“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Annapolis in Anne Arundel County, Maryland — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)

Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past

Sailing Confidently Into The Future

Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past Marker image. Click for full size.
By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
1. Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past Marker
Inscription.  Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium has been called a "Memorial that happens to be a stadium". While visitors and athletes for nearly 50 years have been inspired by the campaigns and battles emblazoned around the stadium facade, much more needed to be done to honor the service and sacrifice of the brave men and women of the Navy and Marine Corps who have defended our nation for more than two centuries.

Like the construction of the original stadium, this impressive renovation was made possible by countless alumni and friends. A prominent feature of the renovated stadium is a series of memorial arches. Arranged in pairs, each pair sponsored by a Naval Academy class or Navy support organization, they recall proud moments in Navy and Marine Corps history. The left-hand panels in these pairs present a chronological list of memorable occasions in the history of the two services, grouped and identified by the colored streamers affixed to the poles of Marine and Navy flags throughout the world. These "battle streamers" are representative of campaigns and battles from the American Revolution to the present time. America's naval history, though,
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By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
2. Global War on Terrorism
is much more than combat, and the list presented on these panels includes many other events that have shaped the modern sea service.

The right-hand panel in each pair describes and illustrates a particular event in naval history that has special meaning to the sponsor of that pair. From John Paul Jones, engaging HMS Serapis in our Revolutionary War, to deeds of bravery in our own day including current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Sailors and Marines have created a sterling record of duty. It is our hope that this symbolic display will help bring to life the services' proud heritage and point the way toward the accomplishments of the Navy and Marine Corps of the future.

Class of 1985

Global War on Terror
★ Noble Eagle (United States) 2001-
★ Iraqi Freedom (Iraq) 2003-2010
★ Philippines 2003-
★ Noble Dawn (Iraq) 2010-

Iraq Campaign

Class of 1985

Members of the Class of 1985 played major leadership roles in the Navy and Marine Corps during the Cold War, the Gulf War and the Global War on Terrorism. They conducted dangerous submarine missions, flew from Navy carriers, provided critical defense and fire support from ships at sea, and were in ground combat as Marines. Their significant
Class of 1985 image. Click for full size.
By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
3. Class of 1985
achievements and sacrifices were critical to maintaining America's freedom. This arch is dedicated to these classmates who fought for our country and to others who served our nation honorably in many diverse professions and businesses. We also salute the families of the Class of 1985 who were there for us all the way.

This arch is especially dedicated to the members of the Class of 1985 who gave their lives in the line of duty. Their ultimate sacrifice was not in vain.

Iraq War

On 19 March 2003, President George W. Bush announced that "On my orders, coalition forces have been striking selected targets of military importance to undermine Saddam Hussein's ability to wage war. Navy surface ships and submarines struck the first blows, firing Tomahawk cruise missiles at Iraqi command and control targets. Navy and Marine Corps aircraft, operating from five aircraft carriers stationed in the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf, joined with Air Force and other coalition air forces to annihilate Iraqi defenses in support of the ground campaign.

That campaign started with U.S. Navy SEALs working with British Marines and Polish Special Forces to secure oil terminals and platforms off the Iraqi coast in the Gulf. Other coalition naval forces cleared mines and sunken vessels from the waterway to the Iraqi port of Umm Qasr. Meanwhile,
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By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
4. Iraq War
the I Marine Expeditionary Force, an amalgamation of the 1st Marine Division, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and numerous other Marine and allied units, secured southern oil fields and pushed up the Euphrates River Valley.

Speed and close air support from the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing kept Iraqi defenders off balance as the marines seized their objectives in the drive toward Baghdad. They advanced deep into Iraq and fought climactic battles at An Nasiriyah and Al Kut. By the second week of April, Marine and Army Forces had secured Baghdad and Marine unis had carried out a lightning operation that captured Tikrit, home of the Iraqi dictator.

From the summer of 2003 to 31 August 2010, the official end of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Navy and Marine units as part of the coalition forces fought successfully to defeat an Al Qaeda-led insurgency, bolster the democratically elected government of Iraqi, and develop combat ready Iraqi armed forces. Carrier air crews, SEALs, Seabees, corspmen, counter-improvised explosive device experts, and thousands of Sailors serving as "boots on the ground" individual augmentees helped achieve those goals. In major battles for Falluja, Njaf, and Al Anbar Province and many individual actions, Sailors and Marines performed their duties with valor, dedication, and professional skill.

Operation Iraqi Freedom once again demonstrated
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By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
5. Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past Marker
the ability of the Navy-Marine Corp team to respond to any challenge with speed, agility, and persistence. Those who served proudly built on a tradition started at the dawn of the American republic.

Class of 1971

Southwest Asia Service (Persian Gulf)
★ Desert Shield 1990-1991
★ Desert Storm 1991
★ Southern Watch 1991-2003
★ Maritime Interdiction 1991-2003
★ Provide Comfort 1991
★ Desert Fox 1998

Kosovo Campaign
★ 1999-

Global War on Terrorism
★ Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) 2002-

Class of 1971

We honor here our classmates and all who served their country during Operation Enduring Freedom — our Nation's earliest response to the terrorist attacks against the United States of America on September 11, 2001. These classmates and patriotic Americans embraced the concept that we inherited freedom from our ancestors — a precious freedom we must continue to defend as long as terrorists threaten our democratic principles, our homeland and our American way of life. But our task is to do more than just honor those who have contributed. As President Lincoln said in his Gettysburg Address:

"It is for us the living,
Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past Marker image. Click for full size.
By Devry Jones, December 29, 2018
6. Evoking Our Naval Heritage Past Marker
rather to be dedicated to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced."

Operation Enduring Freedom

On 11 September 2001, terrorists associated with Al Qaeda hijacked four passenger aircraft. Successfully commandeering three of the four planes, they destroyed the World Trade Center in New York and damaged the Pentagon in Washington. Because the Taliban regime in Afghanistan has harbored the Al Qaeda organization, President George W. Bush, demanded Afghan co-operation in bringing the terrorists to justice. When the Taliban chose not to cooperate, the United States on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the short-term objective of toppling the Taliban government and the long term goal of dismantling Al Qaeda and associated terrorist networks.

The Navy-Marine Corps team played a critical role. Initially, Navy and Marine Corps aircraft from Enterprise, Carl Vinson, and Theodore Roosevelt attacked Taliban and Al Qaeda targets while special operations forces including Navy SEALs operating from Kitty Hawk were inserted into the country to support the indigenous anti-Taliban resistance. Navy and Marine carrier jets flew more than 75 percent of the nearly 4,000 combat sorties over Afghanistan in the closing months of 2001, flying missions of as many as 10 hours'
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duration due to the distances covered. P-3C Orion patrol aircraft also flew over Afghani skies to perform command, control, and targeting missions.

In early December, elements of the 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) were airlifted over 400 miles to a remote airstrip located west of Kandahar that was dubbed "Camp Rhino." With the growing Marine footprint, backed by Navy Seabees, medical personnel, and other supporting units, the anti-Taliban forces, backed by coalition air power, began an offensive that ended in the rout of the enemy. Kabul fell, and by early January, the Marines had secured Kandahar Airport. The 22nd MEU deployed to Afghanistan in mid-February 2002 and throughout Operation Enduring Freedom, Marine Corps units continued to deploy to Afghanistan on a rotational basis, as needed. With the toppling of the hostile Taliban regime, coalition forces proceeded to help reconstruct a country that had been savaged by two decades of war. Operation Enduring Freedom continued as naval forces conducted Leadership Interdiction Operations to intercept fleeing Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders and identify terrorist cells throughout the region and the world. In an ongoing global war against terrorism , the Navy — Marine Corps team continued to demonstrate its flexibility and ability to respond in defense of freedom.

Class of 1983

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★ Space Operations 1957-
★ Libya 1981-1986
★ Earnest Will (Persian Gulf Region) 1987-1988
★ Panama 1988-1990
★ Praying Mantis (Persian Gulf Region) 1988
★ Liberia 1990-1991
★ Somalia 1992-1995
★ Bosnia 1992-
★ Rwanda 1994
★ Haiti 1994-1995, 2004-
★ Northern Watch (Persian Gulf Region) 1997-2003
★ Eritrea 1998
★ Yemen / Aden 2000-2002

Class of 1983

...the brave men and women who risk their lives in the quest to conquer space, and recognizes that more USNA graduates have risen to this challenge than from any other source, many of whom have distinguished themselves and brought honor to all mankind. Alan Shepherd '44 first pierced the void of space under the American flag. Jim Lovell '52 commanded Apollo 13 in its remarkable return from near disaster on its moon-bound flight. Michael Smith '67 and our own Willie McCool '83 made the ultimate sacrifice when their space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, were lost. As mission commanders, pilots, engineers, scientists warriors and peacemakers, USNA graduates are bound together in the great cause of discovery. While many seek the vastness of space, only a few may met its exacting demands and risk all in pressing outward the boundaries of human existence.

For decades naval leaders have recognized that use of space is indispensable to the successful execution of our national maritime strategy. Realizing its importance in a multitude of areas, the Navy has been active in the region beyond Earth's atmosphere since the end of World War II.

Initially, the Navy fired captured German V-w rockets and then built its own Viking rocket for exploration of the upper atmosphere. During the 1950s, the Navy developed the Vanguard rocket to place satellites in space. Navy research and development was crucial in the nation's first efforts to develop tracking systems capable of locating orbiting objects. The Naval Space Surveillance System was commissioned on 1 February as the Navy's first space-related operational command to track and hostile space objects in orbit around the Earth.

Many of the early spacecraft were Navy-operated, providing communications, navigation, surveillance, and meteorological support for Fleet operations around the globe. For example, the Navy in 1960 developed and launched TRANSIT—the nation's first operational satellite system—to provide space-based navigation and positioning information for fleet ballistic missile submarines. The Navy also led the development of space-based military communications through the Fleet Satellite Communications System.

NASA recruited many of its astronauts and mission specialists from the ranks of the Navy and Marine Corps. The majority of the original seven astronauts were naval aviators, and seven of the dozen astronauts who walked on the moon had naval backgrounds. Additional accomplishments include the first American to orbit the Earth, first astronaut to walk in space, first manned moon landing, and first operational flight of the space shuttle.

Not only did many astronauts have a naval heritage, but in the early days of the space program many of their seaborne colleagues played a critical role in post-flight recovery operations. The images of Navy and Marine Corps helicopters hovering over bobbing space capsules operations. The images of Navy and Marine Corps helicopters hovering over bobbing space capsules and then returning them to the decks of Navy ships will always remain with a generation of Americans who lived in the 1960s and 1970s.

From those heroic beginnings in space arose the Navy of the 21st century, powerful across the spectrum, but deriving strength from the heavens. It is said that Sailors have always looked to the stars. They will continue to do so.

Class of 1966

Vietnam War
★ Dong Ha 1966-1969
★ Khe Sanh 1967-1968
★ Mobile Riverine Force 1967-1969
★ Tet 1968
★ Hue City
★ Sea Lords 1968-1971
★ Dewey Canyon 1969
★ Linebacker 1972-1973
★ Ceasefire Campaign 1972-1973
★ End Sweep 1973
★ Homecoming 1973

Class of 1966
Band of Brothers
Early in 1968, the North Vietnamese Army launched the Tet offensive, seizing key cities, including Hue, the cultural center and ancient imperial city of Vietnam. Three under-strength U.S. Marine Infantry Battalions totaling less than 2,500 men, attacked an enemy force five times their strength, defeated them, and drove them from the city. Suffering heavy casualties in the intense house-to-house fighting, most refused evacuation, believing their departure would diminish their fellow Marines' chances of surviving. The courage and dedication of these marines echo Shakespeare's words: "For he today who sheds his blood with me will be my brother..."

Graduating at the height of the Vietnam War, we will never forget our Classmates and comrades who served our country so selflessly; especially the 20 members of the Class of 1966 who made the ultimate sacrifice in Vietnam. This memorial is dedicated to their memory.

Hue City
On 30 January 1968, North Vietnamese Army and Vietcong forces took advantage of Tet, the Buddhist New Year celebration, to launch the biggest offensive of the Vietnam War. The ancient imperial capital, Hue, was attacked and South Vietnamese troops and a few American advisors fought to keep the entire city from falling into enemy hands.

Information on the situation was sparse, and a company of the 1st Marines was sent to investigate. They found themselves in a furious firefight with strong enemy forces. Reinforcements arrived, and the Marines fought their way to the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam compound, across the Perfume River from the old city. An attempt to cross the river was met with heavy fire and thus was halted.

South Vietnamese units were then sent into the old city, while Marines attacked the new city south of the river. The Marines slowly advanced in the face of intense resistance but could not break the enemy defenses. Tanks and recoilless rifles added their weight. Block by block and building by building, the marines cleared out the invaders. On 6 February, Marines recaptured the provincial headquarters, by then a North Vietnamese command post, and replaced a Vietcong flag with the American flag. Much resistance in the new city disintegrated.

By the next day the next day the new city was clear of the enemy. Marines were ordered across the river to recapture the Citadel, a large masonry fort around the Imperial Palace. The high wall prevented effective artillery or naval gunfire support, so this became an infantry effort. The fight began on 11 February; by the 22nd, after a series of frontal assaults against strong opposition, the Marines reached the walls of the Imperial Palace. South Vietnamese forces retook the Palace on the 24th and, on 25th February, Hue was pronounced secured.

The fight for Hue again demonstrated the quality of Marines in action against heavy odds. A war correspondent noted the spirit that animated them when he described the flag-raising over the North Vietnamese command post, writing "There was no bugler, and the other Marines were too busy to salute, but not often was a flag so proudly raised."

Class of 1967

Vietnam War
★ Mekong Delta 1962-1973
★ Market Time 1965-1971
★ Rolling Thunder 1965-1968
★ Quang Ngai 1965-1969
★ Seabee Operations 1965-1973
★ Stable Door 1965-1973
★ Sea Dragon 1966-1968
★ Game Warden 1966-1970
★ Thua Thien 1966-1968
★ Quang Tri 1966-1969
★ Demilitarized Zone 1966-1969

Class of 1967
This Arch is dedicated to the Class of 1967. To all who entered June 26, 1963 this arch is our legacy to the Brigade of Midshipmen and all who visit Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium. The Class of 1967 is proud to have worn Navy Blue, Marine Corps Green, Air Force Blue and Army Green in unwavering service to our Nation.

Mekong Delta
During the Vietnam War, Communist Viet Cong forces fought to seize control of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam's breadbasket and home to millions of its people. The enemy used the Delta's 3,000 miles of rivers and canals to transport arms, supplies, and reinforcements to guerrilla forces. Marine Corps operational involvement in the Vietnam War actually began in 1962 when the first Marine helicopter squadron arrived in the Delta south of Saigon to lift Vietnam Army troops into battle. To win control of the Delta, the U.S. Navy in December 1965 created the River Patrol Force comprising river patrol boats (PBRs), attack helicopters, Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) teams, minesweepers, and other units. The American naval forces operated jointly with the Vietnam Navy.

In Operation Game Warden, naval units asserted a presence on the major rivers of the Delta to prevent from exploiting these vital lines of communication. PBRs patrolled these waters, checked passing boats and sampans for contraband, and attacked enemy forces afloat and ashore. The joint Navy and Army Mobile Riverine Force was established in 1967 to surround enemy main force units and destroy them in pitched battles. Navy assault and transport craft deployed Army troops ashore and provided covering fire. During the Tet Offensive of 1968, the River Patrol Force and the Mobile Riverine Force proved vital to the defeat of Viet Cong units in the Delta.

To counter these successes, the Communists shifted their reinforcement and supply efforts to the smaller rivers and canals and concentrated troops in forests and swamps. The American response was Operation Sealords. The Navy deployed PBRs, Swift boats, SEAL teams, and other units in barrier patrols along the Cambodian border and targeted the enemy's Delta base areas. The enemy fought back hard, but with diminishing effect.

During the 1970 offensive into Cambodia, American naval personnel trained their Vietnamese counterparts to take control of the Delta war and transferred hundreds of craft to them. By the spring of 1971, most river operations were handled by South Vietnamese forces. The Delta was so secure by 1972 that the South Vietnamese command could deploy major army units north of Saigon during the enemy's Easter Offensive.

The men of the "brown water navy," operating in a unique environment on a scale not seen since the American Civil War, left a legacy of innovation, combat effectiveness, and heroism.

Class of 1952

Vietnam War
★ Naval Special Warfare Operations 1962-1973
★ Yankee Station 1964-1973
★ Naval Advisory Group 1965-1973
★ Quang Nam 1965-1971
★ Da Nang 1965-1971
★ Amphibious/Special Landing Force Operations 1965-1973
★ Quang Tin 1965-1969
★ Chu Lai 1965-1970
★ Starlite 1965
★ Dixie Station 1965-1966

Class of 1952
This Memorial Arch is dedicated by the Academy Class of 1952 to the memory of our classmates who served the nation as officers of the Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps in times of peace and war. They fought with distinction in Korea and Vietnam and served with honor throughout the Cold War. In each of these conflicts, there were members of the Class of 1952 who made the ultimate sacrifice. These classmates gave their lives in the service of our country while defending the cherished ideals of freedom for which this nation stands.

It is to our fallen comrades and their families that we owe the greatest debt of gratitude. This Memorial Arch will serve as a fitting reminder of their sacrifice. It is our hope that all who visit this memorial will more fully appreciate the high cost of the freedom we cherish.

Yankee Station
During the Vietnam War, the Navy's carrier forces routinely launched air strikes into North Vietnam, Laos, and South Vietnam from an operating area in the Gulf of Tonkin between the island of Hainan and the coast of Vietnam that was dubbed "Yankee Station."

In 1964 the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam increased its efforts to destroy the U.S.-supported Republic of Vietnam and the Royal Laotian Government. President Lyndon B. Johnson used the U.S. Seventh Fleet to deter Hanoi's aggressive behavior and to monitor Communist infiltration into Laos and South Vietnam.

The first major strike against North Vietnam came on 5 August 1964, when aircraft from Ticonderoga and Constellation retaliated for a Communist attack on the destroyer Maddox (and suspected attack on Maddox and destroyer Turner Joy). From March 1965 to November 1968, the Seventh Flee's carrier arm—Task Force 77—took part in Operation Rolling Thunder. Navy and Marine Corps carrier planes and surface warships operating from Yankee Station struck enemy supply routes and interdicted coastal traffic. Air strikes were carried out against increasingly powerful defenses that took a high toll of senior naval aviators who were leading strikes.

Normally, three or four aircraft carriers steamed at Yankee Station. These warships provided approximately half the combat sorties flown over North Vietnam by U.S. forces. Cruisers and destroyers retrieved down fliers, directed air traffic ashore and over the Gulf of Tonkin, and coordinated with the combat air patrol to defend the American naval forces. Supply ships replenished the carriers and surface ships on station with fuel, ammunition, food spare parts, and other necessities.

Though Yankee Station's location and powerful defenses discouraged direct enemy attacks, the carriers themselves were not immune from peril. Oriskany on 26 October 1966 and Forrestal on 29 July 1967 experienced major fires in the midst of combat operations. Sailors and Marines jettisoned heavy bombs, pushed planes out of danger, rescued pilots trapped by flames, and fought the fires to save their ships. Forty-four crew and airwing men were killed in Oriskany; 1934 gave their lives in Forrestal.

When North Vietnam mounted its massive Easter Offensive into South Vietnam in the spring of 1972, the U.S. Navy deployed six carriers to Yankee Station. Aircraft from these ships closed the major ports of North Vietnam with mines, helped stop the enemy offensive, and joined U.S. Air Force squadrons in the Linebacker Campaign. These operations were instrumental in bringing the enemy to the negotiating table and helped facilitate the ceasefire agreement of 27 January 1973.

Class of 1958

Expeditionary Service
★ Lebanon 1958, 1982-1987
★ Laos 1959-1964
★ Congo 1960-1962, 1964
★ Berlin 1961-1963
★ Cuba 1961-1963
★ Thailand 1962, 1973
★ Dominican Republic 1965-1966
★ Korea 1966-1974
★ Cambodia 1973
★ Cambodia Evacuation 1975
★ Vietnam Evacuation 1975
★ Mayaguez Operation (Cambodia) 1975
★ Indian Ocean/Iran/Yemen 1978-1979
★ Iran/Indian Ocean 1979-1981
★ El Salvador 1981-1992
★ Grenada 1983

Class of 1958
We, the members of the U.S. Naval Academy Class of 1958, dedicate this Memorial Battle Arch in honor and appreciation of all those who serve in operations that earned the Armed Forces Expeditionary Service, 1958 — Forward, Battle Streamer and, in particular, those who participated in and supported Cuban Missile Crisis operations. These expeditionary operations responded to acts of aggression, kept the peace, provided prolonged humanitarian operations, kept conflicts away from America's shores, and ultimately helped win the Cold War. Over half of our class served in units that contributed to the United States' prevailing in the Cuban Missile Crisis. We are all very thankful for the extraordinary opportunity of having attended the Naval Academy, serving our wonderful country, contributing to world peace and being a member of our great Class.

Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1962 the Soviet Union began secretly deploying ballistic missiles in Cuba. Once operational, these weapons would threaten much of the Western Hemisphere, including the nation's capital.

However, American aerial reconnaissance uncovered the Soviet plan. Learning of Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev's gambit, President John F. Kennedy convened a special Executive Committee to consider possible options. Sea power provided several alternatives and on 20 October the president ordered the Navy to implement a quarantine to prevent additional offensive weapons from reaching Cuba. Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral George W. Anderson, assured the president that "the Navy will not let you down."

On 22 October President Kennedy revealed this grave threat to the American people and demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles. The president emphasized that the quarantine was a peaceful action and that any aggressive act would have to be initiated by the Soviet Union. As he spoke, U.S. Navy ships were steaming toward a 500-mile arc to the northeast of Cuba. On station at 1000, 24 October, the time declared for quarantine implementation, they were supported by carrier- and shore-based naval aircraft tracking Soviet ships and providing air cover.

Meanwhile, American armed forces increased their readiness, with the B-52 strategic bombers on standby, Polaris missile submarines on patrol, and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) ready. Aerial surveillance of Cuba expanded, additional fighters and attack aircraft were positioned in Florida, the Guantanamo Bay naval base was reinforced, and a Marine air-ground strike force was formed to support a possible invasion. Naval antisubmarine forces located and tracked Soviet submarines, ultimately forcing several surface and identify themselves.

In Cuba, work continued on the missile sites, and the crisis deepened. On 26 October, the Navy demonstrated American intent to enforce the quarantine by boarding and searching a Soviet-chartered ship. The next day, additional Soviet ships turned back or stopped at the quarantine line. The Navy inspected those that stopped; those found to be free of contraband were permitted to continue to Cuba.

On 28 October, Premier Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles. In the ensuing weeks, naval forces verified that withdrawal. The capability and flexibility of American naval, air, and ground forces had given President Kennedy the leverage he needed to compel the Soviets to remove their offensive weapons and avoid a major conflict between the two Cold War superpowers.

Class of 1951

Korean War
★ Pusan Perimeter 1950
★ Inchon 1950
★ Seoul 1950
★ Chosin Reservoir 1950
★ Wonsan 1950-1953
★ Hungnam 1950
★ Carrier Operations 1950-1953
★ Bombardment and Fire Support 1950-1953
★ East Central Front 1951-1952
★ Western Front 1952-1953

Class of 1951
To all who served in the Korean War, especially to those who gave their lives, and to their families, the Class of 1951 dedicates this memorial. IN the two years following graduation, over half the Class of 1951 first saw combat. Most were in the Navy aboard ships operating off the coast and in the littorals of Korea. Those who became Marines saw intensive combat ashore, and five were killed in action. Air Force classmates flew missions over North Korea, losing two to enemy action. Our one Army Classmate also died in action. It was an experience for which the Naval Academy prepared us well through the training we received in the classrooms and on the athletic fields.

It is fitting, therefore, that this memorial be set in this stadium and close to the Naval Academy so that all visitors and graduates will be reminded of how the lessons taught here lead to the defense of our nation, our values, and our freedom.

Korean War
In 1945, Korea was divided between American and Soviet spheres of influence, with the United Nations (UN) left to oversee integration of North and South Koreas. Mistakenly believing the United States would not defend South Korea, North Korea launched an invasion across the 38th parallel on 25 June 1950 to unite the country under the Communist banner. The UN Security Council voted to establish and American-led UN command, and as member nations began to mobilize troops, American and South Korean forces, with vital U.S. naval support, made a stand at the Pusan Perimeter at the southern tip of the Korean peninsula.

In a classic example of littoral operations, General Douglas MacArthur's bold landing at Inchon on 15 September 1950 put Marines and Army troops ashore, supported by naval gunfire and naval aviation. This stroke cut the North's supply and communication lines, allowing UN forces to break out of the Pusan Perimeter and liberate the south. General MacArthur declared that "the Navy and Marines have never shone more brightly than this morning."

The drive north to unite the country under democratic rule was blunted in late November 1950 when Communist China entered the war and forced UN troops southward. In the northeast, Marines, supported by carrier based-naval aviation, doggedly fought their way out of Chinese encirclement at the Chosin Reservoir, fighting both the enemy and the bitter cold Korean winter. At Hungnam, these Marines, Army troops, and tens of thousands of civilian refugees were successfully evacuated to the south by the Seventh Fleet.

In early 1951, UN forces counterattacked, driving Chinese and North Koreans back across the 38th parallel. The Navy supported this campaign with air strikes, gunfire against supply lines, insertion of commando teams, and minesweeping and mounted a siege of Wonsan, North Korea's principal east coast port. With both sides vying for military leverage, truce negotiations began in June 1951. The conflict now became a trench-warfare stalemate with bitter fighting for control of outposts manned by the 1st Marine Division. The Navy supported troops ashore with gunfire, air attacks, and seaborne logistics. After two more years of combat and negotiation, a truce agreement was signed in 1953.

The Korean War was a key event of the Cold War, an extended confrontation between Western democracy and totalitarian Communist power. The conflict served as an early example of the value of naval power that was often repeated through the remainder of the Cold War and thereafter.
Location. 38° 59.043′ N, 76° 30.361′ W. Marker is in Annapolis, Maryland, in Anne Arundel County. Memorial can be reached from Taylor Avenue (Maryland Route 435) north of Melrose Street, on the right when traveling south. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 550 Taylor Avenue, Annapolis MD 21401, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Class of 1956 Memorial Plaza (within shouting distance of this marker); Smedberg Gate (within shouting distance of this marker); Non Sibi Sed Patriae (within shouting distance of this marker); This thirty-two pounder iron cannon barrel (within shouting distance of this marker); Jack Stephens Field (within shouting distance of this marker); Alumni Arch (within shouting distance of this marker); Blue Angels (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line); Who was Henry Davis? (approx. half a mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Annapolis.
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Credits. This page was last revised on March 17, 2019. This page originally submitted on December 29, 2018, by Devry Becker Jones of Washington, District of Columbia. This page has been viewed 69 times since then and 38 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on December 29, 2018, by Devry Becker Jones of Washington, District of Columbia. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.
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