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Fort Mitchell in Russell County, Alabama — The American South (East South Central)
 

Creek Towns

Creek Heritage Trail

ó Historic Chattahoochee Commission ó

 
 
Creek Towns Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By J. Makali Bruton, June 30, 2018
1. Creek Towns Marker
Inscription.  
Creek Towns
At its height, the Creek Nation consisted of about 20,000 people living in more than seventy townships, or talwas (tvlwv), scattered throughout modern-day Alabama and Georgia. Creek townships commonly consisted of a primary town and a number of small associated villages and homesteads scattered over a given area. These communities were bound together socially. A Creek town was more than just a physical location; it was the basic unit of cultural organization. Creeks thought of themselves first and foremost as members of their respective talwas.

At the heart of every Creek town of sufficient size was a small governmental and cultural complex known as a "square ground. This public space functioned as the symbolic and literal heart of the community, and the place where official town business took place and important guests were received. These areas were commonly defined by four large rectangular buildings or arbors, oriented in the four cardinal directions and open toward the center. All male residents of the town would have been assigned seats in one of these according to their age and rank in society,
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and occupied them as hosts, counsel, and judges depending on the occasion for gathering in this scared space. Ceremonial fires in the heart of this plaza would have been kept burning almost constantly. Nearby or even adjacent to the plaza would have been a council house, a large circular building where dignitaries could gather in cold weather and in which a number of other social functions of the town would have been held throughout the year. A large plaza where competitive games were played and where residents gathered to trade, talk, and socialize, would have been located not too far away.

Captions:
The lower Chattahoochee and Flint river valleys at one time contained over two dozen prominent Creek towns. This map is based on an original map found in Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, by Robbie Ethridge.

This sketch of the layout of a typical Creek town (left) and a plan of a Creek square ground (right) are taken from H. Thomas Foster IIís Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836. In the sketch at left, “B” is the ball field, “S” is the square ground, and “H” is the council house.

Artist rendering of Yuchi Town, a village within the Creek Confederacy
By Martin pate
Courtesy of Office of Environmental Programs, Management Branch, Fort Benning

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Creek Towns Marker with the Sacred Fire sculpture in the distance to the southeast image. Click for full size.
Photographed By J. Makali Bruton, June 30, 2018
2. Creek Towns Marker with the Sacred Fire sculpture in the distance to the southeast
by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Russell County Convention and Visitorís Bureau
 
Erected by Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Russell County Convention and Visitorís Bureau.
 
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Native AmericansSettlements & Settlers.
 
Location. 32° 20.667′ N, 85° 1.29′ W. Marker is in Fort Mitchell, Alabama, in Russell County. Marker can be reached from Unnamed Road, 0.2 miles east of Alabama Road 165 when traveling east. Marker is located near the Chattahoochee Indian Heritage Center Monument adjacent to Fort Mitchell National Historic Landmark Site. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Fort Mitchell AL 36856, United States of America. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Cultural Exchange and Cooperation (within shouting distance of this marker); The Census of 1832 (within shouting distance of this marker); The Creek Nation / The Chattahoochee Indian Heritage Center (within shouting distance of this marker); Fort Mitchell and Creek Removal (within shouting distance of this marker); The Creeks Today (within shouting distance of this marker); Removal of the Creeks (within shouting distance of this marker);
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The Creek Trail of Tears (within shouting distance of this marker); Indian Ball Ground (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Fort Mitchell.
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on July 11, 2018. It was originally submitted on July 10, 2018, by J. Makali Bruton of Accra, Ghana. This page has been viewed 616 times since then and 61 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on July 10, 2018, by J. Makali Bruton of Accra, Ghana.

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Apr. 19, 2024