Near Four Oaks in Johnston County, North Carolina — The American South (South Atlantic)
March 20th— Johnston Remains on the Battleﬁeld
Johnston's explanation for risking his army changed over the years. He initially claimed that he hoped Sherman would attack him in his well-fortified positions, hinting that Confederate morale would be jeopardized by a retreat. A decade later, he explained that "there was no object in remaining...but covering the bearing off of our wounded," indicating his memory may have been affected by his near disaster on March 21.
Johnston was alerted on March 20 that most of the Right Wing would approach from the east, placing them behind the Confederates. "Old Joe" directed his cavalry to delay Sherman's approach, and ordered R.F. Hoke's Division and the North Carolina Junior Reserves to face east and south, respectively. Johnston's right remained in its original position to deter an advance by the Union Left Wing.
[Bentonville] was the last battle of the war the Sixteenth [Illinois] was engaged in,
—A veteran of the regiment
On the morning of the 20th, as the enemy had three of his four corps present and well entrenched, the attack was not renewed. We held our ground in the hope that his greatly superior numbers might encourage him to attack, and to cover the removal of our wounded.
—Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to Gen. Robert E. Lee, March 27, 1865
Realizing the Confederates were withdrawing, Lt. Col. George W. Grummond's 14th Michigan aggressively seized Hoke's abandoned trenches. Buoyed by his success, and reinforced by Capt. Herman Lund's 16th Illinois, Grummond received permission at noon to pursue the southerners north of the road.
After a chase of over half a mile, the Confederate's newly formed center stunned the exhausted Federals with musket and artillery fire. Confederate Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill recognized the danger presented by Grummond's assault. Though forbidden to deploy his own corps to repel the Federals, he shattered Grummond's left using the North Carolina Junior Reserve Battalion and Dickson's Battery, units technically belonging to his rival, Gen. Braxton Bragg.
Lund's Illinoisans received the bulk of the fire, but he was not authorized to fall back without permission, which did not arrive because Grummond had already retreated. The 14th Michigan
After I had succeeded in turning six guns on them they retired precipitately.
Location. 35° 19.054′ N, 78° 17.224′ W. Marker is near Four Oaks, North Carolina, in Johnston County. Marker is on Harper House Road (County Route 1008) 0.1 miles west of Westbrook Dairy Road, on the left when traveling west. Touch for map. Marker is located at Auto Tour Stop 5, "The Merging of the Union Armies". Marker is in this post office area: Four Oaks NC 27524, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Sherman's Right Wing Arrives at Bentonville (a few steps from this marker); Federal Junction (approx. 0.2 miles away); Main Union Line (approx. half a mile away); N. C. Junior Reserves (approx. 0.6 miles away); Merging of the Armies Confederate North Carolina Junior Reserve Line (approx. 0.6 miles away); Bentonville (approx. 0.6 miles away); Main Confederate Line (approx. 0.6 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Four Oaks.
Also see . . . North Carolina Historic Sites - Bentonville Battlefield. North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources Office of Archives & History (Submitted on January 31, 2017.)
Categories. • War, US Civil •
Credits. This page was last revised on April 4, 2017. This page originally submitted on January 31, 2017, by Karl Stelly of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This page has been viewed 185 times since then and 12 times this year. Last updated on January 31, 2017, by Karl Stelly of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on January 31, 2017, by Karl Stelly of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 5, 6. submitted on February 4, 2017, by Karl Stelly of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.