The War Between the States
The immediate cause of the War Between the States was the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States in 1860. The deeper cause, however, was the issue of states' rights. The question of states' rights was based on the belief that the United States was a union of independent commonwealths, and that the general government was merely their agent. Thus, when matters could not be resolved, the South felt free to assert their independence and form a new government. The North, however, assumed that Federal Government to be supreme, believed the Union to be one and inseparable, and secession to be a violation of the national compact.
In 1861 Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, igniting a war between the states. Heavy casualties in the early battles of the war shattered both sides' illusions that the war would end swiftly. Lincoln ennobled the war in 1863 when he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately, but it gave the war a high moral purpose.
The two most decisive actions of the war occurred in July 1863. The battle of Gettysburg began on July
After four years of bloody warfare, the recognized end of the war came with the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia to Union forces at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, in April 1865.
The Gettysburg Address
November 19, 1863
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
[Image captions read]
The Twentieth Maine - Gettysburg
The Fourth Alabama - Manassas
The Ninth Illinois - Shiloh
[Map title reads]
"America Bares her Soul in the Great War Between the States"
Erected 2012 by the
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Patriots & Patriotism • War, US Civil. A significant historical year for this entry is 1860.
Location. 36° 26.015′ N, 94° 13.79′ W. Marker is in Bella Vista, Arkansas, in Benton County. Marker is at the Veterans Wall of Honor. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 103 Veterans Way, Bella Vista AR 72714, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. War with Spain (here, next to this marker); World War I (here, next to this marker); The Years Between (here, next to this marker); Triumph in Europe (here, next to this marker); Women in World War II (here, next to this marker); The Terrible Cost of World War II (here, next to this marker); World War II Home Front (here, next to this marker); Veterans Wall of Honor (a few steps from this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Bella Vista.
Also see . . .
1. American Civil War. History website entry (Submitted on December 17, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. The Civil War. National Parks Website entry (Submitted on December 17, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
Credits. This page was last revised on April 5, 2021. It was originally submitted on December 17, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. This page has been viewed 448 times since then and 6 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on December 17, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. 6. submitted on December 11, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. 7. submitted on November 20, 2015, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.