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A Night in Cane Valley Marker image, Touch for more information
By Tom Bosse, October 13, 2016
A Night in Cane Valley Marker
Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — John B. Franke1866 – 1927
“Well done, good and faithful servant.” (Ft. Wayne Chamber of Commerce – Jan. 7, 2927)

J.B. Franke dedicated his lift to service of others. He donated 80 acres to the City of Fort Wayne, which is now known as Franke park. . . . — Map (db m119974) HM

Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — Major General Anthony Wayne
In the early 1790s, the United States Army suffered two serious defeats at the hands of Indians under the leadership of Little Turtle, war chief of the Miami nation. In response, President George Washington sent Revolutionary War hero Gen. . . . — Map (db m119973) HM
Kentucky (Adair County), Columbia — A Night in Cane ValleyThe Great Raid — July 3, 1863
After engaging Union forces in Columbia the afternoon of July 3, Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s command continued north on the Columbia-Lebanon Pike. Just beyond the town, they passed Union Camp Gilbert, formerly named Camp Boyle, now abandoned - the site . . . — Map (db m98909) HM
Kentucky (Adair County), Columbia — Frank Lane Wolford
Frank Lane Wolford (1817 - 1895). Adair County native, organized 1st Kentucky Cavalry (US) in 1861. His men knew little about the drill and discipline but had the utmost confidence in Wolford and he in them. The soldiers supplied their own horses . . . — Map (db m98906) HM
Kentucky (Adair County), Columbia — The Door Was Left Open!Great Raid — July 3, 1863
John Hunt Morgan entered Kentucky July 2 with about 2,500 men who swam the rain swollen Cumberland River - many naked, not to be encumbered with soggy clothes. The rebel yell of the on-coming nude men took the Union scouts by surprise. Columbia . . . — Map (db m98903) HM
Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 1122 — Hebron Church
A Cumberland Presbyterian church organized by Rev. Laban Jones in 1827 in log cabin on Thomas McCall farm, overlooking McCall Spring. the itinerant pastor traveled his circuit on horseback visiting his "preaching places twice a year". This church . . . — Map (db m105465) HM
Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 1121 — McCall's SpringFormerly Cove or Lillard Spring
The McAfee bros., James McCoun, Jr. and Samuel Adams, first white men to explore this area, 1773. Cove Spring and Cove Spring Branch in Franklin Co. boundary line, 1794. Maj. Gen. Kirby Smith, CSA, and troops camped here on their way to join General . . . — Map (db m105464) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Bethel — 1542 — Joe Creason
Longview Cemetery, Bethel, is grave site of one of the most noted and best-loved Kentucky journalists. Born 1918 in Benton, he gained renown from his column, "Joe Creason's Kentucky," in the Louisville Courier-Journal. His popular book by same name . . . — Map (db m110166) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Midland — 1226 — Caney Furnace / Iron Made in Kentucky
Caney Furnace Stood five miles south. This stone stack, built 1837-38 by Harrison Connor and Joshua Ewing, Sr., was among first iron furnaces west of the Alleghenies to be equipped with a hot-blast oven, a device to preheat the air blown . . . — Map (db m110123) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 993 — Bourbon Iron Works / Iron Made in Kentucky
Bourbon Iron Works Jacob Myers from Richmond, Va. took up land grants here on Slate Creek, 1782. He built the first iron blast furnace in Ky., 1791. John Cockey Owings and Co. formed to operate furnace. Utensils and tools supplied settlers. . . . — Map (db m110121) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 862 — Gen. Hood Birthplace
John Bell Hood, 1831-79, graduate of West Point, 1853. Eight years Indian campaigns. Resigned, 1861, and joined CSA as colonel, heading Texas Brigade. Gained distinction at Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, 1862, and at Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 1863. . . . — Map (db m110149) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 1193 — Owings House / Thomas Dye Owings
Owings House Built 1811-14 for Colonel Thomas Dye Owings by Benjamin Latrobe, who redesigned the interior of the US Capitol after the British burned it, War of 1812. This house was a center of social life during early 1800's. Henry Clay, . . . — Map (db m110150) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Salt Lick — 1050 — Clear Creek Furnace / Iron Made in Kentucky
Clear Creek Furnace Built in 1839, 5 miles south, by W. A. Lane and W. S. Allen. Stone stack originally 40 ft. high and 10 1/2 ft. across inside, burning charcoal. Air blast powered by steam. Its iron was used mainly for railway car wheels. . . . — Map (db m110122) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Salt Lick — Unwind with UsCave Run Lake Country
Nestled in the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains, Bath County, Kentucky, embraces history while anticipating the future. Formed in 1811, Bath County has many historic homes, churches, iron furnaces and cemeteries dotting the countryside. In fact, . . . — Map (db m110148) HM
Kentucky (Bath County), Sharpsburg — 2509 — Henry Tureman Allen
Side 1 Born in Sharpsburg on April 13, 1859, Allen attended Peeks Mill Military Academy and Georgetown College before graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1882. He was sent to the western frontier, where he led . . . — Map (db m110168) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1091 — "Uncle" Charlie Moran
Colorful college football coach and National Baseball League umpire. Coached Praying Colonels of Centre College into national football spotlight, 1916-23. See other side. First coached, 1898-99, at Bethel College, Russellville, Ky. Then held four . . . — Map (db m121575) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Alban Gilpin Smith Goldsmith1795 - 1876
Native of Delaware. Trained in medicine and surgery under E. McDowell, lived in this house 1825-30. He performed the 3rd ovariotomy in the U.S. (1823), was the first to perform laminectomy (1829), and was an innovative contributor to urologic . . . — Map (db m121537) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — American Revolution Memorial
To honor and commemorate the men who fought in the American Revolution and sleep in Boyle County Kentucky.

John Spears • Michael Harmon • Hugh Shiell • John Pipes • John Gray • William Warren • Samuel McDowell • Thomas . . . — Map (db m121869) WM

Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Boyle County Veterans Memorial
Dedicated to those men and women of this community who served our country in times of peace and war and especially to those who gave their lives in that service.

World War I Ball, Basil • Jesse, Frank H. • Bramer, George S. • . . . — Map (db m121870) WM

Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Brick Schoolhouse
This one-story brick building, originally only two rooms, was the first brick schoolhouse in Danville. The schoolhouse, circa 1820, was renovated in 1975. — Map (db m121729) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1328 — Capt. George Givens
Homesite and grave 1 mile west. B., Orange Co., Va., 1740. D., 1825. 40 years service to his country. Lt. at Fort Pitt, Dunmore's War, 1774. Captain, Botetourt County militia, 1776. Northwest Campaign of George Rogers Clark, 1778. Came to Ky., 1781. . . . — Map (db m120112) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 923 — Centre College
Founded on this campus in 1819 by pioneer Kentuckians who held that heart and mind must be trained together, and dedicated to the inculcation of ideals of culture and character in the hearts of American youth. Veritas Lux Mentis. — Map (db m121562) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1140 — Clark's Station
Early pioneer settlement erected before 1779. Developed by George Clark, brother-in-law of William Whitley, whose party came to Ky. about 1775. Located on Clark's Run Creek, named for George Clark, it was one of the first stations built in the . . . — Map (db m105411) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1218 — County Named, 1842
For Judge John Boyle, 1774-1834. State representative, 1800; U.S. Congress, 1803-9; Kentucky Court of Appeals, Chief Justice, 1810-26; U.S. District Judge for Kentucky, 1826-34. The Judge "lived for his country," setting many important legal . . . — Map (db m121555) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Courthouse
The original log courthouse, which was built on this site in 1784-1785, housed the Supreme Court of Kentucky and the Constitutional Conventions which led to Kentucky's statehood on June 1, 1792. This replica was erected in 1942. — Map (db m121535) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 756 — Courthouse a Hospital
Boyle County's first courthouse erected here, 1842, destroyed by great fire of 1860. This building completed 1862. First occupied by Union forces as hospital after battle of Perryville, October 8, 1862. On 11th a Union force drove CSA from . . . — Map (db m121556) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1279 — First Crop / Hemp in Kentucky
Kentucky's first recorded hemp crop, 1775, was on Clark's Run Creek, near Danville. Grown by Archibald McNeill, who brought the first seed with him when he located here. Hemp production spread slowly throughout the area, but Boyle County later . . . — Map (db m121560) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — First Post Office
This building is the original First Post Office west of the Allegheny Mountains. General Thomas Barbee commissioned first Post Master, August 20, 1792. Logs moved from Walnut Street to Constitution Square. Dedicated to the State of Kentucky by the . . . — Map (db m121725) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Fisher’s Row
Fisher’s Row, circa 1816-1817, was built by Jeremiah Fisher as the first rental property in Danville. Fisher’s row consists of two, two-story houses with a common wall. The brick is laid in the Flemish Bond Pattern. — Map (db m121727) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Grayson’s Tavern
Grayson’s Tavern, circa 1785, was owned and operated by Benjamin Grayson as the first tavern in Danville. The political club of Danville, formed in 1786, met here frequently to discuss issues which formed the framework of the Kentucky Constitution. — Map (db m121730) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Isaac Shelby1750-1826
First governor of Kentucky 1792-1796

Fifth governor of Kentucky 1812-1816

One of Shelby’s first acts as Governor was to call for and help design the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The figures of a pioneer and statesman in . . . — Map (db m121734) HM

Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2005 — Jacobs Hall / John A. Jacobs, Sr. (1806-69)
Kentucky School for the Deaf first opened 1823 in Danville, at 4th and Main Sts. In 1826, it moved to this campus. Jacobs Hall is oldest surviving building, constructed 1855-57, of Italianate design by architect Thomas Lewinski. Its interior is . . . — Map (db m121561) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Jail
In 1785, the District of Kentucky ordered the construction of a jail, “to be constructed of 9-inch logs”. This replica of the jail was built in 1942. — Map (db m121731) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1606 — John Marshall Harlan / Kentucky's "Great Dissenter"(1833-1911)
Born in Boyle Co. and a graduate of Centre College, 1850, Harlan practiced law in central Ky. after 1853. Although against Lincoln and abolition in 1860, he was a strong Unionist during Civil War; recruited 10th Ky. Infantry. Elected Attorney . . . — Map (db m121559) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2186 — John William Bate(1855~1945)
Side 1 Original site of Bate High School, built 1912 and named in honor of its founder, John William Bate. Born a slave in Louisville, Bate received an AB from Berea College in 1881 and and AM in 1891. He moved to Danville to teach in 1881 . . . — Map (db m105414) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Meeting House
The original log meeting house, erected on this site in 1784 under the direction of reverend David Rice, housed the newly formed Concord Presbyterian Congregation, the first Presbyterians in Kentucky. This replica was erected in 1942. — Map (db m121733) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1376 — Old Crow Inn / John Crow
Old Crow Inn The oldest existing stone house in Kentucky, built 1784, is part of this building. The house has been enlarged and Doric pillars added. Land purchased from John Crow by James Wright, 1781. Next owner, Colonel Joshua Barbee, who . . . — Map (db m105413) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 24 — Poet, Lawyer and Soldier / Theodore O'Hara
(side 1) Poet, Lawyer and Soldier Theodore O'Hara was born in this city, Feb. 11, 1820. He read law with Judge Wm. Owsley. Newspaper work included editing Frankfort Yeoman and Louisville Times. He served in Mexican War, . . . — Map (db m121558) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Post Office
This original building built pre-1792, served as the first office west of the Alleghenies. On August 20, 1792, Thomas Barbee was commissioned postmaster. The first mail was received on November 3, 1792. The post office was moved here from its . . . — Map (db m121726) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 197 — School for the Deaf
On this corner, in 1823, Kentucky founded the first state-supported school in the United States for the instruction of deaf children. Classes met in an old inn that was known as the Yellow House. Reverend and Mrs. John R. Kerr served as first . . . — Map (db m121541) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2508 — Sinking Spring
Referred to by geologists as a “karst window”, sinking springs form when bedrock has collapsed to reveal groundwater moving through an aquifer. Water flows from the spring, creates a surface-flowing stream, and returns underground. This . . . — Map (db m121572) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 49 — Site of Log Courthouse
Kentucky District Court sessions held here March 14, 1785, until Court of Appeals set up in 1792. Created by Virginia statute on May 6, 1782, the court first met in Harrodsburg on March 3, 1783. Later meetings at Low Dutch Station and John Crow's . . . — Map (db m121534) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1442 — Trinity Episcopal Church
One of the oldest church buildings in Danville. Erected in 1830 after Trinity parish founded in 1829. Rebuilt on the original walls following fire which swept central part of town, 1860. James Birney and Ephraim McDowell members of first vestry. In . . . — Map (db m121539) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Watts-Bell House
The Watts-Bell House circa 1816-1817, was built by William Watts for leading Danville merchant David Bell. Joshua Fry Bell, grandson of David Bell, grew up in this house. He became a distinguished lawyer and statesman, serving as a member of the . . . — Map (db m121728) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2386 — Willis Russell House / Craddock and Tardiveau
Willis Russell, a well-educated & emancipated slave of Rev. War captain Robert Craddock, relocated from Warren Co., Ky. to Danville around April 1838. He taught black children in this pre-1795 log home that he inherited when Capt. Craddock died in . . . — Map (db m121564) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Junction City — 2233 — Traveler's Rest
Isaac Shelby, 1st & 5th governor, came to Ky. as a surveyor in 1775. He claimed 1400 acres in 1776 by raising a crop of corn. In 1779 he received 1st land settlement & premption deed granted by Va. Land Commission. His home, Traveler's Rest, . . . — Map (db m120115) HM
Kentucky (Boyle County), Junction City — 95 — Traveler's Rest
. . . — Map (db m120116) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Bardstown Junction — 34 — Action at Bardstown JunctionGreat Raid — July 6, 1863
John Hunt Morgan's command of some 2,500 men left Bardstown and moved west. The raid, to this point, simply had not gone as planned. Morgan had fought two pitched battles at Green River Bridge and at Lebanon and had been held up for hours by Union . . . — Map (db m122941) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Bardstown Junction — 1162 — Salt River Furnace / Iron Made in Kentucky
Stood one mile west. It was a stone stack 33 ft. high with a maximum inner diameter of 10 ft. Its fuel was charcoal, and its air blast machinery was driven by a steam engine, blowing preheated air through the stack. Built in 1832, perhaps by John H. . . . — Map (db m122030) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Belmont — 33 — Stockade at BelmontGreat Raid — July 6, 1863
By early December 1862 stockades had been constructed along the L&N at Shepherdsville, Bardstown Junction, Belmont and Cain Run, just north of Lebanon Junction. These wooden fortifications were designed to protect against an attack by cavalry or . . . — Map (db m122943) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Lebanon Junction — 14 — Lebanon JunctionChristmas Raid — December 29-30, 1862
The American Civil War was the first conflict to utilize railroads for the movement of troops and supplies. Consequently, protecting the railroads was an important aspect of military strategy on both sides. In Kentucky this task fell to the Union . . . — Map (db m122944) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Lebanon Junction — 1324 — Sherman Here
USA Gen. William T. Sherman with 4,000 troops made headquarters here, late September, 1861. Object to secure Muldraugh's Hill against anticipated onrush of Confederates toward Louisville and to rally Kentuckians to Union cause. CSA Gen. Simon B. . . . — Map (db m122002) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Sheperdsville — 35 — Fort DeWolf
The Union army began protecting the L&N Railroad from the beginning of the war. Once Nashville was taken the railroad became a vital supply line for Federal troops in Tennessee. It was equally important for the Confederacy to disrupt that line of . . . — Map (db m122009) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — 2494 — Adam Shepherd
An explorer and surveyor, he was born in Pennsylvania on March 21, 1757. He came to Kentucky ca. 1781 to survey land for his father. Named a justice of the peace in 1793, he founded Shepherdsville on 50 acres on the north side of the Salt River that . . . — Map (db m122012) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — 2159 — Alma Wallace Lesch1917-1999
Side A A pioneer of the contemporary crafts movement, Lesch was an internationally exhibited textile teacher and artist, noted for work with fabric and found objects. Wrote influential book, Vegetable Dyeing, in 1970. Named Master Craftsman . . . — Map (db m122017) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — Bullitt County Veterans Memorial
In Memoriam To all those from Bullitt County who have made the supreme sacrifice and given their lives while serving their country in the defense of the liberty, justice and freedoms of us all.

Since the independence of our beloved nation . . . — Map (db m122016) WM

Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — 890 — County Named, 1796
For Alexander Scott Bullitt, a leader in the political formation of Kentucky. Member conventions, 1788, seeking statehood and, 1792, drafting first Ky. Constitution. President Ky. Senate, 1792-99, and second constitutional convention, 1799. Elected . . . — Map (db m122013) HM
Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — 1296 — L & N Bridge - Civil War
Destroyed 3 times by CSA. Partially razed on Sept. 7, 1862, by troops under Col. John Hutcheson. During the occupation of Sheperdsville, Sept. 28 Braxton Bragg's troops agin destroyed it, but new bridge was up by Oct. 11. After Battle of . . . — Map (db m122011) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — Burkesville FerryGreat Raid — July 1-2, 1863
John Hunt Morgan’s Great Raid into Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio began in Cumberland County, Kentucky. The raid lasted 25 days and covered a thousand miles, making it the longest Confederate raid of the Civil War. Morgan commanded 2,460 cavalrymen . . . — Map (db m98884) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — Confederate Crossings at Neeley's FerryThe Great Raid — July 1-2, 1863
During late June 1863 Confederate Gen. John Hunt Morgan's scouts and portions of his nine regiments moved into Cumberland County preparing for the Great Raid in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. The 1st Brigade, numbering 1,450 cavalrymen under Col. . . . — Map (db m98882) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — 959 — Cumberland County
Established 1798, taken out of Green County. Later, between 1800 and 1860, parts of Wayne, Monroe, Russell, Clinton, Metcalfe were taken from its original territory. First known white men here, 1769. Daniel Boone explored area, 1771. Burkesville, . . . — Map (db m98889) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — 885 — Lincoln's Father Here
Thomas Lincoln made claim for land in Cumberland County in May, 1801. In Jan., 1802 and again in 1804 he was appointed constable. On Sept. 5, 1802, he was commissioned ensign in Cornstalk Militia of Cumberland County. Returned to Washington County. . . . — Map (db m98887) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — 515 — Morgan On To Ohio
July 2, 1863, CSA Gen. John Hunt Morgan crossed Cumberland River near here, brushing aside Union patrols on north bank. Morgan placed some troops in ambush one mile from here and drove Union forces back to camp at Marrowbone. Morgan crossed Kentucky . . . — Map (db m98891) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — 601 — Raiders Entered Here
CSA Morgan's Raiders entered Kentucky here July 2, 1863. Union forces skirmished at Burkesville that day, followed by battles at Tebb's Bend July 4 and Lebanon on the 5th. At Brandenburg crossed Ohio River July 8 into Indiana. In northeastern Ohio, . . . — Map (db m98886) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — Skirmish at Norris BranchThe Great Raid — July 2, 1863
After the initial wave of Morgan's 1st Brigade crossed the Cumberland River, he sent about twenty men to reconnoiter west of Burkesville. The objective was to deflect the attention of the 3,000 Union soldiers camped at Marrowbone, seven miles west, . . . — Map (db m98894) HM
Kentucky (Cumberland County), Burkesville — Smith PharmacyOldest Pharmacy in the State of Kentucky
It all began in 1814 when three brothers, John, Philip, and Reuben Alexander opened a store called the "J.P.R. Store." Throughout the 19th century this store, not only sold drugs for man and animal, but sold everything from planks to cuff buttons. . . . — Map (db m98885) HM
Louisiana (Beauregard Parish), DeRidder — 22 — DeRidder - The Sawmill Hub
(center panel) Climbing roses and vine covered trellises, along with flowering plants adorned the yards of the 125 tenant houses that were built by the Hudson Lumber Com0any in 1903. The subsidiary sawmill was built by Long Bell Lumber . . . — Map (db m109521) HM
Louisiana (Calcasieu Parish), DeQuincy — Newport Industries
Between 1890 and 1930, large lumber companies moved into southwest Louisiana to harvest Longleaf Pine. After 1930, most of the companies ended logging operations, leaving thousands of acres of pine stumps. In 1919, W. Burns Logan, Sr., a chemical . . . — Map (db m109523) HM
Louisiana (Calcasieu Parish), Holmwood — Gerstner Field
First military air field in Louisiana. US Army signal Corps began training Nov. 1917. Gerstner had 24 hangars and 90 other buildings. Almost 500 fighter pilots and instructors were trained here for the World War I Western Front. Dismantled in 1921; . . . — Map (db m109525) HM
Louisiana (Calcasieu Parish), Sulphur — The Henning FamilyArea Pioneers, Community Leaders, Business & Industry Stalwarts
The Henning Family arrived in Calcasieu Parish in approximately 1875 and began to lay the foundation for a remarkable tenure as community, business and industry leaders. Reverend John Henning and Family, including son John Thomas Henning, arrived in . . . — Map (db m109527) HM
Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — Nathan and Mary (Polly) Johnson House21 Seventh Street — Has been designated a Naitonal Historic Landmark
This building possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America.

Nathan and Polly Johnson, prominent African American abolitionists, sheltered escaped slaves in this underground railroad "station." It . . . — Map (db m97070) HM

Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Site of Cokesbury ChapelEarliest Methodist Church in Natchez
Erected 1807. Launer Blackman, Elder. Caleb W. Cloud Pastor. Trustees: Launer Blackman, Newit Vick, Reuben Gibson, W. Foster, Phillip Gorral, David Lattimore. This tablet placed 1935 by Jubilee Circle of W.M.S Jefferson St. Ch. — Map (db m97262) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — The President's HouseCirca 1835
Originally the home of Washington physician John C. Inge, the school purchased this frame building in 1842 for $1,350 to house the college president. — Map (db m105846) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Washington Campground1804-1847
Site of first Methodist camp meeting in state, Dec. 14-17, 1804. Led by Learner Blackman, Nathan Barnes, Lorenzo Dow, and Randal Gibson. — Map (db m105847) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Emerald MoundMississippi Mound Trail
Covering roughly eight acres, Emerald Mound is the second largest Mississippian mound north of Mexico. The main platform was constructed in three stages beginning ca. AD 1350. Archaeological excavations have confirmed that the first and second . . . — Map (db m97256) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Bruinsburg — Battle of Port Gibson – Grant’s MarchWindsor Battlefield Tour
The Battle of Port Gibson was one of the turning points of the War between the States, since this defeat of the Confederates led to the capture of Vicksburg. This strategic battle was fought eight miles west of Bethel Church on May 1, 1863. When . . . — Map (db m105841) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Bruinsburg — Battle of Port Gibson – The BattleWindsor Battlefield Tour
Confederate General Martin Green had posted his brigade near magnolia church with at outpost at the A.K. Shaifer House. Shortly after midnight, Green rode forward to check on his pickets. The General found Mrs. Shaffer and the ladies frantically . . . — Map (db m105844) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Bruinsburg — Bethel Churchc. 1845. Greek Revival. — Windsor Battlefield Tour
The original congregation of the Bethel Presbyterian Church organized in 1826 under the direction of Dr. Jeremiah Chamberlain, constructed this building in the mid 1840s. On the interior, ornamentation is completely lacking. The use of pilasters on . . . — Map (db m105784) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Bruinsburg — Canemount PlantationCa. 1855. Italianate Revival — Windsor Battlefield Tour
This house is considered the finest example of the Italianate Revival influence in Claiborne County. The house is located on the site of an earlier house built about 1826. — Map (db m105845) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Bombardment of Confederate Fortifications by Federal GunboatsFort Gibson Historic Tour
The river on April 29, 1863, was at flood stage and falling. It was overflowing its banks from the bluffs on the east to high ground beyond the flood pain to the west. The river bend upstream just above the "Point of Rocks" force the current of the . . . — Map (db m105714) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Fort Cobun
On a ledge 40 feet above the Mississippi, the Confederates in March, 1863 , laid out Fort Cobun. Protected by a parapet nearly 40 feet thick were four big guns manned by Company A, 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery. The guns of Fort Cobun under command . . . — Map (db m105777) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Grand Gulf
The town of Grand Gulf was burned by Admiral David Farragut's men in 1862 and occupied by Porter's Mississippi Squadron on May 3, 1863. The Union occupation followed Confederate Brig. Gen. John Bowen's evacuation of the town after the Battle of Port . . . — Map (db m105718) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Naval Battle During Grant’s CampaignGrand Gulf Historic Tour
War returned in March, 1863. Fearful that Major General Grant’s army might bypass Vicksburg, Lieutenant General J. C. Pemberton ordered Brigadier General John Bowen to move his troops to Grand Gulf. During the next several weeks, Bowen’s troops . . . — Map (db m105776) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — On to Vicksburg
After crossing the Mississippi River and fighting the battle of Port Gibson April 30 - May 1, 1863, Gen. U.S. Grant moved to capture Grand Gulf as a base of operations against Port Hudson, Louisiana. Capturing Grand Gulf on May 3, Grant learned that . . . — Map (db m105723) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Paddle Wheel of the Confederate Transport CharmGrand Gulf Historic Tour
The paddle wheel, frame, and part of the pump came from the wreck of the Confederate Transport Charm in the Big Black River. The Charm, a 223-ton sidewheeler, was built in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1860. She was converted from a Yazoo River packet to . . . — Map (db m105715) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Point of Rock
In 1863 Point of Rock jutted far above the swirling waters of the Mississippi. Before the Civil War there was a large house with extensive gardens on top of Point of Rock. Before Brigadier General John S. Bowen’s troops were ordered to Grand Gulf in . . . — Map (db m105779) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Site of Hot Shot Furnace
When General John S. Bowen’s troops moved to Grand Gulf in March 1863, they had to cope with the ocean-going warships of Admiral David G. Farragut. Knowing that these ships were made of wood, the Confederates determined to use hot shot against them. . . . — Map (db m105781) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Town of Grand GulfGrand Gulf Historic Tour
The town of Grand Gulf began in the 18th century as a small British settlement. By 1828 it had grown to a village of three stores, one tavern, and several houses. There was a stage line to Port Gibson and steamboats stopped at its wharves. . . . — Map (db m105720) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Grand Gulf — Whirlpool
Grand Gulf was named for the large whirlpool or gulf formed by the current of the Mississippi River being diverted to the left by the rocky headland called Point of Rock. At the time of the Civil War, the Big Black discharged into the Mississippi at . . . — Map (db m105782) HM
Mississippi (Claiborne County), Hermanville — Rocky Springs
The once active spring provided a natural stopping place for travelers on the Natchez Trace and helped establish and sustain the rural community of Rocky Springs. The 25 square mile town, which included a post rider relay station prospered for . . . — Map (db m97265) HM
Missouri (Clay County), Liberty — Liberty Mormon Jail
Site of Liberty Jail built in 1833 and used by Clay County in 1856. Joseph Smith and associates held here awaiting trial in 1838-39. Restored as a Historic Site by the Mormon Church in 1963. — Map (db m90343) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — A Proud Tradition
The first permanent Spanish settlement brought new foods and cooking methods to the region in the late 1500s. Wheat became an important staple because it was easier than corn for making bread. Pueblo men learned to harvest wheat while the woman were . . . — Map (db m120169) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — The Measuring Lady
Dr. Sophie Aberle, a noted anthropologist, lived in this adobe-style house. Named the "Measuring Lady" by the people she worked with, her research focused on Puebloan women's lives, including pregnancy, childbirth, childcare, diet, and healing. As . . . — Map (db m120168) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Brocton — Brocton Arch
Has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996 by the United States Department of the Interior.

Brocton Arch Erected 1913 With unprecedented growth of the village, the Village of Brocton and Town of Portland . . . — Map (db m96609) HM

New York (Chautauqua County), Fredonia — Barker Common
First public park in Chautauqua County deeded to town of Pomfret 1825 by Hezekiah Barker who settled in Fredonia 1806. — Map (db m96227) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Fredonia — Fredonia #1
Near here on April 16, 1868, farmers organized the first grange to champion their needs in the healing of the nation recovering from civil war. — Map (db m96226) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Fredonia — The Pioneer CemeteryTown of Pomfret
This site was given by Hezekiah Barker for a cemetery and the first burial here was in 1807. There are 15 known revolutionary soldiers and many other earlier settlers of Pomfret resting here in this Pioneer Cemetery.

This marker placed by the . . . — Map (db m96228) HM

New York (Chautauqua County), Ripley — Site of Farm of William Crossgrove 1807
One of Original Inhabitants of Chautauqua County — Map (db m96216) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Sheridan — Site of First Settlement
Site of first settlement in town of Sheridan by Francis Webber Aug. 1804. Erected Aug 25, 1904 — Map (db m96246) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Sheridan — Site of Sheridan Depot of the New York & Erie Railroad
Piermont-on-the-Hudson to Dunkirk Line Completed - May 15, 1851

"Word's Longest Trunk Line" Railroad 483-mile Route — Map (db m96245) HM

New York (Chautauqua County), Silver Creek — Ehmke Family Home
Howard Ehmke, 1894-1959, lived here. World Series star. Pitched for SC High School, Detroit, Boston, Philadelphia. 1929 Series win and record. — Map (db m96247) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Westfield — Early Settlers of Portland, Westfield & Ripley
James McMahan • Basil Burgess • Edmd. McHenry • W'm McBride • Jno McMahan • Hugh Whitehill • Tho's McClintock • Arthur Bell • Geo. Whitehill • David Eason • Tho's Pendergast • David Eaton • Tho's B. Campbell • Rob't Dixon • W'm . . . — Map (db m96218) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Westfield — These Concord Grape Vines
These Concord Grape Vines bear the fruit which is the major source of grape juice and agricultural income along the shore of Lake Erie from near Cleveland, Ohio to near Buffalo, New York. In this area more than 100,000 tons of concord grapes are . . . — Map (db m96219) HM
North Carolina (Cherokee County), Murphy — Murphy North Carolina Rail
Beginning in 1873, the state of North Carolina began construction of a rail line to carry passengers and freight from Asheville westward. The line took many years to construct, cutting across the mountains, through tunnels and along the steep grades . . . — Map (db m120344) HM
North Carolina (Cherokee County), Murphy — Trail of TearsThe Valley Towns Baptist Mission
In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homeland in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of Cherokee perished during . . . — Map (db m120337) HM
North Carolina (Cherokee County), Murphy — Trail of TearsFort Butler and the Cherokee Removal of 1838
In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homeland in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of Cherokee perished during . . . — Map (db m120343) HM
North Carolina (Cherokee County), Murphy — Unicoi Turnpike TrailA Path Through time
The path now known as the Unicoi Turnpike Trail has existed for over 1,000 years. The earliest European maps of the area note the trail as a connector between Cherokee Territories and the coastal ports at Charleston and Savannah. In 1756, British . . . — Map (db m120338) HM
North Carolina (Cleveland County), Kings Mountain — Lincoln Academy1888-1955
Founder: Emily Pruden, educator and philanthropist from Orange, Connecticut. A co-educational boarding and day school, grades 1-12, for children of African descent. Accredited 1923. Home of Mildred Wellmon Elementary School, a historic Rosenwald . . . — Map (db m108710) HM
Ohio (Butler County), Hamilton — 28-9 — Abraham Lincoln's 1859 Hamilton Speech
Abraham Lincoln spoke from the rear of a Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad passenger train on Saturday September 17, 1859, to about 1000 people at South Fourth and Ludlow streets (about 785 feet south of here). Lincoln, elected president of the . . . — Map (db m122279) HM
Ohio (Butler County), Hamilton — Cosmopolitan No. 4
110 yards from the back of this marker on the present southeast corner of 4th and Butler Streets stood the Cosmopolitan Arms Company, founded by Edward Gwyn and Abner C. Campbell, where carbines for the Union Army were manufactured during the Civil . . . — Map (db m122283) HM
Ohio (Butler County), Hamilton — Trinity Episcopal Church
An Episcopal Congregation was first established in Hamilton in 1823 as part of a missionary movement under Bishop Philander Chase who later became the founder of Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. The present building was designed by Cincinnati . . . — Map (db m122284) HM
Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Unity Park
During the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, Union and Confederate skirmishers occupied this park area, turning it into a virtual no man’s land. Union forces occupied grounds south of here, toward cemetery hill and Confederate forces held positions to . . . — Map (db m120537) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — 1D 32 — "The Coal Creek War"1891-92
Coal Creek valley was the scene of an armed rebellion against the state by free miners seeking an end to the common practice of leasing convicts to coal companies. On Oct. 31, 1891 the convict laborers at Briceville were freed by armed miners. The . . . — Map (db m102292) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — Briceville Church
Built in 1888 by Welsh coal miners, the church and its cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Miners who fought the Tennessee National Guard over the use of convict labor during the Coal Creek War and the church was a . . . — Map (db m102331) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — Cross Mountain Disaster
The Cross Mountain Mine opened in 1888 approximately one mile up Slatestone Road to the west. By 1911, it had two power plants to generate electricity, providing incandescent light for the main entries. Coal was cut by electric chain machines and . . . — Map (db m102329) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — Legacy of Condy Harmon
Powell Harmon wrote a farewell letter before suffocating in the Fraterville Mine in 1902 that said, "My boys, never work in the coal mines.: His eldest son, Briceville student Condy Harmon, knew that honoring such a request would subject his family . . . — Map (db m102425) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — Miners' Circle Cemetery
Thirty-one of the 84 miners who perished in the December 9, 1911 explosion of the Cross Mountain Mine are buried in concentric circles around a monument beside Circle Cemetery Road. The arrangement of headstones may be rooted in the Welsh ancestry . . . — Map (db m102427) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Briceville — Welsh in Coal Creek
In the last half of the 1800s, the Welsh in America published books in their native language at a time when it was illegal to do so in Great Britain. Coal Creek miners Rees R. Thomas and his son David R. Thomas donated a rare collection of those . . . — Map (db m102333) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Clinton — City of Pearls
In 1895, Sam Hendrickson (pictured) started Clinton's pearling industry. Clinton's citizens used braille boats (pictured) with braille hooks (pictured) to drag the bottom of the Clinch River for mussel shells (pictured). Young's Island (pictured) . . . — Map (db m112097) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Clinton — 1D 41 — Clinton High School
Following a court order by Federal District Judge Robert L. Taylor, on August 27, 1956, 12 black students, now known as "The Clinton 12", enrolled in Clinton High School without incident, making it one of the first desegregated public high schools . . . — Map (db m121331) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Clinton — 1D 20 — The Market Place of Pearls
From about 1895 to 1936 Tennessee was one of the nation's six leading states in marketing pearls. Clinton was listed as one of three Tennessee towns known as centers of the pearling industry. New York dealers came regularly to Clinton during the . . . — Map (db m112098) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Fraterville — Fraterville Disaster
The Fraterville Mine exploded on May 19, 1902, killing all 216 miners. Poignant farewell messages were found on the bodies of Jacob Vowell, Powell Harmon, John Hendren, Harry Beach, Scott Chapman, James Brooks, R.S. Brooks, George Hutson, Frank . . . — Map (db m102428) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Fraterville — Itinerant Miners' Cemetery
Itinerant miners worked in the Fraterville Mine alongside miners with long-term contracts and strong local ties. Bodies of the itinerant miners were not claimed after the 1902 explosion and were buried adjacent to the railroad spur that led to the . . . — Map (db m102429) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Fraterville — Village of Brothers
Major Eldad Cicero Camp, a Civil War Union veteran, U.S. District Attorney, and businessman, never used convicts in his mines. Instead, he established contracts with experienced miners. Fraterville, the name of Major Camp's first mine and the . . . — Map (db m102430) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Norris — Norris Dam
Named for George W. Norris United States Senator from Nebraska in recognition of his public services.

Built for the people of The United States of America by the Tennessee Valley Authority under direction of the Congress and the President. . . . — Map (db m102771) HM

Tennessee (Anderson County), Norris — The Tennessee Valley Authority
The American Institute of Certified Planners has designated The Tennessee Valley Authority as a National Planning Landmark Founded in 1933 and encompassing a multi-state region of more than 40,000 square miles, T.V.A. was the first large-scale . . . — Map (db m101833) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Norris — The TVA System of Multi-Purpose DamsBuilt for the People of the United States of America — Norris Dam
The Tennessee River has its headwaters in the mountains of Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia. The main stream forms at Knoxville, where the Holston and the French Broad Rivers join.

The valley, 41,000 square miles in area, . . . — Map (db m101834) HM

Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1942
The war years during the first part of the year was dreadful. German submarines were wreaking havoc with our shipping in the Atlantic; the Japanese were winning in the Pacific, and the Germans were driving across North Africa. In late May, a . . . — Map (db m112276) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1943
The year opened with fierce fighting on battlefronts all over the world – Stalingrad, North Africa, the South Pacific. Here, February saw groundbreaking for Oak Ridge’s Y-12 Plant and the X-10 Graphite Reactor. Starting April 1, armed guards . . . — Map (db m112277) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1944
New arrivals to this fenced in area called the Clinton Engineer Works were amazed at the extensive construction at every turn – more Cemestos “alphabet” homes were going up on Black Oak Ridge, as were more “flattops” in . . . — Map (db m112278) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1945
The new city was crowded – all 90 dorms of singles, housing for families at a premium. In May the population peaked at 75,000. Y-12 had 22,400 workers; K-25, 11,000; X-10, 1,500. People at the plants were urged to work harder than ever at . . . — Map (db m112548) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1946
This was the world’s first fully peacetime year since 1938. Cities everywhere began struggling to change things back to normal; Oak Ridge was different – we had never been normal. Things here were also in a state of flux because the success of . . . — Map (db m112280) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1947
Although many residents still felt Oak Ridge was a wartime town, they were now encouraged to view their city as possibly becoming a permanent community. This transition was kicked off January 1 when the Manhattan Engineering District handed off . . . — Map (db m112281) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1948
Union Carbide agreed to manage X-10 as well as the Y-12 plant with their new defense mission, and the K-25 uranium enrichment plant. Carbide named Nelson Rucker as X-10 executive director who with Alvin Weinberg instilling a sense of stability as . . . — Map (db m112282) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1949
On January 20 “The Oak Ridger” published its first edition. It told the city’s stories for decades, like a favorite talk about colorful, hard-driving General Leslie Groves, Manhattan Engineering District commandant. When he had needed . . . — Map (db m112283) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1D 28 — Castle on the Hill
The Administration Building for the Clinton Engineering Works opened March 15, 1943. Dubbed "The Castle", it became headquarters for the Manhattan Engineering District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, from which all Manhattan Project construction was . . . — Map (db m112099) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Construction Workers
Starting with farmland in November 1942, 110,000 construction workers in two-and-a-half years built two huge uranium-235 production plants, Y-12 and K-25, at a cost of $759 million; X-10 and S-50, at a cost of $23 million; and the town for those who . . . — Map (db m112348) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Dedicated to the Memory of Those from Oak Ridge Who Gave Their Lives That Freedom Might Live
1942 - 1992 Samuel Karl Asher • Michael Roger Baker • James Edward Barlow • Jeff Thomas Barnett, Jr. • Martin Owen Boone • Joseph Keith Bradley • Gerald Wayne Davidson • Luther E. Davis • Ronald Edward Hibbard • David William . . . — Map (db m112461) WM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — K-25 – The Gaseous Diffusion Plant
In 1940 Columbia University scientists led by John Dunning began their research to beat Germany to the atomic bomb. But it took four years before they learned how to make the key to the gaseous diffusion process – a very porous, strong . . . — Map (db m112350) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Manhattan Engineer District – USAEC
In 1943, General Leslie R. Groves, commander of the Manhattan Project, delegated to Colonel Kenneth D. Nichols the responsibility for administering what was to become a $2.2 billion effort. The Colonel had his headquarters here in a rambling, . . . — Map (db m112345) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge – Secret City
In November 1942, Army Engineers were ordered to build a town for 13,000 people. A year later their target grew to 42,000, and the actual population reached 75,000 in September 1945 – almost three times the city’s 2005 population. Shown on no . . . — Map (db m112549) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge and the Manhattan Project
In August 1945, citizens of this Secret City learned, most of them for the first time, that their hard work had made possible a weapon that was instrumental in bringing peace to a world anguished by the brutal, six-year war in which 54 million . . . — Map (db m112346) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge Hospital
The medical director responsible for the nationwide Manhattan Project, Colonel Stafford L. Warren, M.D., had his headquarters in Oak ridge. A professor of radiology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Warren was recruited specifically . . . — Map (db m112352) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge Schools
The need for good schools here posed special problems. The large transplanted population wanted schools at least as good as those they left behind, and the school population was destined to skyrocket from 830 in October 1943 to 8,223 in October 1945 . . . — Map (db m112550) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — ORINS / ORAUOak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies / Oak Ridge Associated Universities
In 1946, 14 southern universities formed the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS) – the first peacetime institution of this Secret City – to help faculty and students benefit from the outstanding research staff and facilities . . . — Map (db m112344) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, TennesseeTransformation of the Citizenry
In wartime 1943, realizing that unhappiness with living conditions would imperil the already fragile prognosis for producing uranium-235, the Army overseers of Oak Ridge strove to make life as pleasant as possible for the uprooted professionals sent . . . — Map (db m112457) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, TennesseeTransformation of the Housing
What most branded Oak Ridge as a temporary wartime community was its housing, almost half of which was added in a great rush during 1944-1945 as the town grew to five times the originally planned population of 13,000. Many thousands of the later . . . — Map (db m112458) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, TennesseeTransformation of Education and Health
At the same time the Government was starting large construction programs in 1948 to build permanent housing, work started to replace the hurriedly built wartime schools. The first permanent school finished was Willowbrook Elementary in September . . . — Map (db m112459) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, TennesseeTransformation of Municipal Services
In 1948, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) assigned the task of transforming the “Secret City” into an incorporated city to Frederick W. “Fred” Ford, the AEC’s new Community Affairs Director. In addition to managing the . . . — Map (db m112460) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1D 33 — The Chapel-on-the-Hill
Built in 1943 near the main business district (Jackson Square), this standard Army chapel was soon known with the Manhattan Project as "The Chapel-on-the-Hill". On 30 September 1943 it was dedicated for Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant worship. The . . . — Map (db m112102) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — 1D 25 — The Guest House
The Guest House provided accommodations for visitors to the Clinton Engineering Works (Oak Ridge) during the time of the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of the atomic bomb. The Guest House hosted such dignitaries as physicists J. . . . — Map (db m114613) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Violent Clashes"Flying...in the wildest disorder"
With the threat of war looming, Anderson County residents voted overwhelmingly against secession in 1861. When Confederate forces occupied East Tennessee and established a conscription center at nearby Clinton, Unionists slipped into Kentucky to . . . — Map (db m112103) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — X-10 – The Clinton Laboratories
In December 1942 University of Chicago physicists demonstrated that the newly discovered element plutonium could be made using a “pile” of uranium and graphite blocks. Aware that Germany was seeking to develop a weapon of unprecedented . . . — Map (db m112351) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Oak Ridge — Y-12 – The Calutron Plant
The top priority of the secret wartime Oak Ridge project was the Y-12 plant. That was the code name given to the process considered the best bet for separating weapon-grade uranium-235 (U-235) from U-238. This isotope separation process was the . . . — Map (db m112349) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — American Chestnuts
Convicts cut trees from Militia Hill and surrounding hillsides in 1892 so soldiers could spot attacking miners. Many of those trees were American chestnuts. Convicts and soldiers could not know that a fungus carried by Chinese chestnuts, brought to . . . — Map (db m102280) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Breastworks
Soldiers of the Tennessee National Guard became easy targets for miners positioned on higher ground after trees were cut from Fort Anderson. Convicts then dug these breastworks to provide cover from attacking miners.

War correspondents from . . . — Map (db m102279) HM

Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Coal Creek War
Welsh miners from the Knoxville Iron and Coal Company began mining coal at the foot of this hill in 1867, but were replaced by convict laborers during a strike in 1877. After convicts were brought to a mine in Briceville in July 1891, miners and . . . — Map (db m101896) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Convict Lease System
After the Civil War, southern states leased convicts to private industry to cope with a growing number of convicts and dwindling state budgets. The system degenerated to where primarily young African-Americans were being arrested and forced to work . . . — Map (db m101897) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Fire on Coal Creek
Soldiers responded to attack by firing cannons from here into the Miners Nest encampment on Walden Ridge, located south of the Wye Gap. Soldiers also shot cans filled with mud through the Wye Gap into the town of Coal Creek to signal that the town . . . — Map (db m102281) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Fort Anderson
The Tennessee National Guard built Fort Anderson on Militia Hill in 1892 to restore order during the Coal Creek War. The fort is located off Vowell Mountain Road, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

According to the . . . — Map (db m101893) HM

Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Ghosts of Convict Miners
In 1877, convicts replaced striking Welsh miners in the Knoxville Iron and Coal Company Mine, located in the hollow to the south. Prison records show that 131 convict miners died there from 1877 to 1893, while others were caught igniting methane gas . . . — Map (db m101892) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Militia Hill
Fort Anderson was built here on Militia Hill in January 1892 as a base for the Tennessee National Guard to protect convict laborers and restore order. Hostilities escalated with as many as 2500 miners from Tennessee and Kentucky participating in the . . . — Map (db m102277) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Siege on Fort
The Tennessee Coal Mining Company in Briceville dismissed convict labor in February 1892 and sold stock in the company to miners. Subsequent attempts to convince Gov. Buchanan to remove troops from the watershed failed, so miners attacked at this . . . — Map (db m102284) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — State Coal Mine
The arrival of General Carnes with the bulk of the state militia overwhelmed the miners by the late summer of 1892. Although they lost the final battle, Coal Creek miners won the war when newly-elected Gov. Peter Turney fulfilled a campaign promise . . . — Map (db m102282) HM
Tennessee (Anderson County), Rocky Top — Why Miners Fought
Agricultural land in the region was owned and being farmed by 1880. Younger sons of farmers sought opportunities in mining, learning new job skills from experienced Welsh miners. Mining also offered opportunities for African-Americans who comprised . . . — Map (db m101895) HM
Tennessee (Bledsoe County), Pikeville — Bledsoe County
Established 1807. Named for Anthony Bledsoe. Born 1733. Died July 20, 1788. Captain in the Colonial Army from Virginia. Major in the Revolutionary Army, Colonel in the Tennessee Militia. This marker is erected by the Volunteer Chapter, U.S.D.of . . . — Map (db m109176) HM
Tennessee (Bledsoe County), Pikeville — 2B 17 — Gov. James B. Frazier
Born in a house 160 ft. west, Oct. 18 1856. Elected Governor of Tennessee in 1902, he was reelected in 1904. He resigned in 1905, having been elected to the Senate, vice William B. Bate, deceased, and served there until 1911. Defeated for . . . — Map (db m109180) HM
Tennessee (Bledsoe County), Pikeville — 2B 17 — James Beriah Frazier
Born in a house 160 ft. west, Oct. 18 1856. Elected Governor of Tennessee in 1902, he was reelected in 1904. He resigned in 1905, having been elected to the Senate, vice William B. Bate, deceased, and served there until 1911. Defeated for . . . — Map (db m109179) HM
Tennessee (Bledsoe County), Pikeville — Pikeville During the Civil WarHistory Around You
The Bledsoe County Courthouse in front of you stands on the site of the first courthouse, which was completed by 1821. During the Civil War, in August 1862, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg led his Army of Tennessee north from Chattanooga to invade . . . — Map (db m109175) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Knoxville — 1E 18 — James Gillespy's Fort
About 2 miles northeast. Attacked Oct. 13, 1788, by 300 Indians under John Watts, the half breed. Defenders held out until ammunition was exhausted. 28 were taken prisoner; 17 slaughtered and bodies burned. Thereafter the locality was called the . . . — Map (db m90458) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — Craig Fort - 1785
Stockade enclosing about two acres extending southwest to large spring at base of bluff. Scene of many privations, perils and heroic encounters. — Map (db m107578) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — Maryville Polytechnic School
Dedicated with great affection and esteem by former students to the memory of Professor Charles William ("Bill Joe") Henry (1878-1935) and Mrs. Leola Landon Henry (1884-1966). Married January 1904. Founders and operators of Maryville Polytechnic . . . — Map (db m107920) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — 1E46 — New Providence Church
This Presbyterian church was founded in 1786 by Rev. Archibald Scott, of Virginia. In 1792, Rev. Gideon Blackburn built a log church here; the stones in the present wall are from a church which replaced it in 1829; the brick church replaced it in . . . — Map (db m28733) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — 1E 6 — Sam Houston Schoolhouse
Three miles south is the school-house built in 1796 by Andrew Kennedy and Henry McCulloch for their children. Sam Houston taught here in 1811 or 1812. He later became Governor of Tennessee, Commander-in-Chief of the Texas Army, President of the . . . — Map (db m109629) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — Sam Houston Statue
Four separate plaques. (Text of each plaque under the photos below.) — Map (db m107921) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Maryville — 1E16 — Where Houston Enlisted
Here, where Blount County's first courthouse stood, Sam Houston "took a dollar from the drum", thus marking his first enlistment in the United States Army, March 24, 1813. This culminated in his command of the Army of Texas, which decisively . . . — Map (db m28579) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Rockford — 1E 40 — Bartlett's Station
Nicholas Bartlett built a mill 300 ft. downstream about 1785. When Blount County was created in 1795, its mill-pond was a turning point from the Stock Creek boundary to run toward Bay's Mountain. The mill was used as a fort in the Indian troubles of . . . — Map (db m109333) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Rockford — 1E 11 — Knox CountyEstablished 1792; named in honor of — Maj. Gen. Henry Knox
Washington's Chief of Artillery in the Revolutionary War. Secretary of War in Washington's Cabinet. One of the founders and first secretary of the Society of the Cincinnati. Reverse: Blount County Established 1795; named in honor of . . . — Map (db m109332) HM
Tennessee (Blount County), Seymour — 1E 22 — McTeer's Fort
One mile south, near a large spring, Robert McTeer built a fort and mill in 1784. A branch of the Great War and Trading Path passed nearby. Reportedly, the first school in what later became Blount County was held here; it was also the first polling . . . — Map (db m108216) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Cleveland — 2A 109 — Civil War "No Man's Land"
After battles at Chattanooga in November 1863, and before the Atlanta Campaign the following May, southern Bradley County lay between Union and Confederate lines at Cleveland, Tennessee, and Dalton, Georgia. Both armies scouted the area. Soldiers . . . — Map (db m115884) HM
Tennessee (Bradley County), Cleveland — Col. Benjamin Cleveland1738-1806
Benjamin Cleveland was born in Virginia, later served in the North Carolina House of Commons and led the Wilkes County militia at the Battle of Kings' Mountain on October 7, 1780. This battle was considered a turning point of the American Revolution . . . — Map (db m107924) HM
Tennessee (Campbell County), Jellico — Conflict in Campbell CountyWar in the Mountains
The Civil War in Campbell County was often personal. Few residents owned slaves, and a large majority – 1,094 to 60 – voted against secession in June 1861. Local men formed what became Co. A and Co. B, 1st Tennessee Infantry (US), at the . . . — Map (db m119921) HM
Tennessee (Campbell County), Jellico — 1D 17 — Kirby Smith Invades Kentucky
Heth's Division, with the army's artillery and subsistence trains, passed into Kentucky through Walker's and Big Creek Gaps, while other combat elements of the Army of East Tennessee moved through Roger's Gap. The two columns reunited at . . . — Map (db m121322) HM
Tennessee (Campbell County), Jellico — 1 D1 — Tennessee - Campbell County / Kentucky
Campbell County Established 1806: reportedly named in honor of Col. Arthur Campbell. Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses; Commanded 70th Regiment Virginia Militia, in the Revolution; Commissioner for negotiation of Indian Treaties in . . . — Map (db m119950) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Cumberland Gap — Daniel Boone's TrailFrom North Carolina to Kentucky — 1769
Map (db m80240) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Cumberland Gap — 1D13 — Harrow School
Founded by Rev. & Mrs. A. A. Myers in 1890. First classes held in basement of Congregational Church on site of present Cumberland Gap School; later moved 1/2 mile west to Harrow Hall. Operated as a division of its successor, Lincoln Memorial . . . — Map (db m80233) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Cumberland Gap — Iron Furnace
From the early 1820s to the 1880s, an iron smelting business here took advantage of the rushing waters of Gap Creek. Today only the creek and part of the original 30-foot-high stone tower remain, a small part of an industrial complex of buildings, . . . — Map (db m81372) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Cumberland Gap — 1D14 — Three States Cornerstone1 1/2 mi.
The cornerstone for Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee is on Three States Peak. The first Virginia - North Carolina (later Tennessee) boundary at this point was surveyed in 1779 by Dr. Thomas Walker and Col. Richard Henderson. The present line and . . . — Map (db m80235) HM
Tennessee (Claiborne County), Cumblerland Gap — 1D8 — Cumberland Gap
First explored, 1750; Long Hunters used it until 1760, and Daniel Boone in 1769, cutting the Wilderness Trail through it in 1775. Hosts of pioneers followed even before the road was built in 1796. Postal service was established in 1795 and a post . . . — Map (db m80232) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — 1C34 — Jefferson County / Cocke County
Side A * Jefferson County * Established 1792: named in honor of Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State; formerly member of the Continental Congress; principal author of the Declaration of Independence; later Governor of . . . — Map (db m81373) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — 1C20 — Kiffin Yates Rockwell
Born in a house 500 yards south, he attended W & L University and V.M.I. Enlisted in the French Foreign Legion, August, 1914: incapacitated for infantry service by wounds, May 1915. Transferring to the French Air Force, he helped found the . . . — Map (db m28228) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — Swinging Bridge
A swinging bridge crossed the river just east of this spot, 1914-1924. It provided access to the G.L. Goughnour home on the cliff as well as access to town from Warford Road. — Map (db m126465) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — The Cross
The cross on the cliff was erected by Bob Knowles in memory of Vassar Brown, age 12, who was killed on the railroad in 1899. — Map (db m126466) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — 1C 66 — The War Ford
Located .2 mi. east on the Big Pigeon River is a strategic crossing used by the Cherokees. In Aug. 1782, Gen. Charles McDowell of Burke Co., North Carolina, raised an army of five hundred mounted militia from Morgan District to cross the mountains, . . . — Map (db m61779) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Newport — The Warford
The Great War Path of the Cherokees forded this river just west of this spot. It was the main route linking the Watauga and Chickmauga settlements. — Map (db m126464) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Parrottsville — Johnson's Parrottsville SlavesOrigin of Tennessee Emancipation Day
In 1842, state senator Andrew Johnson, a resident of neighboring Greene County, purchased his first slave here in Parrottsville. Her name was Dolly, and she was fourteen. Her son claimed that she approached Johnson and asked him to buy her because . . . — Map (db m92476) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Parrottsville — 1C 64 — Swaggerty Fort
This fort, one of only two known remaining blockhouses in Tennessee, was built about 1787 by James Swaggerty for protection from the Indians. Located on land of his Uncle Abraham Swaggerty, it consists of three levels. The cantilevered structure was . . . — Map (db m61780) HM
Tennessee (Cocke County), Parrottsville — The Hanging of Peter ReeceSwift Retribution
During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces accused each other of committing atrocities against prisoners and civilians. The hanging of Peter Reece, a Unionist who lived near present day Harned Chapel United Methodist Church, illustrates . . . — Map (db m87171) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Crab Orchard — Champ FergusonConfederate Partisan of the Cumberlands
Samuel "Champ" Ferguson was the most notorious Confederate guerilla leader in the Upper Cumberland mountains. In 1861, he formed a company and began attacking Unionist partisans. Such irregular forces were common on both sides during the war, . . . — Map (db m98849) HM
Tennessee (Cumberland County), Crab Orchard — 2C 12 — Thomas "Big Foot" Spencer
Thomas Sharp Spencer first visited Middle Tennessee in 1776. In the spring of 1778 he became the first Caucasian to clear land, build a cabin, and grow corn in the area. The following winter he resided in a giant hollow sycamore tree south of . . . — Map (db m84367) HM

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