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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
San Miguel de Allende in Municipality of Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico — The Central Highlands
 

Burial 13 The hierarch and ancestral veneration

 
 
Burial 13 <i>The hierarch and ancestral veneration</i> Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, February 5, 2017
1. Burial 13 The hierarch and ancestral veneration Marker
Inscription.
Entierro 13 El Jerarca y la veneración de los ancestros
Durante las excavaciones para liberar el mural se encontró un hallazgo de gran relevancia y sumamente significativo para la interpretación del recinto. El Templo Rojo con sus franjas que emulan la T Tierra y el cosmos, fue morada de un ancestro del linaje gobernante en Cañada de la Virgen.

Los restos óseos del personaje enterrado se encontraron directamente asociados a la pintura mural y a la presencia de un fogón ceremonial. Es decir, sus restos fueron depositados físicamente el lugar más relevante del centro ceremonial y, además, en una estrecha vinculación con un espacio simbólico y sagrado relacionada con el Sol poniente, tal y como revelan los colores del mural y la propia orientación arqueoastronómica del basamento piramidal.

El fechamiento por C14 ha comprobado que esta osamenta humana data entre 770 a 400 a.C. Esto significa que, cuando fue enterrado dentro del Templo Rojo de Cañada de la Virgen, El jerarca llevaba muerto y momificado al menos mil 33 años.

El contexto funerario descubierto del Entierro 13 constituye por sus caracteristicas uno de los enterramientos más ricos y complejos investigados hasta la fecha en esta región de la cuenca central del río Laja que pertenece a la Mesoamérica septentrional. Podemos además
The additional marker,"Mural Painting in the Red Temple". image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, February 5, 2017
2. The additional marker,"Mural Painting in the Red Temple".
See the 'Additional Comments' for its text.
añadir que de la veneración del bulto funerario y la representación que de ellos se hace y muestra en la mayoría de los códices prehispánicos – que alcanzó su máxima expresión en la las culturas de Oaxaca, aquí en Cañada de la Virgen tenemos la evidencia arqueológica que confirma esta iconografía tan representada.

English:
Burial 13 The hierarch and ancestral veneration
Excavations to uncover the mural revealed a particularly relevant and especially significant finding for the interpretation of the enclosure. The Red Temple, with its borders that emulate the Earth and the Cosmos, was home to an ancestor of Cañada de la Virgen’s ruling descent.

The remains found in this burial are linked directly to the mural painting and ceremonial bonfire: that is, the remains were physically deposited in the most relevant spot of the ceremonial centre and furthermore, closely linked to a symbolic and sacred space in relation to the setting Sun, as archeoastronomcal orientation of the pyramidal base itself.

Carbon dating shows that this human skeleton dates from between 770 to 440 BCE#. This means that the Hierarch had been dead and mummified for at least 1033 years when he was buried in the Red Temple of Cañada de la Virgen.

The funerary context discovered in Burial 13 is one of the richest and most complex investigated to date in
Burial 13 <i>The hierarch and ancestral veneration</i> Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, February 5, 2017
3. Burial 13 The hierarch and ancestral veneration Marker
The marker is to the right of the entrance to the mural remains. To the left is the "Mural Painting in the Red Temple" additional marker.
the Laja River Central Basin region of Northern Mesoamerica. Moreover, cal evidence to confirm the much represented iconography of the veneration of the funeral bundle, as seen in the majority of Pre-Hispanic codices (screen fold books) best exemplified by the cultures of Oaxaca.
 
Erected by Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes de México (CONACULTA)-INAH.
 
Location. 20° 51.495′ N, 100° 55.718′ W. Marker is in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, in Municipality of Allende. Marker can be reached from Route 67. Touch for map. The marker is at the top of the main pyramid at the archaeological site of Cañada de la Virgen. The site is to the left when traveling north on State Road 67, some 30 km west of San Miguel de Allende. Marker is in this post office area: San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato 37701, Mexico.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 19 kilometers of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Observing the Stars (within shouting distance of this marker); Layout and Architecture (within shouting distance of this marker); Burial 18 The Decapitated Man (within shouting distance of this marker); Complex A The House of the Thirteen Heavens (within shouting distance of this marker);
Prehispanic mesoamerican burial image. Click for full size.
4. Prehispanic mesoamerican burial
This image from the 16th century Magliabecchiano Codex shows an image of a 'sacred bundle' type of burial that could have been similar to that of the "Hierarch" at Cañada de la Virgen. This image is from the Aztec culture and it is not clear which culture lived at Cañada de la Virgen. This image is in the public domain.
Complex D The House of the Wind (about 90 meters away, measured in a direct line); A Ceremonial Centre in the Laja River Basin (about 150 meters away); The Ceremonial Avenue (about 180 meters away); The Parish of Saint Anthony of Padua (approx. 19.4 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in San Miguel de Allende.
 
Additional comments.
1. Text of additional marker, "Mural Painting in the Red Temple"
Pintura mural en el templo rojo
Durante los trabajos de exploración del Templo Rojo, ubicado en la cúspide del basamento piramidal del Complejo A, se encontró pintura mural en sus muros interiores. La pintura se conservó mejor en el muro oeste, aunque se puede apreciar que tuvo continuidad en los muros sur y este del recito sagrado. La técnica fue al fresco y la paleta de colores empleada fue el rojo, ocre, negro y blanco. La composición es simétrica, con bandas geométricas y abstractas en color intercalado - rojo y negro principalmente – de diferentes dimensiones.

En Mesoamérica el color simbolizó conceptos asociados a las deidades y a los
The main temple at the Cañada de la Virgen site image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, February 5, 2017
5. The main temple at the Cañada de la Virgen site
The marker is on the top of the pyramid and to the left, in the area of the remains of the mural.
cuatro puntos cardinales: el rojo se vinculó al este y a la deidad de la transición de secas a lluvias, representado en Xipe Totec; el negro al rumbo norte y a la deidad nocturna de Tezcatlipoca y Mixcoatl; el blanco al rumbo oeste y al Quetzalcóatl-Xólotl; elamarillo al sur, lugar que correspondió a Huitzilopochtli.

En Cañada de la Virgen la pintura mural empleó un lenguaje abstracto que expresa significados religiosos más que artísticos, por lo que se cree que el diseño refiere a las deidades asociadas y reflejan un visión del mundo en tres niveles: inframundo, superficie terrestre y el plano celeste. Las franjas de colores no son adornos al edificio, sino elementos iconográficos con contenidos religiosos que lograban perpetuar un culto ancestral.

La interpretación del mural ha transitado por varias propuestas: la representación de los tres cielos y los nueve inframundo del universo Nahua y el Tlaltlicpac - nivel donde vivimos. Y la representación de los siete niveles que conforman el universo en el pensamiento otomí. Es importante mencionar que es el único mural localizado en esta región cultural.

English:
Mural painting in the red temple
During the exploration of the red temple, situated at the top of the Pyramidal Base of Complex A, a mural was discovered on the interior walls. The mural has been best preserved on the western wall,
The remains of the mural of the Red Temple image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, February 5, 2017
6. The remains of the mural of the Red Temple
although we can see that it also extended across the eastern and southern walls of this sacred enclosure. The colors used in this Fresco painting were red, ochre, black and white. The composition of the painting is symmetrical with geometrical and abstract borders of different dimensions which were painted in alternating colors, mainly red and black.

In Mesoamerica colors symbolized concepts associated with the gods and the four cardinal points: red was associated with the east and Xipe Totec, the god of the transition from dry weather to the rains; black was linked to the north and to the nocturnal deity Tezcatlipoca and Mixcoatl; white was associated with the west and Quetzacóatl-Xólotl; and yellow with the south which corresponded to Huitzilopochtli.

Mural paintings in Cañada de la Virgen employed an abstract language which expressed religious rather than artistic meanings, thus it is thought that the design represents the relevant deities and reflects a three-tiered world view: The Underworld, the earth's surface and the celestial plane. The colors are not decorative but rather iconographic elements with religious content that perpetuated an ancestral cult.

English translation of marker’s last paragraph:
There have been many interpretations of the mural’s meaning. One interpretation is that it represents the ‘three skies’ of the celestial plane, the nine levels of the underworld and the ‘Tlaltlicpac’ – the level where we live, all in in the Nahua universe. Another interpretation is that it represents the seven levels of the universe in the Otomi culture. It is important to note that this is the only mural located in this cultural region.
    — Submitted June 7, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.

 
Categories. AnthropologyMan-Made FeaturesNative Americans
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 7, 2017. This page originally submitted on June 6, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. This page has been viewed 60 times since then. Photos:   1. submitted on June 6, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.   2. submitted on June 7, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.   3. submitted on June 6, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.   4. submitted on June 7, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.   5, 6. submitted on June 6, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.
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