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Saint John in Saint John County, New Brunswick — The Canadian Atlantic
 

Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley

Father of Confederation / Père de la Confédération

 
 
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Marker image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 15, 2019
1. Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Marker
Inscription.  
English:
Born in 1818 at Gagetown, NB, Leonard Tilley apprenticed at age 13 to a pharmacist in the north end of Saint John known as Portland. As a certified pharmacist 7 years later, Tilley and his cousin opened "Peters and Tilley Cheap Drug Store". By 1848 Tilley owned it entirely.

Tilley's strong Anglican faith led him to do volunteer work for social issues. After seeing the terrible results of alcohol abuse Tilley worked to have all alcohol banned in New Brunswick.

Saint John elected Leonard Tilley, the anti-alcohol reformer, to the colony's legislature in 1850. It was the next election (1854) before the reformers won a majority and Tilley could act on his concerns. As secretary he was responsible for the Prohibition Bill that banned all alcohol. In the uproar that followed this drastic legislation, rioters burned a straw figure of Tilley, his house was attacked and his life threatened. Tilley lost the next election.

Working in his drug store Tilley considered his young family's future. He would leave alcohol regulation to a public vote and campaign for other reforms. In the 1857 election
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Marker (<i>wide view</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 15, 2019
2. Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Marker (wide view)
the reformer Tilley won easily.

As the New Brunswick colony's secretary Tilley managed finances well. He supported railway construction to provide jobs and increase markets for Saint John. After the Saint John to Shediac rail line was completed in 1860, Tilley supported a proposed intercolonial railway to link the Maritimes. Twice he traveled to England with other colonial leaders to find financial help for an intercolonial railway. Both times they returned home without the funding.

The next railway meeting in 1864 was planned to follow a conference on Maritime union in Charlottetown. With the arrival of John A. Macdonald and the delegations from Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec), railways were ignored. The union of all the colonies was the issue there and later at the Quebec City conference. Tilley supported national union, but New Brunswick voters did not. In the 1865 election Tilley and his party were defeated.

In 1866 New Brunswick was frightened by the Fenians, sympathizers for Ireland's independence, based in the United States. To hurt Britain, Fenians in Maine threatened cross-border attacks on New Brunswick, a British colony. When Fenians invaded Indian Island at the mouth of the St. Croix River, New Brunswick residents wanted the protection of a national defense. Their support ensured Tilley's pro-confederation party won the
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Statue image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 15, 2019
3. Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Statue
next election.

Tilley joined the delegation that presented a proposal to the British parliament for the creation of the Dominion of Canada. After it passed, Queen Victoria knighted Samuel Leonard Tilley along with John A. Macdonald from Upper Canada and George Étienne Cartier from Lower Canada. New Brunswick joined confederation.

In Canada's federal government Sir Leonard Tilley is most remembered as the Minister of Finance who introduced the famous National Policy. It protected Canadian industry and Canadian jobs by placing tariffs and duties on competing foreign goods.

Out of office, Sir Leonard Tilley was twice appointed Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, a non-political position. In ill health he retired home to New Brunswick in 1885. When he died (1896) Sir Leonard Tilley was honoured for his public service. He had shaped the new province of New Brunswick and the new country, Canada.

Français:
Né en 1818 à Gagetown, au Nouveau-Brunswick, Leonard Tilley est en apprentissage dès l'âge de 13 ans chez un pharmacien du secteur nord de Saint John appelé Portland. Sept ans plus tard, certifié, Tilley et son cousin ouvrent « Peters and Tilley Cheap Drug Store ». Dès 1848, Tilley en est le seul propriétaire.

La foi anglicane profonde de Tilley le porte à faire du bénévolat pour des causes sociales. Constatant
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les méfaits de l'abus d'alcool, Tilley s'efforce de faire bannir l'alcool au Nouveau-Brunswick.

Saint John élit Leonard Tilley, le réformateur anti-alcool, à l'assemblée législative en 1850. C'est aux élections suivantes (1854) que les réformateurs obtiennent la majorité, ce qui permet à Tilley de travailler à la cause. Comme secrétaire, il est responsable du projet de loi prévoyant la prohibition de l'alcool. Dans le tumulte de protestations qui suit cette loi draconienne, des émeutiers brûlent Tilley en effigie, sa maison est attaquée, et sa femme est menacée. Tilley perd l'élection suivante.

Tout en travaillant dans sa pharmacie, Tilley pense à l'avenir de sa jeune famille. Il laissera donc la réglementation de l'alcool au scrutin public et fera campagne pour d'autres réformes. Aux élections de 1857, le réformateur Tilley gagne aisément.

Comme secrétaire de la colonie du Nouveau-Brunswick, Tilley gère bien les finances. Il appuie la construction des chemins de fer pour fournir de l'emploi et accroître le marché pour Saint John. À la suite de l'achèvement de la ligne entre Saint John et Shediac en 1860, Tilley soutient un projet de voie ferrée intercoloniale pour relier les Maritimes. Il se rend par deux fois en Angleterre, en compagnie d'autres dirigeants, afin de trouver de l'aide financière pour le projet. Chaque fois, ils reviennent bredouilles.
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Il est prévu que la prochaine réunion concernant le chemin de fer se tiendrait après une conférence à Charlottetown sur l'union des Maritimes. Vu l'arrivée de John A. Macdonald et des délégations du Haut-Canada (Ontario) et du Bas-Canada (Québec), les chemins de fer sont ignorés. L'union de toutes les colonies est le sujet de discussion à ce moment et plus tard lors de la Conférence de Québec. Tilley appuie l'union des colonies, mais les électeurs du Nouveau-Brunswick ne sont pas du même avis. Aux élections de 1865, Tilley et son parti sont défaits.

En 1866, le Nouveau-Brunswick craint les fenians, partisans de l'indépendance de l'Irlande, basés aux États-Unis. Pour manifester contre l'Angleterre, des fenians du Maine menacent d'attaquer le Nouveau-Brunswick, une colonie britannique. Lorsque les fenians envahissent l'île Indian à l'embouchure de la rivière St. Croix, les résidents du Nouveau-Brunswick veulent la protection d'une défense nationale. Leur appui permet l'élection du parti proconfédération de Tilley.

Tilley se joint à la délégation qui présente une proposition au parlement britannique pour la création du Dominion du Canada. Après l'adoption de la proposition, la reine Victoria confire à Samuel Leonard Tillev, ainsi qu'à John A. Macdonald du Haut-Canada et à George Étienne Cartier du Bas-Canada, le titre de chevalier. Le Nouveau-Brunswick s'unit à la Confédération.

Au gouvernement fédéral du Canada, on se rappelle de sir Leonard Tilley comme du ministre des Finances qui a mis en place la célèbre Politique nationale. Elle protégeait l'industrie canadienne et les emplois au Canada en établissant des tarifs douaniers sur des marchandises étrangères concurrentielles.

Lorsqu'il n'occupe pas de fonction politique, sir Leonard Tilley est nommé deux fois lieutenant-gouverneur du Nouveau-Brunswick, un poste non politique. En mauvaise santé, il retourne chez lui au Nouveau-Brunswick en 1885. À sa mort en 1896, on lui rend hommage pour son service public. Il aura façonné la nouvelle province, le Nouveau-Brunswick, et le nouveau pays, le Canada.
 
Erected by J.D. Irving, Limited.
 
Location. 45° 15.418′ N, 66° 5.432′ W. Marker is in Saint John, New Brunswick, in Saint John County. Marker can be reached from Lancaster Avenue 0.2 kilometers east of Bridge Road (New Brunswick Route 100), on the left when traveling east. Marker is located along the walking path in Wolastoq Park, near the center of the park. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 211 Lancaster Avenue, Saint John, New Brunswick E2M 2K8, Canada. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Robert Foulis (a few steps from this marker); William Kilby Reynolds (a few steps from this marker); Thomas Stockwell Simms (a few steps from this marker); George B. Oland (a few steps from this marker); K. C. Irving (within shouting distance of this marker); John Robertson (within shouting distance of this marker); Charles Gorman (within shouting distance of this marker); Benedict Arnold (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Saint John.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Wolastoq Park
 
Also see . . .  Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley. Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley was a strong supporter of both Confederation and the construction of the Intercolonial Railway. He was a member of Sir John A. Macdonald’s first government before he was appointed lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. According to Tilley’s son, Samuel Tilley was responsible for the term “Dominion” to describe Canada after John A. Macdonald’s proposal for “Kingdom of Canada” was rejected as provocative to the United States. Tilley was inspired by Psalm 72, verse 8 of the Bible, “And he shall have dominion also from sea to sea,” and proposed the term “Dominion” at the London Conference of 1866. (Submitted on November 3, 2019, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
 
Categories. Colonial EraGovernment & Politics
 

More. Search the internet for Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley.
 
Credits. This page was last revised on November 3, 2019. This page originally submitted on October 31, 2019, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 51 times since then and 3 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3. submitted on November 3, 2019, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.
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