“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Upton in Baltimore, Maryland — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)

The Street of Royalty

Pennsylvania Avenue Heritage Trail

The Street of Royalty Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
1. The Street of Royalty Marker
As the Old West Baltimore neighborhood matured, Pennsylvania Avenue became a mix of theaters, shops, pubs, beauty parlors, barber shops, lunch rooms, hotel and professional offices. By the 1910s, patrons shortened the name to the “Avenue,” and the Royal Theatre became its biggest jewel, attracting nationally known acts. Built as the Douglas in 1921, the venue was renamed the Royal in 1926, becoming part of the East Coast circuit of African American theaters that attracted greats like Nat King Col, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong and Count Basie.

Other clubs opened on the Avenue including the Ritz, Club Casino, the Sphinx, the Comedy Club and Gamby’s. These venues created a lively street scene and placed Pennsylvania Avenue on the map as a world-renowned entertainment district. The Avenue became a 24-hour destination with shopping and professional services open during the day and nightclubs, theatres and restaurants open at night. The Avenue became African Americans’ “downtown,” featuring events such as the Easter Parade and the Cadillac Parade.

Old West Baltimore, too, helped nurture some of America’s

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most important musicians. Elmer Snowden, Cab Calloway and Billie Holiday called this area home at some point in their lives. These musicians greatly influenced the national jazz scene. Other Baltimore greats such as Eubie Blake, Chick Webb and Gary Bartz played on the Avenue, identifying Baltimore as an important jazz town.

Pennsylvania Avenue also played a role in supporting pioneering rhythm and blues groups, especially Sonny Til and the Orioles. First named the Vibranairs, Sonny Til and four others began harmonizing on the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Pitcher Street around 1946. Shortly thereafter, they began playing in clubs along Pennsylvania Avenue. They recorded their first single in 1948, and by 1950 they were one of the most popular singing groups in the country. In 1995 they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

(Inscriptions under the images on the right)
The Royal Theatre-Opened in 1926, the 1,100 seat Royal was part of the Chitin’ Circuit, a group of African Americans entertainment venue throughout the country. In a 1992 article in the Afro-American, James Wood called the Royal, “a model for the finest black entertainers, who could not showcase their exceptional talents elsewhere in Jim Crow America.” The Regent Theatre-Originally built in 1916, the Regent was rebuilt in 1920 as a vaudeville-styled movie house seating

The Street of Royalty Marker-Reverse side image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
2. The Street of Royalty Marker-Reverse side
up to 2,200. It was one of the largest performing venues catering to African American performers on the East Coast. Billie Holiday-Born in Philadelphia in 1915 as Elenora Fogan, jazz stylist Billie “Lady Day” Holiday (1915-1959) was raised in Baltimore’s Fells Point, Old Town and Old West Baltimore neighborhoods. She revolutionized jazz singing with her relaxed approach, rhythmic attack, and bluesy laconic phrasing. Elmer Snowden-Banjo player and band leader Elmer Snowden (1900-1973) grew up in Old West Baltimore and played at many local clubs. In 1919, he moved to Washington, D.C. and began playing with Duke Ellington. He moved his band, The Washingtonions, to New York in 1923. Though Ellington eventually took over leadership of the band, Snowden continued his band leading career, working with such musicians as Count Basie, Roy Eldridge and Chick Webb. In 1963, Snowden appeared at the Newport Jazz Festival. He toured Europe in 1967 and taught music at the University of California’s Berkeley Campus. Cab-Callaway-Cabell “Cab” Callaway (1907-1994) was born in Rochester, New York and moved to Baltimore in 1918. He went to school with Thurgood Marshall, but decided to pursue music rather than law. In 1929 he moved to Harlem, where he performed at the Savoy Club and became a big hit at the Cotton Club. He popularized scatting and wrote internationally popular
The Street of Royalty Marker-Royal Theatre Marquee in the background image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
3. The Street of Royalty Marker-Royal Theatre Marquee in the background
smash hits like “Hi-dee, hi-dee, hi-dee ho,” “Jumpin Jive,” “Jitterbug” and “Minnie the Moocher.” In 1976 he wrote his autobiography, Of Minnie the Moocher and Me.

Reverse Side of the Marker
Take a walk through history in storied Old West Baltimore. You’ll relive the glory days of Pennsylvania Avenue and its surrounding neighborhoods. Follow the lives of inspiring people. Tour churches that served as places of empowerment and beacons of enlightenment, and gain new perspective on this African American community’s role in the struggle for civil rights. Explore at your own pace following these story signs to learn about Baltimore African Americans who helped build a city and changed the face of American music, art, literature and politics.

(Inscriptions under the images on the right)
1.Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Maryland
2.The Lillie Carroll Jackson Museum
3.Douglas Memorial Community Church
4.Elks Lodge
5.Morriah Keyhole Houses
6.Booker T. Washington Middle School
7.Bethel AME Church
8.Union Baptist Church
9.Sharp Street Methodist Church
10.Henry Highland Garnet School/PS 103
11.The Royal Theatre Marquee Monument
12.Billie Holiday Plaza
13.Macedonia Baptist Church
14.The Comedy Club
15.Trinity Baptist Church

Royal Theater Marquee Plaza image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
4. Royal Theater Marquee Plaza
Savings and Loan
18.Baltimore Masjid
19.Thurgood Marshall’s Childhood Home
20.Romare Bearden Mural.

(Inscriptions under the images)
*Listen, Can you feel it pulsating down the Street of Royalty?
*It’s bee-bop, jazz, comedy—and of course—the blues.
*All the greats were here. Billie Holiday, Cab Calloway, Fats Waller, Eubie Blake and more!
*Learn about African American politicians and lawyers like William Ashbie Hawkins and George McMechan who fought against an ordinance segregating whites and blacks block by block.
*Visit churches that nurtured the soul, and also fed, clothed and housed the poor.
*Follow Thurgood Marshall from Henry Highland Garnet School/PS 103, to winning landmark Supreme Court cases, to becoming a justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
*Learn how Old West Baltimore residents and church leaders played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement and in the Buy Where You Can Work jobs campaign.
*And walk in the creative footsteps of writer Zora Neale Hurston, artist Romare Bearden and actors at the Arena Players.
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: African AmericansArts, Letters, MusicCivil Rights. A significant historical year for this entry is 1921.
Location. 39° 18.076′ N, 76° 37.888′ W. Marker
Royal Theater Marquee Plaza image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
5. Royal Theater Marquee Plaza
is in Baltimore, Maryland. It is in Upton. Marker is at the intersection of West Lafayette Avenue and Pennsylvania Avenue on West Lafayette Avenue. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Baltimore MD 21217, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Billie Holiday Monument. (within shouting distance of this marker); African American Politicians (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); Henry Highland Garnett School (about 400 feet away); Courting Justice (about 600 feet away); Buy Where You Can Work Campaign & Higher Education (about 800 feet away); Bethel A.M.E. Church (approx. 0.2 miles away); Henry Highland Garnet Park (approx. 0.2 miles away); Creating an African American Neighborhood (approx. 0.2 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Baltimore.
Royal Theater Marquee Plaza image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, February 25, 2017
6. Royal Theater Marquee Plaza
Credits. This page was last revised on March 16, 2021. It was originally submitted on March 3, 2017, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Maryland. This page has been viewed 525 times since then and 151 times this year. Last updated on March 16, 2021, by Carl Gordon Moore Jr. of North East, Maryland. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on March 3, 2017, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Maryland. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.

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Jun. 19, 2024