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Karnack in Harrison County, Texas — The American South (West South Central)
 

Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant

 
 
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Marker image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, May 24, 2014
1. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Marker
Inscription. In 1941, as the United States prepared for eventual entry into World War II, the U.S. Army Ordnance Department approached Monsanto Chemical Company of St. Louis about operating a local plant for production of explosives. Initially called Longhorn Ordnance Works, the plant produced over 400 million pounds of trinitrotolulene (TNT) on standby status. During the Korean War (1950-53), the need for munitions rose again, and the Universal Match Corporation, also of St. Louis, managed the site, producing propellant fuel.

In 1956, Thiokol Chemical Corporation began manufacturing solid fuel rocket motors here. This highly guarded and classified site grew in a series of five expansions. In 1964, its name changed to The Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant and employment rose to a high of nearly 3,000 personnel. The numbers declined with the end of the Vietnam War and the easing of tensions with the Soviet Union, and employment dropped to less than 1,000 by 1975.

In 1987, The United States and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty of Intermediate Nuclear Forces, beginning the elimination of an entire class of missiles. In 1988, the first destruction on American soil of U.S. Pershing I and II rocket motors occurred at the site. Observed by Soviet and U.S. officials, the demolition project continued until 1991. Following official deactivation
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Marker (<i>wide view</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, May 24, 2014
2. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Marker (wide view)
in 1995, pollution abatement had steadily provided for adaptive reuse of the former wartime site, now part of the Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge.
 
Erected 2007 by Texas Historical Commission. (Marker Number 15018.)
 
Location. 32° 40.054′ N, 94° 10.049′ W. Marker is in Karnack, Texas, in Harrison County. Marker is at the intersection of Kelly Avenue and Zeugner Drive, on the right when traveling south on Kelly Avenue. Touch for map. Marker is located just inside the entrance to Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Marker is in this post office area: Karnack TX 75661, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 12 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Home Town of Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson (approx. 0.2 miles away); Old Town of Port Caddo (approx. one mile away); Jefferson (approx. 11.4 miles away); Trammel's Trace (approx. 11½ miles away); Marion County Depression Era Roadside Park (approx. 11½ miles away); Marion County (approx. 12 miles away); Early Jefferson Lodge Building (approx. 12 miles away); Texas Statesman Charles Allen Culberson (approx. 12 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Karnack.
 
More about this marker. The former Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant described by this marker
Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (<i>entrance gate</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, May 24, 2014
3. Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (entrance gate)

Marker is located inside the Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge
is now the Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The plant was basically a small, self-contained city at this site.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker.
 
Also see . . .
1. History of the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant.
A young Congressman named Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ), who hailed from the Hill Country of Central Texas and had already established himself with President Franklin Roosevelt and House Speaker Sam Rayburn as an up-and-coming legislator, saw the opportunity to persuade the Army to build one of the new ammunition plants in an isolated, rural area adjacent to his wife Lady Bird’s home town of Karnack, Texas. (Submitted on November 30, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

2. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant.
The Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, also called the Longhorn Ordnance Works, is a facility for the production of munitions located on a 8,500-acre site beside Caddo Lake at Karnack, Harrison County. The Monsanto Chemical Company selected the site for a facility for the manufacture of TNT, and the company began operation of the $22.5 million plant on October 18, 1942. By August 15, 1945, the plant had turned out 414,805,500 pounds of TNT. (Submitted on November 30, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

3. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant.
The facility operated from 1942 to 1997, historically manufacturing TNT and
Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (<i>site of former Army Ammunition Plant</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, May 24, 2014
4. Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (site of former Army Ammunition Plant)
rocket motors. Site operations included loading, assembling and packing pyrotechnic and signal ammunition, manufacturing solid propellant rocket motors, and rocket demilitarization pursuant to the INF treaty with the former Soviet Union. (Submitted on November 30, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
 
Categories. Industry & CommerceMan-Made FeaturesPeaceWar, ColdWar, KoreanWar, VietnamWar, World II
 
Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (<i>view from marker - site of former Army Ammunition Plant</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, May 24, 2014
5. Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (view from marker - site of former Army Ammunition Plant)
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on December 2, 2017. This page originally submitted on November 30, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 73 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on November 30, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.
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