Midwest in Natrona County, Wyoming — The American West (Mountains)
Gas and Growing Technologies
Nature of Oil & Gas
Through the 1920s, Salt Creek had “flowing” wells: oil was pushed to the surface by natural gas. In 1916 Midwest Refining Company began building gas plants, booster stations, and
Midwest Refining Company powered the electric well pumps from a central, massive, steam-turbine, gas-fired electric plant near the town of Midwest. By the end of 1925, practically every well in Salt Creek was “on the pump,” making this one of the first and largest totally electrified fields in the U.S. The plant also powered the company’s refinery, the drilling of new wells, the local community, and the lighting for one of the first night football games, which was held in Midwest in 1925. The plant closed in 1958 but still stands.
New production techniques are continuously tested at Salt Creek to extract oil from sand and rock. In the mid-1920s natural gas was injected back into the ground to repressurize wells, a technique called gas drive. Introduced in 1955, water flooding injects water into the ground and forces oil up through pores in the rock. Other 1950s methods include: hydofrac (which releases oil by fracturing the reservoir sandstone through hydraulic pressure) and fire drive (in which a burner is lowered below
In the early 1910s, the expected life of Salt Creek oil wells was 20 years. More than 100 years later, they are still producing oil. The extraction method used here is CO2 flooding. Carbon dioxide compressed into a liquid is injected underground alternately with water through a well’s bore hole. As it expands into a gas, CO2 forces oil out of its hiding places in tiny crevices and micro-pores and pushes it to the surface. Repressurized by CO2, wells once again flow “naturally,” making pumping unnecessary.
The wooden derrick was one component of a cable tool rig used to drill oil wells. Beginning in the mid-1930s, lighter metal derricks belonging to rotary drilling systems marked wells. As wells lost pressure, drilling equipment was replaced by pumping equipment. The iconic silhouette of pumpjacks – also known as horse heads, nodding donkeys, grasshopper
Looking like porcupine quills on the landscape, a dense network of power poles and cables accompanied the electric well pumps. Like pumpjacks, these are disappearing as oil wells are converted to CO2 flooding. By repressurizing wells and piping oil and other products underground, this system visually reduces the impact of oil production on the landscape.
With the closure of Casper refineries, Salt Creek oil is pumped via a vast network of underground pipelines to many refineries in multiple states. There, it is transformed into commercial products: gasoline, kerosene, lubricating oils, petroleum jelly, heavy greases, paraffin, and coal tar. Although Salt Creek oil is known for being a “light” oil, some wells do produce heavy asphaltines. Salt Creek has numerous oil-bearing formations, which produce a variety of types of crude.
Erected by Wyoming State Parks and Cultural Resources.
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Industry & Commerce • Natural Resources.
Location. 43° 24.594′ N, 106° 16.128′ W. Marker is in Midwest, Wyoming, in Natrona County. Marker is on State Highway 387 near State Highway 259, on the left when traveling east. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Midwest WY 82643, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 7 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Salt Creek Oil Field (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); Oil Boom Towns (approx. half a mile away); a different marker also named Salt Creek Oil Field (approx. half a mile away); Society in an Oil Patch (approx. half a mile away); Midwest Veterans Memorial (approx. half a mile away); Geology (approx. 1.2 miles away); a different marker also named Salt Creek Oil Field (approx. 6.7 miles away); Scandal! (approx. 6.7 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Midwest.
More about this marker. This marker is a part of the Black Gold Byway series.
Credits. This page was last revised on July 5, 2016. It was originally submitted on July 5, 2016, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California. This page has been viewed 295 times since then and 6 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on July 5, 2016, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California.