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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Civil Rights Topic

Old Merritt School Midway Community Center Marker image, Touch for more information
By David J Gaines, October 20, 2012
Old Merritt School Midway Community Center Marker
1Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center
Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak . . . Map (db m60910) HM
2Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 7 — Anniston Memorial Hospital — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
When seven injured "Freedom Riders" arrived at the Hospital on this date, the mob that had attacked them earlier in the day followed. The Riders were testing desegregation of public transportation in the South by riding buses. The bus they . . . Map (db m106647) HM
3Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 6 — Anniston Public Library Desegregation — September 15-16, 1963 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Desegregation of the Library began when two African American pastors, Reverends William B. McClain and Nimrod Q. Reynolds, peacefully attempted to enter the building on September 15, 1963. Their actions were endorsed by the city of Anniston . . . Map (db m106644) HM
4Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders
On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an . . . Map (db m35737) HM
5Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 3 — Greyhound Bus Station Protest, May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Front This was the site of the Greyhound bus terminal where on May 14, 1961, a bus carrying black and white Civil Rights Activists known as "Freedom Riders" was attacked by a mob of whites who were protesting desegregation of public . . . Map (db m106621) HM
6Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Saint John United Methodist Church — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Saint John, founded at the turn of the 19th century, is the first African-American Methodist Episcopal Church in South Anniston. The original structure was built in 1922. The current building was erected in 1951 on the corner of D Street and . . . Map (db m144905) HM
7Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 9 — Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church, Organized 1887 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church served as the home of "mass meetings" for black Annistonians who planned and executed Anniston's part of the Civil Rights Movement. Reverends D.C. Washington (1937-1960) and Nimrod Q. Reynolds . . . Map (db m106651) HM
8Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 1 — Southern Railway Station Attack — January 2, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Local "Jim Crow" laws in the first half of the 20th century enforced racial segregation in public transportation facilities throughout the South. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia (1960) upheld that segregation in these . . . Map (db m106602) HM
9Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 5 — The Human Relations Council — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
The Anniston City Commission, on May 16, 1963, established by resolution the Human Relations Council, consisting of five white men and four black men. The Council's purpose was to "make recommendations concerning human relations," and its members . . . Map (db m106627) HM
10Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 4 — The Murder of Willie Brewster, July 15, 1965 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Willie Brewster became the target of white extremists after words spoken at a National States Rights Party encouraged them to commit acts of violence against blacks. As Brewster drove home with co-workers from the night shift at Union Foundry, he . . . Map (db m106626) HM
11Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Trailways Attack — Seeking Justice
1st Panel Two busloads of Freedom Riders arrived in Alabama on Sunday, May 14, 1961, bound for New Orleans. It was an organized effort by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge the South's continued defiance of U. S. . . . Map (db m106721) HM
12Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 2 — Trailways Bus Station Attack — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, race relations in the South were dominated by local "Jim Crow" laws. Although in 1960 the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, local laws persisted. . . . Map (db m106605) HM
13Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 8 — West 15th Street Historic District — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
This district was once the economic and social hub of Anniston's African American community. In its heyday (1940-1950), the District was a "city within a city," with businesses that catered to the black community. Grocery stores, restaurants, . . . Map (db m106650) HM
14Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I
This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with . . . Map (db m57385) HM
15Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Howell Thomas Heflin — 1921~2005
Howell Thomas Heflin retired from a lifetime of distinguished public service in 1997, having served Alabama in the U.S. Senate for three consecutive terms. There he was known as a national leader on judicial, agricultural, defense, and space issues. . . . Map (db m28586) HM
16Alabama (Dale County), Ozark — D. A. Smith High School/ Professor D. A. Smith, Principal — Dale County
D. A. Smith High School Dale County The first school building on this site for African Americans was constructed in 1939 and was named Ozark Negro High School. It was replaced during the “separate but equal” period in 1952 and . . . Map (db m132087) HM
17Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — A Grassroots Movement — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
For centuries, Selma was a city where the rules of race were enforced by humiliation and fear. But Selma gave birth to one of the greatest grassroots campaigns in history—the voting rights movement. The Selma to Montgomery march was . . . Map (db m112370) HM
18Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge / U.S. Congress Approves Voting Rights Act of 1965
Side 1 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge A voting registration campaign in 1965 turned tragic Feb. 17 when an Alabama state trooper fatally shot Jimmie Lee Jackson in Marion. It prompted a protest march from . . . Map (db m81944) HM
19Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Brown A.M.E. Chapel (in front of you) served as a safe haven for supporters during the voting rights campaign. Pastor P.H. Lewis and his congregation courageously broke the injunction prohibiting African Americans from holding mass meetings, making . . . Map (db m131995) HM
20Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Campsite 1 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Hall Farm March 21, 1965Map (db m61846) HM
21Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Edmund Pettus Bridge — National Historic Landmark
Edmund Pettus Bridge has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance for its association with "Bloody Sunday," a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. Here, on March 7, 1965, . . . Map (db m82037) HM
22Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — First Baptist Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
First Baptist was the first church in Selma to open its doors to members of the Dallas County Voters League as well as to young activists from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. From 1963 to 1965, under the leadership of Reverend M.C. . . . Map (db m112366) HM
23Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — George Washington Carver Homes Projects — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Street
In 1952, the City of Selma accepted federal funds to build the George Washington Carver Homes Projects. The residences became “The Face of the Civil Rights Movement” to many in the 1960s because Dr. King, the Southern Christian . . . Map (db m112354) HM
24Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — George Washington Carver Neighborhood — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The George Washington Carver neighborhood served as base camp for the votings rights movement during the tumultuous weeks of March 1965. These blocks of brick two-story homes—the city's first and largest federal housing project for blacks, . . . Map (db m112365) HM
25Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Highlights of Selma History / William Rufus DeVane King 1786-1853
Highlights of Selma History Dallas County was created by Territorial Legislature Feb. 9, 1818. Selma Land Company formed Mar. 19, 1819 by George Phillips, William Rufus King, Jesse Beene, Gilbert Shearer and Caleb Tate. Selma incorporated . . . Map (db m37679) HM
26Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Honoring: Amelia Boynton Robinson - Marie Foster
The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 Mothers of the Civil Rights Movement Before and Beyond the Bridge Didn't Let Nothing Turn Them Around! Presented by The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . Map (db m111691) HM
27Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A Dream — Dr. Martin L. King Jr.
The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital. Defying threats of death, Dr. . . . Map (db m83578) HM
28Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Honor of James Joseph Reeb — 1927-1965 — “This Good Man” —
Rev. James J. Reeb, an Army Veteran and Unitarian minister from Casper, Wyoming, was working in Boston when Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. appealed for clergymen of all faiths to come to Selma to protest the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus . . . Map (db m37683) HM
29Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Memory of Reverend Hosea Williams, Sr.
Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 He Fed the Hungry "Unbossed and Unbought" 1926-2000 Presented by SCLC/W.O.M.E.N. Inc. Women's Organizational Movement for Equality . . . Map (db m111689) HM
30Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Lynching in America / Lynching in Selma — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America Thousands of African Americans were victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between the Civil War and World War II. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism . . . Map (db m132071) HM
31Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — R.B. Hudson High School — Dallas County
This school was the city of Selma's first public high school for African-Americans. Completed in 1949, the school was named in honor of Richard Byron Hudson, a black educator who had served for 41 years as principal of Clark Elementary School, . . . Map (db m82741) HM
32Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Sanctuary to Stage — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The shooting of Jimmie Lee Jackson in nearby Marion, Alabama, transformed Brown Chapel from a sanctuary into a staging area for the Selma march, In a passionate sermon SCLC worker James Bevel suggested making a pilgrimage to the State Capitol to . . . Map (db m112364) HM
33Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Est. 1838
Side A The original church, built one block south of the present site, was consecrated in 1843 by Bishop Leonidas Polk. In 1861, the second Bishop of Alabama, the Rt. Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, was elected there. During the Battle of Selma, St. . . . Map (db m37691) HM
34Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 In January 1885, Dr. Edward M. Brawley, President, Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School (now Selma University) formed Tabernacle Baptist Church to be an integral part of the students' Christian formation and education. . . . Map (db m82034) HM
35Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 Tabernacle Baptist Church was founded in 1885, and in March of that year, the congregation purchased this site. Built in 1922 under the leadership of Dr. David Vivian Jemison, the current church features bricks from the original . . . Map (db m83677) HM
36Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Honorable John Lewis
Honoring: Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 "Get in the Way" "When We Pray, We Move Our Feet" Presented by: The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . Map (db m111683) HM
37Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement — (The Beginning) / (The Prize)
(The Beginning) The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma. In January of 1963 local . . . Map (db m37662) HM
38Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Turning Point — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
By early 1964, the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's (SNCC) efforts to organize for voting rights had reached a turning point. In July 1964 Judge James Hare, pressured by Selma law enforcement to . . . Map (db m112369) HM
39Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Lynching in America / The Lynching of Bunk Richardson — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America Thousands of Black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism intended to . . . Map (db m116817) HM
40Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here
Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa . . . Map (db m83758) HM
41Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases
(side 1) The History of Paint Rock, Alabama Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water . . . Map (db m69756) HM
42Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys
Marker front: Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, . . . Map (db m22264) HM
43Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . Map (db m73023) HM
44Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . Map (db m61197) HM
45Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . Map (db m26985) HM
46Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . Map (db m26720) HM
47Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . Map (db m83809) HM
48Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
1963 A female protestor remains defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their . . . Map (db m83814) HM
49Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B1 — Don't Tread on Me 1963
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . Map (db m73037) HM
50Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a . . . Map (db m73007) HM
51Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 8 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the . . . Map (db m73031) HM
52Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was . . . Map (db m27090) HM
53Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was . . . Map (db m83827) HM
54Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town . . . Map (db m64736) HM
55Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the . . . Map (db m27394) HM
56Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area. After . . . Map (db m174706) HM
57Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Graymont Elementary School
On September 4, 1963, Graymont Elementary School was the first public school in Birmingham to be racially integrated. Two brothers, nine and eleven years old, accompanied by their father, James Armstrong, along with Reverend Fred . . . Map (db m153229) HM
58Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1 — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . Map (db m73015) HM
59Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A1 — Jim Crow on the Books
The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' . . . Map (db m73036) HM
60Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 6 — Kneeling Ministers
Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, . . . Map (db m73080) HM
61Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A3 — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct . . . Map (db m83833) HM
62Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Meditate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that . . . Map (db m83834) HM
63Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence
May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping . . . Map (db m73032) HM
64Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Racial Terrorism and Convict Leasing / Racial Violence at Brookside Mines — Community Remembrance Project
Racial Terrorism and Convict Leasing Thousands of black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950 Lynching was a form of racial terrorism that went beyond only hanging, . . . Map (db m173372) HM
65Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 5 — Reflecting Pool
Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This . . . Map (db m73021) HM
66Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 9 — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. . . . Map (db m73025) HM
67Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Bethel Baptist Church
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and . . . Map (db m83836) HM
68Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.’s ‘Letter From Birmingham Jail’ — Memorable Quotes from 'Letter from Birmingham Jail'
Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.’s ‘Letter From Birmingham Jail’ The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter From Birmingham Jail" is the most important written document of the Civil Rights Era. His eloquent justification of the movement and . . . Map (db m173404) HM
69Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church has been designated a National Historic Landmark This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the . . . Map (db m63733) HM
70Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 3 — The Children's Crusade
On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park . . . Map (db m73017) HM
71Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 2 — The Foot Soldiers
When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. . . . Map (db m73398) HM
72Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4 — Water Cannons
Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy . . . Map (db m73019) HM
73Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens
Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial . . . Map (db m35602) HM
74Alabama (Jefferson County), Brighton — Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching In America Thousands of black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism intended to . . . Map (db m101159) HM
75Alabama (Jefferson County), Fairfield — Miles College Leaders, Students Active During Civil Rights Era
Miles College Leaders. Students Active During Civil Rights Era The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church founded Miles College in Fairfield in 1898. During the 1960s, President Lucius Pitts encouraged students, faculty and staff to become . . . Map (db m153232) HM
76Alabama (Jefferson County), Irondale — Racial Terrorism and Criminal Justice / Lynching in Irondale — Community Remembrance Project
Racial Terrorism and Criminal Justice Racial terror lynching between 1865 and 1950 claimed the lives of thousands of African Americans and created a legacy of injustice that can still be felt today. After emancipation, white Southerners . . . Map (db m167223) HM
77Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — A More Inclusive Era
African Americans, through enslavement and Jim Crow, constructed campus buildings and worked at the University of North Alabama since its beginnings in 1830, yet they were denied admission as students for 133 years. In 1963, Wendell Wilkie Gunn . . . Map (db m156930) HM
78Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Charles Lee Moore — City of Florence Walk of Honor
Recipient of 1989 of the first Kodak Award for Photojournalism, Charles Moore chronicled such major events as the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's South, political violence in Haiti, and the air war in Vietnam.Map (db m56376) HM
79Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott — (In Florence 1820 -1830)
Dred Scott, whose name is associated with the landmark U.S. Supreme Court Dred Scott Decision of 1857, was born in Virginia between 1795~1809. In 1818 he was in Madison County, Alabama. He came to Florence with the Peter Blow family in 1820. About . . . Map (db m35183) HM
80Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Henry S. "Hank" Klibanoff — City of Florence Walk of Honor
A keen observer and researcher of the Civil Rights Movement in the South, Hank Klibanoff won the Pulitzer Prize in 2007 for The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation.Map (db m38643) HM
81Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Judge Thomas M. Peters
A scientist of national fame, Peters (1810-1888) lived for many years in Moulton with his wife Naomi (Leetch), a relative of President James K. Polk, who possibly visited here. A man of many talents, Peters was a noted linguist, early civil rights . . . Map (db m69670) HM
82Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Desegregation at Auburn
The first African American student entered the library to register at Auburn University at this site. Acting on a court order, Auburn president Ralph Brown Draughon accepted the application of Harold Franklin as the first African American student in . . . Map (db m90861) HM
83Alabama (Lee County), Opelika — Lynching in America / Lynching in Lee County — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America After the Civil War, the ideology of white supremacy led to violent resistance to equal rights for Black people. Lynching emerged to enforce racial hierarchy through arbitrary and deadly violence that terrorized all . . . Map (db m176380) HM
84Alabama (Lowndes County), Hayneville — In Memory of Jonathan Myrick Daniels — VMI Class of 1961
Johnathan Daniels was murdered near this spot, then Cash's Store, on August 20, 1965. He gave his life in the fight for integration of the churches and universal voter registration. At the time, he was a divinity student at The . . . Map (db m147604) HM
85Alabama (Lowndes County), Hayneville — Lynching in America / The Courthouse Lynching of Theo Calloway — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America Between the end of the Civil War and the close of World War II, white mobs killed thousands of Black Americans in racial terror lynchings, and committed widespread violence that traumatized millions more. The Lowndes . . . Map (db m160863) HM
86Alabama (Lowndes County), Hayneville — Varner's Cash Store
On August 20, 1965, Jonathan Myrick Daniels, a 26-year-old Episcopal seminarian from Keene, New Hampshire, was shot dead at point blank range here. He was a graduate of Virginia Military Institute and was attending Episcopal Theological School, . . . Map (db m147601) HM
87Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Campsite 3 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Robert Gardner Farm March 23, 1965Map (db m61847) HM
88Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Elmore Bolling — May 10, 1908 - December 4, 1947
Lowndesboro, AL—Enraged whites, jealous over the business success of a Negro are believed to be the lynchers of Elmore Bolling. Bolling, 39, was found riddled with shot gun and pistol shots 150 yards from his general merchandise store. . . . Map (db m85460) HM
89Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Viola Liuzzo
In memory of our sister Viola Liuzzo who gave her life in the struggle for the right to vote... March 25, 1965 Presented by SCLC/WOMEN Evelyn G. Lowery, National Convener - 1991 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Joseph E. . . . Map (db m85461) HM
90Alabama (Lowndes County), Mt. Willing — Enslavement & Racial Terror / Lynching Targeting Black Sharecroppers — Community Remembrance Project
Enslavement & Racial Terror The enslavement of black people in the United States was a brutal, dehumanizing system that lasted more than 200 years. Between 1819 and 1860, Alabama's enslaved population grew from 40,000 to 435,000. According . . . Map (db m154554) HM
91Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — A Price Paid — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Threatened by the potential four-to-one advantage of the black vote, whites retaliated by ousting black families from white-owned lands. The African American families who lived here paid dearly to earn their right to vote. Crowded into canvas tents . . . Map (db m112400) HM
92Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — After the March—Tent City — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Since the federal registrars came in August of 1965, thousands and thousands of Negroes have registered to vote. White plantation owners have retaliated by mass evictions. In December 1965, over forty families either left the county, moved in . . . Map (db m112405) HM
93Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Campsite 2 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Rosie Steele Farm March 22, 1965Map (db m70954) HM
94Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Day Two — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Monday, March 22, 1965, on the second day of the Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March, protesters passed this site in late afternoon. At that time the four-lane highway in front of you was only two lanes, and for safety reasons the number of . . . Map (db m112375) HM
95Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — It Started in Selma — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
At times history and fate meet at a single time in a single place to shape a turning point in man's unending search for freedom. So it was at Lexington and Concord. So it was a century ago at Appomattox. So it was last week in Selma, Alabama. . . . Map (db m112403) HM
96Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Marchers, Supporters, Hecklers — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
While helicopters buzzed overhead, National Guard soldiers—ordered by President Lyndon Johnson to protect the marchers—lined U.S. Highway 80, alert to the potential of violence by angry whites. Marchers walked mile after tired mile, . . . Map (db m112384) HM
97Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Mount Gillard Baptist Church
The roots of this house of worship date to 1868 when 26 African American members of Mount Gilead Church left to form their own congregation. The present building was constructed in 1901, with several enlargements and renovations throughout the . . . Map (db m104068) HM
98Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — No Isolated Incident — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
For African Americans in the 1960s, being kicked off white-owned lands for trying to register to vote no isolated incident. Just as had happened here in Lowndes County, blacks in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Greene County, Alabama, were driven from . . . Map (db m112389) HM
99Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — You Gotta Move — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
In December 1965, a city of tents appeared on this site. The temporary shelters were homes for evicted black sharecropper families. These farmers worked and lived their lives on white-owned farms in Lowndes County. But when they dared to register to . . . Map (db m112371) HM
100Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, Alabama — A New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . Map (db m85463) HM

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Sep. 28, 2021