“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Near Shenandoah Junction in Jefferson County, West Virginia — The American South (Appalachia)

Duffields Depot Raid

Mosby Strikes the B&O

— 1864 Valley Campaign —

Duffields Depot Raid Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, July 29, 2012
1. Duffields Depot Raid Marker
On the lower right is a drawing, Duffields Depot, from James A. Taylor Sketchbook (1989). In the center is a portrait of Lt. Col. John S. Mosby.
The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and barns, and crushed the remnants of Early's force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan's victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln's reelection in November 1864 and denied Gen. Robert E. Lee's army much-needed provisions from the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy."

This was the site of a daring raid by Lt. Co. John S. Mosby’s Partisan Rangers (43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry) on June 29, 1864, to support Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Washington Raid. As Early marched north down the Shenandoah Valley, Mosby and his men rode here from Upperville, Virginia. They planned to disrupt Federal communications by cutting telegraph wires and seizing a train on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line. Mosby learned from captured Union pickets that an eastbound train was due at noon, in about fifteen minutes.
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Mosby quickly posted a howitzer on a knoll overlooking the depot, guardhouse, and stockade that housed the Federal garrison, sent a courier to the stockade, and informed the officer in charge that unless he surrendered, the Confederates would open fire. When the officer saw the howitzer and Mosby’s superior force, he surrendered.

While Mosby waited for the eastbound train, which had been delayed, his men ransacked the depot, seized supplies, and cut telegraph wires. When the train did not appear, Mosby burned most of the building except for the depot and escaped south with about 65 prisoners before the Federal reinforcements could arrive.

Union forces soon reoccupied the depot. The vital rail line remained a frequent target of Confederate raids. The Union regiments posted here to guard the railroad camped in the fields behind you, the station-master occupied the stone portion of the depot and commissary supplies were stored in the wooden part.

Built in 1839, Duffields Depot is the oldest surviving purpose-built combined freight and passenger rail station in the United States and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. Landowner Richard Duffield built the depot, and the B&O paid him $2,500 for construction and for the right-of-way. In 1884, a new depot was built across the tracks. It was demolished in 1942. In 2007,
Duffields Depot Raid Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Devry Becker Jones (CC0), October 11, 2020
2. Duffields Depot Raid Marker
Duffields Station, Inc., acquired the original Duffields Depot and is restoring it to its Civil War-era appearance.

Erected by West Virginia Civil War Trails.
Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Railroads & StreetcarsWar, US Civil. In addition, it is included in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O), and the West Virginia Civil War Trails series lists. A significant historical date for this entry is March 2, 1865.
Location. 39° 21.778′ N, 77° 49.541′ W. Marker is near Shenandoah Junction, West Virginia, in Jefferson County. Marker is on Melvin Road. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 76 Melvin Road, Shenandoah Junction WV 25442, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Duffields B&O Railroad Station (here, next to this marker); General William Darke (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); a different marker also named General William Darke (about 500 feet away); York Hill (approx. 1½ miles away); Peter Burr House (approx. 1.9 miles away); Peter Burr / William Burr Houses (approx. 1.9 miles away); Hockensmith Apple Storage Building (approx. 2.1 miles away); Gap View Farm (approx. 2.1 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Shenandoah Junction.
Jefferson County Marker Number 9 image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Craig Swain, February 9, 2008
3. Jefferson County Marker Number 9
This stone marker, erected the 1910s by the county's United Confederate Veterans chapter, was stop nine on a tour of Jefferson County's many Civil War sites.
Railroad at the site of Duffield's Depot image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Craig Swain, February 9, 2008
4. Railroad at the site of Duffield's Depot
Duffields Depot image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Don Morfe, July 29, 2012
5. Duffields Depot
Credits. This page was last revised on October 2, 2022. It was originally submitted on August 17, 2012, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Maryland. This page has been viewed 1,373 times since then and 150 times this year. Last updated on October 1, 2022, by Carl Gordon Moore Jr. of North East, Maryland. Photos:   1. submitted on August 17, 2012, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Maryland.   2. submitted on October 11, 2020, by Devry Becker Jones of Washington, District of Columbia.   3, 4. submitted on August 26, 2012, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   5. submitted on August 26, 2012, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Maryland. • Devry Becker Jones was the editor who published this page.

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Jul. 19, 2024