The War of 1812
The United States declared war on Great Britain in 1812 for many reasons, but the roots of the conflict can be traced back to a series of wars between France and Great Britain in the 1790s and early 1800s known as the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. During the early years of these wars, the United States made a great deal of money as a neutral maritime carrier trading with both France and Great Britain. However, by 1805, the British began to blockade French ports, and the French responded by cutting off all European and American trade into British ports. As a result, Britain and France began to seize American merchant ships headed for enemy ports, an act considered by many Americans to be a clear violation
The declaration of war in 1812 came not only because of perceived violations of America's maritime rights, but also because of events happening on the northwestern frontier in America. As American pioneers began to move west, they increasingly encroached on Indian lands. The Indians, wanting to turn back the white settlers and defend their land, looked to the British military in Canada for support. Though Indian efforts to stem the tide of American settlers proved to be unsuccessful even with British support, many Americans became convinced that the only way to solve the nation's problems with the Indians once and for all was to remove their British allies from Canada.
Cries of “On to Canada, on to Canada” could be heard in the halls of Congress from the most vocal American proponents for war against Great Britain, the so-called “War Hawks” who had been
By 1814, despite a few successes on the sea, the United States was far from achieving its intended goal of conquering Canada. In fact, Americans were being forced to defend their homeland against invading Brits. By the middle of 1814, when Britain finally defeated Napoleon in Europe, it began to turn its undivided attention to the war effort in America. The British began to send thousands of new troops into America. They also had developed a very well-defined three-pronged strategy- attack New York, move into the Chesapeake Bay to overwhelm Washington D.C., and seize New Orleans in order to control the Mississippi River. Things did not go as easily as the British had planned. In New York, as the Brits came down Lake Champlain, an American fleet led by Thomas Macdonough engaged and defeated them at the Battle of Plattsburgh Bay. In D.C., British troops met much less resistance. They were able to enter Chesapeake Bay and march into Washington with relative ease in August 1814. The British troops proceeded to burn most of the public buildings there including the Capitol building and White House. Their attempt to take nearby Baltimore in September, however, turned out to be a failure. The Americans were able to withstand a major naval bombardment at Fort McHenry which inspired Francis Scott Key to write the “Star-Spangled Banner."
While British troops made their way to New Orleans for the third phase of their strategy, peace talks were in progress in the Belgian town of Ghent. They had started back in August 1814, but the British stalled to see how their efforts in New York and Washington D.C. turned out before commit- ting to anything. When news of Plattsburgh and Baltimore reached them, they decided to seek peace. For their part, the Americans decided that not losing the war was victory enough. The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814, settled almost none of the issues over which the war was fought. The Americans got no British assurances to end impressment and the British failed to get Indian buffer states in the northwestern territory which had become one of their main goals. The treaty was essentially an armistice.
Nevertheless, most Americans came away with the notion that the United States had won the war even though it had not reached any of its objectives. In large part, that feeling came from the pride the nation felt in winning the Battle of New Orleans, a battle waged ironically two weeks after the war was officially over. Because trans-Atlantic communication in the early nineteenth century was slow, the news about the signing of the Treaty of Ghent did not make it back to America until after Andrew Jackson's outnumbered American army defeated the British army on January 8, 1815. This ushered in a period of American patriotism that brought the country together. The nation entered the War of 1812 divided, but came out as one.
Location. 30° 13.69′ N, 90° 54.808′ W. Marker is in Gonzales, Louisiana, in Ascension Parish. Marker can be reached from South Irma Boulevard 0.3 miles north of East Worthey Street, on the right when traveling north. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Gonzales LA 70737, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Star Spangled Banner (here, next to this marker); The Battle of New Orleans, 1815 (here, next to this marker); The Mexican-American War (a few steps from this marker); Mexico Will Poison Us (a few steps from this marker); a different marker also named The Mexican-American War (a few steps from this marker); Ascension Parish Residents Fighting the War on Terror (within shouting distance of this marker); Civil War (within shouting distance of this marker); a different marker also named Civil War (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Gonzales.
More about this marker. Located in the Gonzales Veterans Memorial Park.
Categories. • War of 1812 •
Credits. This page was last revised on March 10, 2018. This page originally submitted on March 10, 2018, by Cajun Scrambler of Assumption, Louisiana. This page has been viewed 52 times since then. Photos: 1, 2, 3. submitted on March 10, 2018.