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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Hanover in York County, Pennsylvania — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
 

The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania

 
 
The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, June 28, 2008
1. The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker
Inscription. In early June 1863, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia led by General Robert E. Lee began to leave its camps in Virginia and march northward to Pennsylvania. Lee hoped that a victory on Northern soil might break the will of the Northern population and possibly lead to a negotiated peace and Southern Independence.

The Union Army of the Potomac began to move in response to Lee and attempted to stay between the Confederates and Washington, D.C. On June 25th three brigades of Confederate cavalry, approximately 5,000 men, Major General J.E.B. Stuart commanding, left Lee's main body on a raid, taking them around the Union forces. By June 29th, Stuart's men had reached Union Mills, Maryland, unaware of Lee's location, but aware that Union cavalry was near Littlestown, Pennsylvania, about 6 miles northwest of there. In an attempt to avoid the Union cavalry, Stuart decided to move toward Hanover the next morning. What Stuart did not know was that on June 30th Brigadier General H. Judson Kirkpatrick's 3rd Cavalry Division of the Army of the Potomac was also headed toward Hanover. The ensuing encounters between Confederate and Union cavalry forces in Hanover were to be an important prelude to the Battle of Gettysburg.

The Opening Encounter at Hanover
On the morning of June 30th, 1863, the day before the Battle
The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker image. Click for full size.
By Beverly Pfingsten, January 26, 2008
2. The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker
of Gettysburg would begin, Stuart's main cavalry column approached Hanover by moving northward on the Westminster Road. Meanwhile, Kilpatrick's Union cavalry made their way from Littlestown, riding along the road where you now stand, Frederick Street.

By about 10:00 a.m., most of Kilpatrick's force had passed through Hanover. A rear guard of about 40 men of the 18th Pennsylvania cavalry regiment, 2nd Lieutenant Henry Clay Potter commanding was still southwest of here.

As Potter's men approached a small Confederate detail was leading the main column on the Westminster Road. These cavalrymen rode out onto Frederick Street and demanded the surrender of Potter's detachment. Instead, Potter's men charged through the Southerns in an attempt to avoid capture and rejoin their own regiment closer to Hanover. Shortly after, the initial Confederate attack began with the 13th Virginia and elements of the 9th Virginia Cavalry Regiments charging along Frederick Street. Before long, the 2nd North Carolina Cavalry Regiment converged on the scene from side streets and alleys to attach the Union column.
 
Erected by Hanover Area Historical Society.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Pennsylvania, Battle of Hanover Walking Tour marker series.
 
Location. 39° 
Battle of Hanover Map image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, June 28, 2008
3. Battle of Hanover Map
47.596′ N, 76° 59.484′ W. Marker is in Hanover, Pennsylvania, in York County. Marker is at the intersection of Frederick Street (Pennsylvania Route 194) and Stuart Avenue, on the left when traveling west on Frederick Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Hanover PA 17331, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Gettysburg Campaign (a few steps from this marker); Consequences on the Battle of Gettysburg (a few steps from this marker); Custer at Hanover (a few steps from this marker); J.E.B. Stuart's Jump (within shouting distance of this marker); The Forney Farms (approx. 0.2 miles away); The Winebrenner Tannery (approx. mile away); Mother Loses Two Sons to War (approx. 0.3 miles away); The Winebrenner House (approx. 0.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Hanover.
 
More about this marker. The marker displays maps of the Gettysburg Campaign and the Battle of Hanover. Portraits of Generals Stuart and Lee are in the lower center. On the right is portrait of 2nd Lieutenant Henry Potter, 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry.
 
Categories. War, US Civil
 
Gettysburg Campaign Map image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, June 28, 2008
4. Gettysburg Campaign Map
The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker is between the van and green tractor. image. Click for full size.
By Henry T. McLin, June 25, 2017
5. The Confederates Invade Pennsylvania Marker is between the van and green tractor.
Frederick Street image. Click for full size.
By Beverly Pfingsten, January 26, 2008
6. Frederick Street
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on July 6, 2017. This page originally submitted on January 27, 2008, by Bill Pfingsten of Bel Air, Maryland. This page has been viewed 1,583 times since then and 74 times this year. Photos:   1. submitted on July 3, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   2. submitted on January 27, 2008, by Bill Pfingsten of Bel Air, Maryland.   3, 4. submitted on July 3, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   5. submitted on July 2, 2017, by Henry T. McLin of Hanover, Pennsylvania.   6. submitted on January 27, 2008, by Bill Pfingsten of Bel Air, Maryland.
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