closed their grip on the besieged British army in Yorktown and bombarded the town with their combined artillery. Incessant shellfire drove townspeople to seek shelter under this bluff and forced the British . . . — Map (db m10911) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorke Village
In 1629, the Virginia Council encouraged the settlement of the south bank of the York River. The following year, Governor John Harvey was given a land patent of 752 acres at Wormley Creek, establishing Yorke Village. By the 1650s, settlement had . . . — Map (db m64601) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — YorktownThe Frowning Fortress of York — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
“It did not seem possible that both armies could gather inspiration from the historic memories that cluster around this memorable field. The traditions of the revolution lingered here awakening in all loyal breasts sincerest hopes for the . . . — Map (db m10432) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — YorktownEstablished 1691 — Historic Yorktown
“York-Town, Capital of the County of that Name, is situated on a rising Ground, gently descending every Way into a Valley, and tho’ but stragglingly built, yet makes no inconsiderable Figure.” Edward Kimber, Observations in . . . — Map (db m11035) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown
The “old town” which you enter here is ringed by stout Civil War entrenchments built on top of the British works of 1781. Englishmen, Scotsmen, Welchmen, Hessians, and Loyalist Americans were quartered here while besieged by . . . — Map (db m11062) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — 34 — YorktownCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the Pamaunk Flu — www.johnsmithtrail.org
With his contempt for the distant English gentlemen who demanded the colonists search for gold instead of focus on building a strong settlement, Smith foreshadows the anger that Americans felt under British rule. The lowborn colonists who . . . — Map (db m34005) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — YorktownHistoric Yorktown
"This Yorktown, or Little-York, is a small city of approximately 300 houses: it has, moreover, considerable circumference. It is located on the bank od the York River, somewhat high on a sandy but level ground. It has 3 churches, 2 reformed . . . — Map (db m90957) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown Bicentennial Pine Trees
These pines were planted on 16 November 1981 in recognition of the Yorktown Victory Bicentennial by The Honorable John O. Marsh, Jr., Secretary of the Army — Map (db m99090) HM WM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown National CemeteryYorktown in the Civil War — Colonial Nat'l Hist Park
Isaac Cornelius Grave Number 497 On August 31, 1861, Isaac and his brother James enlisted in Company C, 100th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. In early May 1864, Lieutenant Isaac Cornelius submitted his resignation but remained with the army, . . . — Map (db m28111) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown Victory Monument
This monument was authorized by Continental Congress, October 29, 1781, just after the news of surrender reached Philadelphia. Actual construction began 100 years later and was completed in 1884. The original figure of Liberty atop the Victory shaft . . . — Map (db m10925) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown WaterfrontUnion Port and Supply Depot — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In spring 1862, the Confederate heavy artillery batteries on the bluffs at Yorktown, as well as those positioned along the waterfront on both sides of the York River, effectively blocked the U.S. Navy’s attempts to bypass Magruder’s 2nd Peninsula . . . — Map (db m10439) HM
Virginia (York county), Yorktown — Yorktown’s WaterfrontShips, Tobacco & Trade
18th century commerce moved by water whenever possible. Yorktown’s waterfront reflected this. Tobacco warehouses, ship’s chandleries, grogshops and wharves lined the waterfront … Among them passed the diverse array of merchants and sailors, planters . . . — Map (db m11009) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown's Stormy Past
Because of its location, Yorktown is susceptible to damage from storms such as nor’easters and hurricanes. One such storm played a role in the outcome of the Siege of Yorktown. On October 16, 1781, under intense fire, the British Army attempted to . . . — Map (db m64608) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown's Sunken Fleet
When British General Cornwallis established a fortified base at Yorktown in August 1781, his forces included a squadron of four warships and about 50 merchant and transport vessels. When the British surrendered on October 19, much of the fleet . . . — Map (db m64602) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown's Tea Party
While the Boston Tea Party of December 1773 is famous, a lesser known protest against the Tea Act also occurred in Virginia. On November 7, 1774 some concerned citizens of York County openly boarded a ship in the harbor and dumped two small chests . . . — Map (db m64635) HM
Virginia (York County), Yorktown — Yorktown's Windmill
For over 100 years, one of Yorktown’s most prominent landmarks was a tall, wooden “smock” windmill that stood at the edge of the steep bluff near here. A rotating cap with sails sat atop the tower and could be turned with a long tail . . . — Map (db m64639) HM

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