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Custer in Custer County, South Dakota — The American Midwest (Upper Plains)
 

An Agreement Between Cultures

The Fort Laramie Treaty Created the Great Sioux Reservation

 
 
An Agreement Between Cultures Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, July 11, 2018
1. An Agreement Between Cultures Marker
Inscription.  Cultural conflicts erupted across the western Great Plains during the 1860s. Expanding railroads and frontier posts located in traditional hunting grounds impacted the various tribes in the northern plains. Restrictions on westward settlement disturbed the government. Without a compromise, war was certain to occur.

A treaty commission began talks in April 1868 at Fort Laramie (Wyoming). With 17 articles of agreements and political pressure, the first chiefs signed the treaty on April 29. Other chiefs consented throughout the year, with the final signing on November 26. The Senate approved the treaty, and President Andrew Johnson declared it effective in February 1869. This agreement temporarily halted frontier clashes.

The 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty created a 26 million-acre reservation for the "absolute and undisturbed use and occupation" of the Sioux bands. Named the Great Sioux Reservation, it included land west of the Missouri River (North and South Dakota), north of the North Platte River (Nebraska), and east of the Bighorn Mountains (Wyoming and Montana).
 
Erected by Custer
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State Park, South Dakota.
 
Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: ExplorationNative AmericansSettlements & SettlersWars, US Indian. In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #17 Andrew Johnson series list. A significant historical year for this entry is 1868.
 
Location. 43° 46.221′ N, 103° 31.761′ W. Marker is in Custer, South Dakota, in Custer County. Marker can be reached from U.S. 16A east of Lower French Creek Road, on the right when traveling east. Marker is located along the path between the restored Gordon Stockade and the associated parking lot, just south of US Highway 16A on the east side of Custer. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 25073 US Highway 16A, Custer SD 57730, United States of America. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 3 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. An Expedition of Mixed Outcomes (within shouting distance of this marker); Prospectors in Search of Gold (within shouting distance of this marker); A Legacy of Debate (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); Anna Donna Tallent (approx. 0.2 miles away); Campsite of General Custer's Expedition (approx. half a mile away); Stockade Lake Bridge (approx. 0.8 miles away); Glen Erin School (approx. one mile away); Fire Tower Lookouts (approx. 3 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Custer.
Marker detail: The Great Sioux Reservation image. Click for full size.
2. Marker detail: The Great Sioux Reservation

 
More about this marker. Marker is a large composite plaque, mounted horizontally on waist-high posts.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. The Gordon Stockade
 
Also see . . .
1. Sioux Treaty of 1868. In 1865 a congressional committee began a study of the Indian uprisings and wars in the West, resulting in a Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes , which was released in 1867. This study and report by the congressional committee led to an act to establish an Indian Peace Commission to end the wars and prevent future Indian conflicts. In the spring of 1868 a conference was held at Fort Laramie, in present day Wyoming, that resulted in a treaty with the Sioux. This treaty was to bring peace between the whites and the Sioux who agreed to settle within the Black Hills reservation in the Dakota Territory. (Submitted on August 10, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

2. "Honoring the Spirit" 1868 Treaty Event. Two years of planning culminated in a historic gathering at Fort Laramie National Historic Site as thousands of people gathered to honor the spirit of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. Tribal representatives and descendants of the 13 original signatory tribes of the Treaty came together for a four-day event to remember
Marker detail: General William S. Harney image. Click for full size.
National Archives
3. Marker detail: General William S. Harney
During a treaty meeting, General William S. Harney stated to the Lakota/Dakota Sioux, ”We know that you have been treated badly for years… we will take care that you shall not be treated so any more.”
their families, walking in their footsteps; to reflect on past struggles; and to build a common narrative for the future. Between April 28 and May 1, more than 2,000 Native people joined an encampment at Fort Laramie. Participants arrived from all over the country, some riding in on horseback, walking, or running. Nearly 100 tribes were represented throughout the event. (Submitted on August 10, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

3. Transcript of the Fort Laramie Treaty, 1868. From Article 1 (of 17 Articles):
"From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it. If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained." (Submitted on August 10, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

4. Highest Point East of Rockies Renamed for Native American
Marker detail: Chief Red Cloud image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Custer State Park
4. Marker detail: Chief Red Cloud
Chief Red Cloud did not sign the Laramie Treaty until the military posts along the Powder River (Wyoming) were abandoned and destroyed. The posts disrupted prime buffalo hunting grounds.
. After several years of study and debate, the U.S. agency that oversees the official names of places—the U.S. Board on Geographic Names—has ruled in favor of Native American groups, ordering that South Dakota's Harney Peak now be known as Black Elk Peak. The U.S. board voted unanimously on the change August 11. Not far from the iconic Mount Rushmore, the newly renamed peak is the highest point in the state, as well as the highest point in the U.S. east of the Rockies. The peak lies in the Black Elk Wilderness of Black Hills National Forest, in Pennington County. (Submitted on August 10, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

5. Highest Point East of Rockies Renamed for Native American. South Dakota's Harney Point will no longer be named after an army officer who has been accused of massacring native people. It will now be called Black Elk Peak after a Lakota elder. After several years of study and debate, the U.S. agency that oversees the official names of places—the U.S. Board on Geographic Names—has ruled in favor of Native American groups, ordering that South Dakota's Harney Peak now be known as Black Elk Peak. The U.S. board voted unanimously on the change August 11, 2016. (Submitted on August 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
 
Marker detail: Treaty commission organized by General William T. Sherman image. Click for full size.
South Dakota State Historical Society
5. Marker detail: Treaty commission organized by General William T. Sherman
A treaty commission, organized by General William T. Sherman, provided peace between Indians and settlers. The commission brought the two sides together and made a concerted effort to stop the hatred between cultures.
An Agreement Between Cultures Marker (<i>wide view; Gordon Stockade, related markers background</i>) image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, July 11, 2018
6. An Agreement Between Cultures Marker (wide view; Gordon Stockade, related markers background)
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on August 25, 2018. It was originally submitted on August 9, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 458 times since then and 71 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on August 10, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.

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Apr. 25, 2024