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Forty Fort in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
 

What on Earth is a Levee?

Wyoming Valley Levee System

 
 
What on Earth is a Levee? Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., June 25, 2018
1. What on Earth is a Levee? Marker
Inscription.  

"And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell; and great was the fall of it."
Matthew 7:27

Some know them as levees and others call them dikes, but the large embankments along the river were not always here. The oldest and most extensively used method of flood control, levees keep raging floodwaters from racing through people's homes and businesses. To make a levee, tons of earth and other fill material are placed and compacted to form a watertight earthen dam. Grass sod planted on the slopes prevents the soil from washing away. In sections where the river current may cause erosion, the sloping river side of the levee is armored or protected with a layer of stone called riprap.

Building levees is a science. Designing a successful levee means taking into account the river's path, foundation conditions, the kind of materials used to construct the levee embankment and armoring, if needed. Levees differ in height depending upon the severity of local flooding, costs, environmental impacts and other factors. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District,

What on Earth is a Levee? Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., June 25, 2018
2. What on Earth is a Levee? Marker
Levee is visible in background
built the first levees along the Susquehanna River in the late 1930s, following the Wyoming Valley's devastating 1936 flood. Tropical Storm Agnes in 1972 led the Corps to enlarge them and add new ones.

While a levee's primary goal is to shield a community from flooding, more often, it offers walking, jogging, biking and bird-watching opportunities. But it stands ready to hold back the waters whenever the river grows angry.

[Illustrations, from top to bottom, read]
• Typical levee embankment profile

• Typical floodwall profile. Where there is not enough land area to build a levee of sufficient height a concrete or steel floodwall provides the needed flood protection.

• Placing fill to build the Swoyersville-Forty Fort levee, 1953.

• Aerial view of South Wilkes-Barre showing some homes almost completely submerged during the 1972 flood. Photo by Sam Salutsky.

• View of Kirby Park, Nesbitt Park and Kingston during the 1936 flood.
 
Erected by Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor and Others.
 
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: DisastersWaterways & Vessels.
 
Location. 41° 16.75′ N, 75° 52.32′ W. Marker is in Forty Fort, Pennsylvania, in Luzerne County. Marker is on

Susquehanna River and Levee, Looking South image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., June 25, 2018
3. Susquehanna River and Levee, Looking South
River Street just north of Fort Street, on the right when traveling north. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Kingston PA 18704, United States of America. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Trailing Along (here, next to this marker); Welcome to the First Residents' Path (here, next to this marker); The Fort in Forty Fort (a few steps from this marker); Forty-Fort (within shouting distance of this marker); Forty Fort Meeting House (approx. 0.4 miles away); Wyoming Seminary Presidents' Lost Graves Memorial (approx. 0.4 miles away); James Bird (approx. 0.4 miles away); War Memorial (approx. 0.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Forty Fort.
 
Also see . . .
1. US Army Corps of Engineers EM 1110-2-1913, Design and Construction of Levees (2000). (Submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. Hurricane Agnes documentary on WBRE-TV (1992). (Submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
3. US Army Corps of Engineers TP-37, Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at W-B (1973). (Submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
4. Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor. (Submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
 
Susquehanna River and Levee, Looking North image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., June 25, 2018
4. Susquehanna River and Levee, Looking North
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on November 5, 2020. It was originally submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. This page has been viewed 36 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on November 5, 2020, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.
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Mar. 6, 2021