Umatilla in Umatilla County, Oregon — The American West (Northwest)
They are Marking the Land
In 1855, Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens and Oregon Territory Indian Superintendent Joel Palmer convened a treaty council in present-day Walla Walla, Washington with Yakama, Nez Perce, Cayuse, Umatilla and Walla Walla bands and tribes. They proposed two reservations: one in Nez Perce territory, one in Yakama territory. The Cayuse, Umatilla and Walla Walla, unwilling to relocate, withheld consent until the treaty commissioners agreed to establish the Umatilla Indian Reservation.
In our treaty, our ancestors ceded more than 6 million acres to the United States and retained 1/2 million acres of the homeland. They also preserved rights we always had: to fish, to hunt and to gather foods and medicines within the ceded lands.
Intense pressure for the valuable farming and grazing land within our reservation resulted in allotment of our lands under the Slater Act of 1885. The reservation was surveyed and parcels assigned to tribal individuals. The remaining land was sold. Land and boundary surveys, allotments and other government policies eventually reduced our reservation from 510,000 acres to 158,000
October 1805 & April 1806: Lewis and Clark pass through
1818: Fort Nez Perces, first non-Indian structure built in the area,
established on the Columbia between the Walla Walla and Snake Rivers
1836: Dr. Marcus Whitman establishes Protestant mission in CTUIR homeland
1843: Thousands of people emigrate northwest along the Oregon Trail
1854-1855: Isaac Stevens negotiates Indian treaties from the Puget Sound to the Rocky Mountains
June 9, 1855: US government treaty negotiations conclude with Cayuse, Umatilla and Walla Walla
February 14, 1859: Oregon granted statehood by US Congress
March 9, 1859: Treaty of 1855 ratified by US Congress; CTUIR cede over 6 million acres
Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Exploration • Native Americans • Settlements & Settlers. In addition, it is included in the Lewis & Clark Expedition series list.
Location. 45° 55.206′ N, 119° 18.3′ W. Marker is in Umatilla, Oregon, in Umatilla County. Marker is on Devore Road north of 6th Street (U.S. 730), on the left when traveling north. Marker is located in a pull-out and interpretive plaza on the north Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Umatilla OR 97882, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 14 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Cayuse, Umatilla and Walla Walla Homeland (here, next to this marker); The Lewis and Clark Expedition (a few steps from this marker); The Umatilla Rapids (a few steps from this marker); Stansfield Rest Area Oregon Trial Kiosk (approx. 10.6 miles away); Jack Dempsey (approx. 13.3 miles away); Covered Wagon Museum (approx. 13.3 miles away); Umatilla County Jail (approx. 13.3 miles away); The Blockhouse (approx. 13.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Umatilla.
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
Also see . . .
1. History of CTUIR.
The Walla Walla, were mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805 as living along the Columbia just below the mouth of the Snake River as well as along the Yakama, Walla Walla, and Snake Rivers. The Umatilla occupied both sides of the Columbia River from above the junction of the Umatilla River downstream to the vicinity of Willow Creek on the Oregon side and to Rock Creek on the Washington side. The Cayuse, lived south of and between the Nez Perces and Wallah-Wallahs, extending from the Des Chutes or Wawanui river to the eastern side (Submitted on February 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.)
2. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.
After ceding their territories, the Umatilla, Walla Walla, and Cayuse relocated to what was called the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla American Indian Reservation (CTUIR). In exchange for ceding most of their territories they received supplies and annuities from the federal government. In 1887, under the Allotment Act, communal land was distributed to households. This and other legislation made it possible for the members to sell their lands but they were preyed on by speculators and swindlers. In the 20th century, the tribe pursued a major land claim case against the federal government, saying that the three tribes had traditionally controlled one million more acres of land than they had been compensated for following the 1855 treaty. The Indian Claims Commission awarded the confederated tribes several million dollars in a negotiated settlement. (Submitted on February 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.)
3. Treaty of 1855.
In 1855 the U.S. Government and the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Tribes signed a treaty in which the tribes ceded more than 6.4 million acres in what is now northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Umatilla Reservation now consists of 172,000 acres, nearly half of which is owned by non-Indians. (Submitted on February 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.)
Credits. This page was last revised on February 15, 2018. It was originally submitted on February 14, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 154 times since then and 21 times this year. Photos: 1. submitted on February 14, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. 2, 3, 4. submitted on February 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.