Tullahoma in Coffee County, Tennessee — The American South (East South Central)
June 24-July 4, 1863
—From Contraband to United States Colored Troops —
But enslaved African Americans would not be denied the opportunity the war presented. Refugee camps quickly sprang up and “contraband” the label given to slaves during the war, went to work performing the worst jobs, like latrine and mess duty, or acting as personal servants. Others labored building railroads and fortifications.
In April of 1863 President Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson as military governor of Tennessee, giving his authority over all contraband. Johnson worked with General Rosecrans to organize work details. In Tennessee, major contraband camps grew in Nashville, Gallatin, Clarksville, and in Decatur and Huntsville, Alabama. Most worked for food, some for wages. By 1865, 470,000 formerly enslaved African Americans had contributed to the Northern war effort, including in infantry regiments. Though undertrained and ill-prepared for combat, the United States Colored Troops were a decisive influence on the war’s
The Provost Marshall - A Record of Violence
The occupying Union army established a Provost Marshal’s office here at Tullahoma, to carry out the nearly impossible job of establishing order in a hostile environment. Some Union soldiers took advantage of the situation, administering a crude form of frontier justice that included lynching. In response, local “bushwhackers” attacked both the enemy and the civilian population with controlled violence. One Union soldier remembers they were after “whomsoever falls in their way.” For many Union officers charged with occupying and subduing the South, the only possible response was a war of terror. David Stanley, Rosecrans’ cavalry commander referring to his stay in Alabama, stated, “I scared Jackson County, I think, by my savage threats.”
(top) First United States Colored Infantry (courtesy United States Army Military Institute)
(lower right) This Provost Marshal office could draw quite a crowd (courtesy United States Army Military Institute)
Erected by Tennessee's Backroads Heritage.
Location. 35° 21.409′ N, 86° 12.442′ W. Marker is in Tullahoma, Tennessee, in Coffee County. Marker is at the intersection of South Jackson Street (U.S. 41A) and West Volney Street, on the right when traveling south on South Jackson Street. Touch for map. The marker is on the grounds of the Jackson Civic Center. Marker is in this post office area: Tullahoma TN 37388, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. A different marker also named Tullahoma Campaign (here, next to this marker); a different marker also named Tullahoma Campaign (here, next to this marker); Confederate Cemetery (here, next to this marker); Army of Tennessee (here, next to this marker); Isham G. Harris (a few steps from this marker); Camp Forrest (a few steps from this marker); Baillet Sisters (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line); The Red Caboose (approx. half a mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Tullahoma.
Also see . . . Tennessee's Backroads. (Submitted on July 13, 2014.)
Categories. • African Americans • War, US Civil •
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on July 13, 2014, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Md 21234. This page has been viewed 358 times since then and 32 times this year. Photos: 1, 2. submitted on July 13, 2014, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Md 21234. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.