Parole in Anne Arundel County, Maryland — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
Trunk of the Three Mile Oak
Lower Plaque: Trunk of the Three Mile Oak
Under this tree passed General George Washington December 19, 1783 on his way to Annapolis to resign his commission as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Armies; and it is thought that General Smallwood accompanied by General Gates and distinguished citizens of Annapolis met General Washington at this spot. General Lafayette passed here December 17, 1824 to visit the friends of the revolutionary days.
Erected by Four Rivers Garden Club, Rotary Club of Annapolis.
Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era • Government & Politics • Military • Patriots & Patriotism. In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #01 George Washington series list.
Location. 38° 59.075′ N, 76° 32.676′ W. Marker is in Parole, Maryland, in Anne Arundel County. Marker is at the intersection of West Street (Maryland Route 450Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 183 Jennifer Rd, Annapolis MD 21401, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. The General’s Highway (approx. 0.2 miles away); Camp Parole (approx. half a mile away); Annapolis Water Company (approx. 1.2 miles away); Aris T. Allen, M.D. (approx. 1.3 miles away); Howard's Inheritance (approx. 1.4 miles away); St. John Neumann, C.Ss.R. (approx. 1.6 miles away); Blue Angels (approx. 2 miles away); Alumni Arch (approx. 2.1 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Parole.
More about this marker. The bottom brass tablet was originally located two-tenths of a mile further west on West Street at its intersection with Generals Highway (MD 178) and Defense Highway (MD 450). It was moved to its current location in 1967 to protect it from the growing road traffic. This tablet is the same one pictured in Horydczak and Besley photos below, on the concrete block beneath the trunk. The block remains at its original location. On the opposite side of the road from the site of the Three Mile Oak and original marker is a more modern historical marker erected in 1973 when the Equitable Bank and Annapolis Mall were built.
Regarding Trunk of the Three Mile Oak. The Three Mile Oak got its name because it stood three miles from the Maryland State House. Up through the early 1900s, prominent Annapolis citizens frequently met distinguished visitors at the Three Mile Oak and escorted them into town.
In 1783, Annapolis was acting as the capital of the American colonies, hosting the Continental Congress in the state house building. Having just won independence from Britain, many Americans were debating the form of government the new country should take. Local tradition holds that the occasion of Washington's
1. About the Three Mile Oak
"Presumably a white oak, about six feet in diameter, located three miles from Annapolis, Anne Arundel County. A delegation met George Washington here on 12/17/1783, enroute to Annapolis (then the U.S. capitol) to resign his commission. A piece of the trunk is preserved at Anne Arundel Community College. The tree was struck by lightning, became hollow, was killed by fire, and finally blew down on 5/22/1909."
From Great Eastern Trees, Past and Present, by Colby B. Rucker, February 2004 (http://www.nativetreesociety.org/ bigtree/great_eastern_trees.htm)
— Submitted October 11, 2007, by Kevin W. of Stafford, Virginia.
2. Eva Dorsey Carr Gasperich
Looking through old copies of The Evening Capital, Annapolis' daily newspaper, I found several articles authored by Eva Dorsey Carr Gasperich and others on the subject of
In February of 1958, her poetic, two-part series about the tree envisioned Susquehannah and Piscatawey Indians making treaties of war and peace under its branches, Annapolis' founders meeting to establish Maryland's new capital, George Washington surveying the end of a new road from Williamsburg to Annapolis, farmers and planters debating British taxes, and finally where General Washington turned down an opportunity to become King of America. A quote from the last sentence of her first-part of the series: "But I remember Dr. Elihu S. Riley [Annapolis historian] most vividly of all, removing his hat to salute that ancient, imperial, expiring tree, the wind lifting his long gray 'Indian' locks. 'Revere this spot: This is the birthplace of our republic. It was here a kingdom was offered and rejected!'"
— Submitted February 23, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland.
3. Herbert Hoover
Elmer M. Jackson, Jr. wrote a piece for The Evening Capital
The oak was last used as an official meeting place during the administration of President Herbert C. Hoover. The Mayor of Annapolis, then Walter E. Quenstedt, members of the City Council and other municipal officials gathered at the oak to welcome Hoover on his visit to Annapolis for an engagement at the Naval Academy. They arrived early after making arrangements with the White House for a handshaking ceremony.
To the amazement of the Annapolis contingent, Hoover's motorcade moved pass the astonished Annapolitans while travelling at a speed estimated at 60 miles an hour. There wasn't even a wave from the nation's Chief Executive as his car whizzed by the waiting delegation members, who quickly got into their vehicles and took off in pursuit. They never caught up with Hoover and his party. The President, word was relayed, had experienced stomach cramps and was in a desperate hurry to get to the Superintendent's Quarters at the Naval Academy.
Quenstedt, a Republican presiding over a city council that was predominately Democratic, took quite a ribbing over the President's "slight", particularly because Hoover also represented the G.O.P.
Years later, we mentioned the incident to Hoover when he was in Florida aboard his yacht,
— Submitted February 23, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland.
4. Three Mile Oak Fire Stories
Colby Rucker (Additional Comments #1) summarized the destruction of the Three Mile Oak, which was “struck by lightning, became hollow, was killed by fire, and finally blew down on 5/22/1909." I’ve been searching for historic references to the fire and the eventual toppling of the tree, but so far have only come across a few interesting stories told much later.
In 1954, Richard Manning reported in The Evening Capital that the trunk of the Three Mile Oak was severely infested with termites and needed attention. As reported in his article, a Mrs. Minnie Richardson claimed the tree burned down in the late 1890s by some raccoon hunters who were trying to smoke out their prey from its hollow trunk. Mrs. Richardson lived on the farm where the tree was located, which had been previously owned by her grandfather, who bought the property from the Howard brothers, who were owners of the estate when George Washington travelled under the tree on his way to resign his commission.
Eva Dorsey Gasperich tells in 1958 that the tree “went up in a pillar
In 2007 while looking for the remains of the trunk at Anne Arundel Community College, I spoke with Dr. Hal Counihan, a history professor at the college. Dr. Counihan was present in 1988 when the college took possession of the trunk from the same Colby Rucker above, and reported that Mr. Rucker had kept the trunk in his tobacco barn since its removal from the concrete block in 1967. Dr. Counihan spoke of the careless hunters and gypsies, but he also had another interesting fire story. It seems that some folks at the time of the fire believed the tree may have been deliberately burned by Johnnies – students of St. John’s College in Annapolis – as a college prank and/or jealousy over competing historic attention with the Three Mile Oak. St. John’s
— Submitted February 24, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland.
5. Remembering three mile oak stump
I remember seeing an old hollow stump on the concrete block in the 1974 to 1979 time. I used to work near the site of the new bowling alley in building that burned down in December of 1979. I would get lunch from the liquor/deli store across from the stump.
— Submitted July 1, 2015, by Aubrey Francis Patterson of Annapolis, Maryland.
Credits. This page was last revised on July 20, 2020. It was originally submitted on October 9, 2007, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. This page has been viewed 5,185 times since then and 96 times this year. Photos: 1. submitted on October 9, 2007, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 2, 3. submitted on November 30, 2007, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 4. submitted on February 23, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 5. submitted on November 30, 2007, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 6. submitted on September 1, 2014, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 7, 8. submitted on February 23, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 9. submitted on October 9, 2007, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. 10, 11. submitted on February 24, 2008, by F. Robby of Baltimore, Maryland. • J. J. Prats was the editor who published this page.
Editor’s want-list for this marker. Period photo of the tree, and of the intersection where it stood. • Can you help?