“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Pugwash in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia — The Atlantic Provinces (North America)

Thinkers Lodge

The House That Made Pugwash Famous

Thinkers Lodge Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, July 18, 2019
1. Thinkers Lodge Marker
”There Can Be No Winners in a Nuclear War.”
Russell — Einstein Manifesto, July 9, 1955

A Welcome Retreat
In 1955, Cyrus Eaton began hosting meetings of scholars, educators and social reformers in Pugwash.

He regarded his birthplace’s relative remoteness as a tremendous asset. The village provided greater opportunity for openly friendly, meaningful discussion of nuclear disarmament than did busier, more cosmopolitan locales.

Eaton’s seaside lodge was an ideal, relaxing gathering place for some of the world’s most brilliant scientists to discuss means of freeing civilization from the threat of nuclear annihilation.

In 1957, 22 prominent academics from both sides of the Iron Curtain "assembled in conference" at Thinkers Lodge to discuss the escalating arms race between the Soviet Union, the United States and the two nations' respective allies. Foremost, the thinkers came together to discuss the very real prospect of nuclear war and how to prevent it.

This groundbreaking series of meetings, spearheaded by a formal call to action in 1955 by Albert Einstein, Bertrand
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Russell and others, marked the launching of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. These meetings are still held annually at locations around the world.

The "Pugwash Thinkers" came to the village for several days in 1957 at the invitation of wealthy American industrialist and philanthropist, Cyrus S. Eaton (1883-1979). Born in Pugwash River and raised in Pugwash Junction, Eaton was a profound humanist and social activist who also ranked amongst North America's most successful business leaders. He was as equally concerned about the 20th century economic decline of small communities like Pugwash, as he was about the century's escalating nuclear arms race.

Famous For Peace
Always an advocate of friendly relations with the Soviets, Cyrus Eaton's efforts to further world peace were recognized formally for the first time in 1960 when his friend, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, awarded him the Lenin Peace Prize.

In 1995, the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affair shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Polish-born nuclear physicist, Joseph Rotblat (1908-2005).

For more than 50 years, Joseph Rotblat was an internationally respected nuclear arms opponent who promoted the social responsibility of academics. In 1998, he was knighted, “for services to international understanding.” One of the core organizers of the Pugwash
Marker detail: The “Pugwash Thinkers” image. Click for full size.
Courtesy Western Reserve Historical Society
2. Marker detail: The “Pugwash Thinkers”
(from left:) Professeur A.M.B. Lacassagne of L'Institut du Radium, Paris; Professor Joseph Rotbiat of the University of London; Mr. Cyrus Eaton; Academician D.V. Skobeltsyn, Soviet Academy of Sciences, Moscow
—Thinkers Lodge, July 1957.
Conferences, Sir Joseph Rotblat was, at the time of his death, the last surviving signatory to the 1955 Russell-Einstein Manifesto.

"We demonstrated [at the 1957 Pugwash Conference] that men of different languages and different philosophies can get together and discuss crucial questions, come to a common understanding, and part great friends."
—Cyrus Eaton, The ABC Mike Wallace Interview, 11/15/57
Erected 2013 by Village of Pugwash.
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: PeaceScience & MedicineWar, Cold. A significant historical month for this entry is July 1957.
Location. 45° 51.116′ N, 63° 39.893′ W. Marker is in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, in Cumberland County. Marker can be reached from the intersection of Water Street and Queen Street, on the left when traveling north. Marker is located beside the Pugwash Harbour walkway, near the north end of Cyrus Eaton Park. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 135 Water Street, Pugwash NS B0K 1L0, Canada. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. A different marker also named Thinkers' Lodge (about 180 meters away, measured in a direct line); Pugwash Streetscapes (about 210 meters away); Nova Scotia Clayworks (about 240 meters away); Pugwash Harbour (about 240 meters away); The Gathering of the Clans
Marker detail: Gathering of the Clans – July 1, 1960 image. Click for full size.
North Cumberland Historical Society
3. Marker detail: Gathering of the Clans – July 1, 1960
The wife of the Soviet Ambassador to Canada congratulates Cyrus Eaton on the occasion of his receiving the Lenin Peace Prize. The medal was presented to Mr. Eaton by physicist D.V. Skobeltsyn (at right) of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.
(about 240 meters away); The Pugwash Conferences and Masonic Lodge (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); World Wars Memorial (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); Evolution of Pugwash Industry (approx. 0.3 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Pugwash.
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Also see . . .  Cyrus S. Eaton. Cyrus S. Eaton, born in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, lived most of his adult life in Northfield, Ohio on a cattle farm while working in downtown Cleveland. Successful and controversial, Cyrus Eaton built companies in utilities, iron ore mining, railroads, steel manufacturing, and rubber. Beginning in the mid fifties, Cyrus with his second wife, Anne Kinder Eaton, turned his attention and passion to bringing together scientists to strive for nuclear disarmament. This movement called the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs was awarded jointly with Joseph Rotblat the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995. (Submitted on May 25, 2020, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
Marker detail: Pugwash Conferences image. Click for full size.
4. Marker detail: Pugwash Conferences
The Pugwash Conferences allow scholars and policy makers to exchange ideas freely as individuals, rather than as voices of particular nations or institutions. As in the 1950s, the focus of today's Pugwash Conferences is the resolution of international conflict and the forging of co-operative solutions to global problems.

The fifth Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs (August 24 to 29,1959) was also hosted by Cyrus Eaton at Thinkers Lodge.

Conference delegates explored reducing — and ultimately eliminating — the threat of biological and chemical warfare.
Marker detail: 1995 Nobel Peace Prize image. Click for full size.
Courtesy Western Reserve Historical Society
5. Marker detail: 1995 Nobel Peace Prize
In 1995, the Pugwash Conferences and Joseph Rotblat were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Thinkers Lodge Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, July 18, 2019
6. Thinkers Lodge Marker
(Water Street/Queen Street intersection in background)
Thinkers Lodge image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Cosmos Mariner, July 18, 2019
7. Thinkers Lodge
Thinkers Lodge was designated a National Historic Site in 2008. Its restoration was a three-year undertaking.
Learn more about Cyrus Eaton and the Pugwash Conferences by visiting the exhibit in Thinkers Lodge.
Credits. This page was last revised on October 30, 2020. It was originally submitted on May 23, 2020, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 83 times since then and 24 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. submitted on May 25, 2020, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.

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Dec. 7, 2023