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Historic District in St. Augustine in St. Johns County, Florida — The American South (South Atlantic)
 

Deadly Crossfire / Fuego Cruzado

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

 
 
Deadly Crossfire / Fuego Cruzado Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, December 12, 2018
1. Deadly Crossfire / Fuego Cruzado Marker
Inscription.  
Deadly Crossfire (English)
The Spanish built the star-shaped Castillo de San Marcos in the late-1600s. The star design responded to the advent of a deadly new weapon: the cannon. The fort's complex shape meant a battery of cannons on the gun deck could create interlocking fields of fire.

Low and flat on the landscape, star-shaped forts used an obstacle course of defenses. Diamond-shaped protrudíng corners called bastions created crossfire to repel the enemy. From the bastions and curtain walls, cannon fire could deter or engage an advancing army. A wide ditch at the base of the fort lacked cover for invaders, allowing musket fire to rain down from above. Thick fort walls and a rising slope deflected incoming cannonballs. The fort design has stood the test of time: despite attacks, the Castillo was never conquered.

Fuego Cruzado (Spanish)
A finales de 1600, los ingenieros españoles construyeron el Castillo de San Marcos en forma de estrella. El diseño estrellado respondió a la llegada de una nueva arma mortal: el cañón. La forma compleja de la fortaleza permitía
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que una batería de cañones ubicada en el terraplén pudiera generar sectores de fuego interconectados.

Bajas en perfil, las fortificaciones en forma de estrella empleaban una serie de obstáculos para defenderse. Las esquinas sobresalientes en forma de diamante, llamadas baluartes, generaban el fuego cruzado para repeler al enemigo. Desde los baluartes y la cortina, los disparos de los cañones podían detener o atacar a un ejército en avance. El foso ancho, ubicado a la base de las murallas, dejaba a los invasores sin resguardo y permitía que los disparos de los fusiles llovieran desde arriba. Las gruesas murallas y una pendiente ascendente desviaban cañonazos enemigos. El diseño de la fortaleza resistió la prueba del tiempo: pese a los ataques, el Castillo de San Marcos nunca fue conquistado.
 
Erected 2018 by National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
 
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial EraDisastersForts and CastlesHispanic Americans.
 
Location. 29° 53.883′ N, 81° 18.711′ W. Marker is in St. Augustine, Florida, in St. Johns County. It is in the Historic District. Marker can be reached from the intersection of South Castillo Drive (Business U.S. 1) and Cuna
Marker detail: No attackers ever made it through... image. Click for full size.
December 12, 2018
2. Marker detail: No attackers ever made it through...
No attackers ever made it through the outer defenses to reach this final crossfire. Cannon from two bastions and the curtain Wall could strike enemy troops beyond the town in an interlocking field of fire.

Ningún enemigo jamás logró atravesar las defensas externas para alcanzar este final fuego cruzado. Los cañones de dos baluartes y la cortina podían atacar las tropas enemigas más allá de la ciudad, en sectores de tiros interconectados.
Street, on the right when traveling north. Marker is located on the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument grounds, on top of the San Pablo Bastion at the northeast corner of the fort, overlooking the fort's east wall and moat to the south. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 1 South Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine FL 32084, United States of America. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. St. Paul's Bastion (here, next to this marker); The Builders were Human (a few steps from this marker); Lines of Defense (a few steps from this marker); Weapons of War / Artillería (a few steps from this marker); British Quarters (within shouting distance of this marker); Chapel of St. Mark (within shouting distance of this marker); Northern Defense Lines (within shouting distance of this marker); Indian Prisoners (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in St. Augustine.
 
More about this marker. Marker is a large rectangular composite plaque, mounted horizontally on waist-high metal posts.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
 
Also see . . .  The Bastion System. The Castillo de San Marcos is unique in North American architecture. As the only extant 17th century military construction in
Deadly Crossfire Marker (<i>wide view looking south along west wall to the San Pedro Bastion</i>) image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, December 12, 2018
3. Deadly Crossfire Marker (wide view looking south along west wall to the San Pedro Bastion)
the country and the oldest masonry fortress in the United States it is a prime example of the "bastion system" of fortification, the culmination of hundreds of years of military defense engineering. Originating in Italy in the 15th century the particular star shaped design of the Castillo is a result of architecture adapting to technology. The change in warfare brought about by black powder weapons created new types of defensive structures adapted both to withstand or avoid the impact of cannon projectiles and to effectively mount cannons to repel any attackers. Of the major architectural variations the "bastion system," named for the projecting diamond or angle shaped formations added onto the fort walls, was the most commonly and effectively used. (Submitted on December 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
 
Deadly Crossfire Marker (<i>wide view looking west to St. Augustine old town</i>) image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, December 12, 2018
4. Deadly Crossfire Marker (wide view looking west to St. Augustine old town)
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on August 20, 2020. It was originally submitted on December 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 216 times since then and 15 times this year. Last updated on December 23, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on December 15, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.

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Apr. 13, 2024