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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Anthropology & Archaeology Topic

Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse. image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, January 14, 2017
Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse.
1Alabama (Baldwin County), Bay Minette — Bottle Creek Site
Bottle Creek Site has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses National Significance in Commemorating the History of the United States of America . . . Map (db m100849) HM
2Alabama (Baldwin County), Blakeley — Site of Baldwin County's First Courthouse
This foundation is all that remains of Baldwin County’s first courthouse. Authorized in 1820 but not constructed until circa 1833, the two-story brick building contained a jail on the bottom floor with office space on the upper floor. . . . Map (db m131830) HM
3Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Charcoal Production at Caver-Christian-Davis FarmAD 1865 to AD 2000 — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
When workers began excavating the lake for Choccolocco Park, they uncovered several large charcoal-filled ditches that formed circles. Archaeologists investigated these features and determined that these were the remains of 19th century charcoal . . . Map (db m144947) HM
4Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Paleoindian12,750 BC to 9,500 BC — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
The people living during the Paleoindian period experienced a world very different from that we know today. These people lived during the last ice age when large mammals still roamed North America. Archaeologists sometimes refer to these . . . Map (db m144948) HM
5Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Reconstructing the Cultural Landscape — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
The stone mound here once sat on nearby Signal Mountain and is now understood to be part of a much larger cultural landscape. Working with the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and the people of the Arbeka (Abihka) Ceremonial Ground, archaeologist Robert . . . Map (db m144927) HM
6Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — The Choccolocco Creek Archaeological ComplexAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
Centered around Boiling Spring, the Choccolocco Creek Archaeological Complex once consisted of at least three earthen mounds, a large stone mound, and a large snake effigy (representation) also made of stone. The largest earthen mound once . . . Map (db m144926) HM
7Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Woodland1,250 BC to AD 1000 — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
Woodland period people established permanent communities within a climate and forest that was very similar to that experienced by today's residents of the Choccolocco Valley. By AD 100, the residents had started constructing the earthen mound . . . Map (db m144977) HM
8Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Natural and Cultural Preservation/Protecting Resources
Natural and Cultural Preservation TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam. Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . Map (db m106189)
9Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . Map (db m75779) HM
10Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Civil War Prison
In 1858, the railroad company graded away an Indian mound that stood here. A brick warehouse was built in its place. From 1863 - 1865 the Confederate government used this warehouse to hold captured Federal Soldiers. You are standing on a pile of . . . Map (db m22666) HM
11Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Site of Alabama's Statehouse1820 - 1825
This structure collapsed in 1833 and its fallen remains were reportedly heaped into a railroad embankment. Consequently, we have no picture of the Statehouse that was drawn by someone who actually saw the building. Any modern picture you see of this . . . Map (db m75909) HM
12Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — St. Luke's Episcopal Church
St. Luke's was consecrated in 1854. It was an outstanding example of the Gothic Revival style, popular at the time. The contractor closely followed designs in a widely circulated book, Rural Architecture, published in 1852 by the celebrated . . . Map (db m75922) HM
13Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — The Mound at Old Cahawba Archaeological ParkAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
Between AD 1500 and 1600, the indigenous inhabitants of the area around the confluence of the Cahaba and Alabama Rivers built a flat-topped mound measuring about ½ acre in size. The mound was the central feature of a semicircular village . . . Map (db m150834) HM
14Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — A Perspective of PowerMoundville Archaeological Park
Imagine a clan chief 800 years ago standing exactly where you are. It's possible he would see something resembling this artist's rendering. Larger mounds, like this one, dotted the plaza's perimeter, serving as elevated platforms for . . . Map (db m144752) HM
15Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Mound BMoundville Archaeological Park
The mound in front of you probably once served as a platform for the principal chief's house. The noble who lived there was an extremely important political and religious figure. It is likely that this chief claimed to have divine relationships with . . . Map (db m144808) HM
16Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . Map (db m30700) HM
17Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville Archaeological ParkAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
I do not think in the Southern States there is a group of Mounds to compare to Moundville, in the arrangement and state of preservation of the mounds. - Clarence B. Moore, amateur archaeologist, 1910 Spanning more than . . . Map (db m144745) HM
18Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville Archaeological ParkMoundville Archaeological Park
Welcome to Moundville Archaeological Park, the best preserved site of its kind in North America. At its height, Moundville was the largest and most powerful political and religious center in the Southeast. Nobles at Moundville ruled over thousands . . . Map (db m144759) HM
19Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Politics and PowerMoundville Archaeological Park
The mounds you see here were built in a very orderly arrangement over the course of about 100 years. Surrounding them was an immense wall constructed from tens of thousands of logs. How did the rulers harness the manpower and allegiance of the . . . Map (db m144774) HM
20Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Protection and the PalisadeMoundville Archaeological Park
Rival Mississippian chiefdoms constantly threatened one another. Warfare was a way of life for most men. By proving their valor militarily, warriors probably increased their overall status as they were promoted up through the ranks. One theory . . . Map (db m144815) HM
21Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — The CCC and Moundville — Moundville Archaeological Park —
The Civilian Conservation Corps was born during the turmoil of the Great Depression. Hundreds of thousands of young men were out of work, and wasteful exploitation of the environment had devoured millions of acres across America. In 1933, as part of . . . Map (db m144813) HM
22Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — The Bessemer SiteAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
The Bessemer Site was the largest indigenous mound site in what is now Jefferson County, and it once dominated a large territory in what became north-central Alabama. Occupied from about AD 1150 to 1250 during the early Mississippian period, . . . Map (db m144908) HM
23Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Mound(Probably Built Between 100 B.C and 400 A.D.)
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This . . . Map (db m28457) HM
24Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Copena Burial Mound
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead . . . Map (db m84315) HM
25Alabama (Marion County), Hamilton — The Hamilton Mounds SiteAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
The cluster of three mounds known as the Hamilton Mounds site is the largest indigenous mound site in Marion County, Alabama. The site includes three mounds along the Buttahatchee River: a large mound with a two-tiered summit, another smaller . . . Map (db m174428) HM
26Alabama (Mobile County), Dauphin Island — Dauphin Island Indian Shell Mound Park
This park and bird refuge dates from the Mississippian Period (AD 1100 to 1550). Native Americans, who roasted oysters and fished in adjacent Dauphin Island Bay, visited the shell mounds for centuries. From excavations carried out in 1990, . . . Map (db m122350) HM
27Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama Bicentennial Park / Ancient Sea
Alabama Bicentennial Park Alabama Bicentennial Park commemorates Alabama's 200th anniversary of statehood. The park's bronze relief sculptures present sixteen moments from Alabama history, complemented by narratives that provide historical . . . Map (db m182565) HM
28Alaska, Anchorage — Ancient Traditions of the Athabascan People
Athabascans were highly nomadic, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt, and trap. Athabascan territory, the largest area of all the Alaska Native peoples, was home to 11 different linguistic groups who lived along five major riverways: the . . . Map (db m72795) HM
29Alaska, Anchorage — Mobile Architecture
Athabascans were masters at designing a variety of shelters--simple and functional--that kept them both warm and mobile as they set out to hunt and trade. Emergency shelters were constructed in minutes. A wandering hunter could pile up . . . Map (db m72792) HM
30Alaska, Anchorage — Raven the CreatorCreated by John Hoover in 1998
Raven is the Creator in many Alaska Native and American Indian legends. Elements from my different legends are incorporated into this sculpture including "Raven Stealing the Stars, Sun, and Moon." The human figures in the claws symbolize icons used . . . Map (db m72793) HM
31Alaska, Anchorage — What is this “Rock Man”?
For generations the Inuit people of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska have constructed these rock monuments for hunting and navigational purposes. Our inuksuk is a giant version based on similar monuments found throughout the Arctic. . . . Map (db m69768) HM
32Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age HuntersThe Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to . . . Map (db m69724) HM
33Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Johnson Totem Pole
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors, record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects. This totem, carved by Israel Shotridge and raised in 1989, is a replica of the Chief . . . Map (db m79703) HM
34Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Kyan Totem Pole
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects. This totem is the second replication of the Chief Kyan Totem Pole. The original pole was . . . Map (db m70746) HM
35Alaska (Sitka Borough), Sitka — Forgotten Workers of the Russian-American Company
Blacksmiths and artisans who once lived and toiled on this hill were highly skilled workers of diverse ethnicities. Artifacts found here tell their forgotten story. Under Your Feet In 1997, archaeologists discovered Russian workshops . . . Map (db m181266) HM
36Arizona (Apache County), Chinle — House Under Rock
Discovery of two well-preserved mummies led members of an 1880 archeological expedition to call this site Mummy Cave. The traditional Navajo name for this impressive setting is Tséyaa Kini — House Under Rock. Anasazi lived here for nearly a . . . Map (db m170537) HM
37Arizona (Apache County), Chinle — Sliding House Ruins
The Navajo know this prehistoric Anasazi village site as Kináázhoozhí, which means Sliding House. It is an apt description. The dwellings were constructed upon a steeply sloping ledge, and even the ingenious Anasazi builders were unable to keep many . . . Map (db m170548) HM
38Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — Lehner Mammoth Kill Site
At this location in 1952, a large bone bed was discovered containing the remains of extinct mammoth, tapir, bison and horse. Found with the bones were the weapons and tools of the Indians who had killed and butchered these animals. The bones and . . . Map (db m43633) HM
39Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas . . . Map (db m60079) HM
40Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . Map (db m60114) HM
41Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . Map (db m60089) HM
42Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . Map (db m60105) HM
43Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, . . . Map (db m60094) HM
44Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . Map (db m60110) HM
45Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited . . . Map (db m60098) HM
46Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . Map (db m60107) HM
47Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . Map (db m60087) HM
48Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation . . . Map (db m60078) HM
49Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin
Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of . . . Map (db m39631) HM
50Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail
Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive . . . Map (db m39633) HM
51Arizona (Coconino County), North Rim — Summer HomeGrand Canyon National Park
Built more than 900 years before the Grand Canyon Lodge, the foundations of this small, two-room dwelling provide a glimpse of the kinds of lodging used by ancestral Puebloan farmers of the North Rim. These native farmers built field houses like . . . Map (db m163577) HM
52Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . Map (db m41664) HM
53Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Community Sharing the Land
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success . . . Map (db m61366) HM
54Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender? [Photo captions read] Hopi men plant and tend . . . Map (db m61350) HM
55Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — An Efficient Design
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter. Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, . . . Map (db m61365) HM
56Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Departure
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict. However, these . . . Map (db m61370) HM
57Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Problem Solving
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances. Rooms were added as families grew or storage . . . Map (db m61341) HM
58Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Room Functions
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large . . . Map (db m61347) HM
59Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Perfect Shelter
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway . . . Map (db m61340) HM
60Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — What Happened Here?
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular . . . Map (db m61368) HM
61Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Community
This area seems quiet and lonely today - but not 800 years ago. This valley was used for farming and hunting by the people living in Citadel, Nalakihu, and other nearby pueblos, all inhabited at about the same time. (You can see the ruins of at . . . Map (db m41716) HM
62Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Nalakihu
Nalakihu - A modern Hopi name, "House Outside the Village" Farmers lived here about 800 years ago. (Roof beams gave tree ring dates in the late 1100s.) The way the walls join show this small pueblo was not built all at once, but was added onto. . . . Map (db m41713) HM
63Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The BallcourtA Mexican Idea at Wupatki
Ballcourts were common in southern Arizona from A.D. 750 to 1200, but relatively rare here in the northern part of the state. This suggests that the people of Wupatki intermingled with their southern Arizona neighbors - the Hohokam - who may have . . . Map (db m41696) HM
64Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . Map (db m41701) HM
65Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Where Were The Fields?
Farming then did not mean vast fields like we use today. Anasazi and Sinagua people modified these small terraces to grow hand-tended corn, cotton, beans, and squash. We know the climate was about what it is now, very dry for farming. The terraces . . . Map (db m41715) HM
66Arizona (Maricopa County), Mesa — Prehistoric Irrigation in the Salt River Valley
Approximately 300 B.C. Prehistoric Indians entered the Salt River Valley. They developed an extensive canal system and raised corn, beans, squash, agave and cotton. Over 500 miles of Hohokam canal have been recorded in the Salt River . . . Map (db m49877) HM
67Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Big SagebrushArtemisia tridentata
It is not known if the prehistoric Indians of the canyons used this plant, but both Navajos and Hopis make medicine from it, to cure stomach-ache. The Navajos use it to cure colds and headache.Map (db m144404) HM
68Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Broadleaf YuccaYucca baccata
As with the narrowleaf yucca, all parts of this plant provided something for the Indians. They ate the fruit, and shredded and twisted the leaves into cord and rope. Soap comes from the crushed roots and is used as a shampoo in Navajo and Hopi . . . Map (db m144395) HM
69Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Douglas FirPseudotsuga taxifolia
Generations of Hopis have long travelled far from their arid, mesa-top homes to collect fir boughs and branches. Navajos also traded cut boughs to the Hopis in exchange for corn. Each culture requires fir neck-wreaths for the dancers of certain . . . Map (db m144406) HM
70Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Gambel OakQuercus gambelii
The most common oak in Navajoland has a hard, durable wood, which is still used for ax handles, weaving battens, and cradleboard hoops. The leafy branches are favored for shade ramadas in the summer. Solutions of root bark are used to dye wool and . . . Map (db m144405) HM
71Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — HoganNavajo National Monument
The Navajo Indians resourcefully met the demands of desert dwelling when they came up with this comfortable and sturdy forked-stick hogan — so called because its chief structural support is made up of three poles with their forked ends . . . Map (db m144378) HM
72Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Indian Rice GrassStipa hymenoides
When protected from overgrazing, this bunchgrass thrives on the high desert. It was once a nutritious food source for the Hopi Indians. While Navajos also depended on rice grass, other foods that were easier to prepare eventually replaced it. . . . Map (db m144391) HM
73Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Into The MemoryNavajo National Monument
Who Was Here? Descendants of the Hopi people who built this place call it Talastima, a Hopi word for "Place of the Blue Corn Tassels." They call their ancient relatives “Hisatsinom.” Zuni, also pueblo builders, know . . . Map (db m144402) HM
74Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Pinyon PinePinus edulis
The nut of this little tree, eaten raw or roasted, is a favorite wild food of the Southwestern Indians. Prehistoric Indians used the pitch to fasten stone arrowheads and knives to wooden shafts and handles, and to repair broken pots. Navajos made . . . Map (db m144399) HM
75Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Prehistoric PioneersNavajo National Monument
This Is The Place The Ancestral Puebloans often chose south-facing alcoves like this one for their cliff villages; here are all the basic necessities of life. Benefits of winter sun and summer shade, shelter from the elements, and springwater . . . Map (db m144400) HM
76Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Rabbit BrushChrysothamnus nauseosus
Hopi Indians burn rabbit brush kindling with three other wood fuels in their ceremonial kivas. Slender, flexible stems are woven into basketry. Green dye comes from the inner bark, while early autumn flowers yield a yellow dye. The Hopis once . . . Map (db m144448) HM
77Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Sandal TrailNavajo National Monument
Follow the easy one-mile (1.6 km) round-trip trail to a point overlooking Betatakin Ruin—multi-level cliff-village home to a community of 13th-century Anasazi farmers. On the way there and back, you’ll be walking through pygmy . . . Map (db m71519) HM
78Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — ServiceberryAmelanchier utahensis
Serviceberry is one of the enduring "life medicines" of the Navajos, which insure their survival, health, and harmony. It is gathered to treat nausea, stomach problems, animal bites, and recovery from childbirth. It is also valued as a medicine in . . . Map (db m144449) HM
79Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — SweathouseNavajo National Monument
This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath — an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce. Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then . . . Map (db m71517) HM
80Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — The Pygmy Conifer Forest - An Indian Store
This trail leads through vegetation typical of the plateaus of northern Arizona. Although the trees are small, they make up a true forest – the pinyon pine-juniper forest. The stunted trees and plants here may seem an unlikely source of food, . . . Map (db m144397) HM
81Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down MountainNavajo National Monument
Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, . . . Map (db m71514) HM
82Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Utah JuniperJuniperus osteosperma
This tree had many uses. Many of the roof beams in Betatakin are juniper. Fires were started with juniper fire-drills, the shredded bark was used for tinder, and the wood was used for fuel. The shredded bark also served as diaper pads, was braided . . . Map (db m144396) HM
83Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Voices in the CanyonNavajo National Monument
By 1286, Betatakin village had grown to fill even the most precarious shelves and niches in the alcove, and housed 100 to 125 people clustered into 20 to 25 households. Looking down at this sheltered site today you can still see most remnants of the . . . Map (db m144401) HM
84Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce
Lifeline Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of . . . Map (db m40868) HM
85Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Macaw Pen Stone?
Could This Stone Be The Opening to a Macaw Pen? Where Did This Stone Come From? Who Used It? Why Is This Stone at Montezuma Castle? Did the Ancient Sinaguans Possibly Raise Macaws Here? In the 15th century, near modern-day Casa . . . Map (db m40895) HM
86Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Community
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. . . . Map (db m40840) HM
87Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Neighborhood / Mysterious Departures
The Neighborhood You can see Montezuma Castle and Castle A from here. If you look closely at the Cliffside, you might spot other ledges and caves used by the Sinagua. The Sinagua people who made their homes here may have been a . . . Map (db m40869) HM
88Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The People Next Door
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s. Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with . . . Map (db m40863) HM
89Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Way Up / Construction Sequence
The Way Up How in the world do you build a structure large enough to house 35 people high up on a steep canyon wall? Sound impossible? Here’s how Montezuma Castle’s ingenious Sinagua farmers managed it.
Construction . . . Map (db m40860) HM
90Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Welcome to The Castle
Pause a few moments to enjoy this view of Montezuma Castle. Don't you suppose it must have stopped the settlers and soldiers who first saw the cliff-dwelling over a century ago? The odd name came from a mistaken belief that the cliff-dwelling . . . Map (db m40819) HM
91Arkansas (Randolph County), Black Rock — Archeology Uncovers the Past — Davidsonville Historic State Park —
Why Excavate at Davidsonville? Although there are surviving documents to tell us about Davidsonville, the town existed for such a short period that many parts of the story were not written down. Day- to-day activities were too common to . . . Map (db m170943) HM
92Arkansas (Randolph County), Black Rock — Davidsonville Town Site1815 - 1830 — Davidsonville Historic State Park —
Beneath the Ground Remnants of this short-lived, but ambitious, town lie buried beneath the soil surrounding you. Excavations and archival research by the Arkansas Archeological Survey are beginning to reveal the layout of the town, . . . Map (db m170947) HM
93Arkansas (Randolph County), Pocahontas — Native American Culture
People have hunted and fished in the rich Black River Basin at least since the Paleo Indian Period (beginning around 10,000 B.C.). More recently, Native American built villages and mounds across the Mississippi River valley (3000 B.C.-A.D.1650). . . . Map (db m170367) HM
94Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Who Served Here?Fort Smith National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Regiment of Riflemen 1817-1822 After serving with distinction in the War of 1812, the elite Regiment of Riflemen established Fort Smith in 1817. Their mission was to promote peace between the Cherokee and Osage. The regiment merged with the 7th . . . Map (db m156986) HM
95California (Butte County), Oroville — Native Food Preparation
As you rest under the shade of this oak tree, you may notice several bowl shaped depressions in the rocks. These depressions, called mortars, were created over the last 2000 years by Maidu Indians. Each mortar was created for a specific purpose, . . . Map (db m146228) HM
96California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk RefugeDedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937 —
Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League. This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by · De Forest Grant · John D. . . . Map (db m32569) HM
97California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — Jay C. von Werlhof
The Imperial Valley College Desert Museum represents the creative vision of noted archaeologist and anthropologist Jay Crawford von Werlhof (1923-2009) A prolific author, von Werlhof wrote many scholarly books and articles on the archaeology . . . Map (db m82451) HM
98California (Kern County), Ridgecrest — Coso Rock Art DistrictBig and Little Petroglyph Canyon — National Historic Landmark —
This District possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States Of America. The Coso Rock Art District contains the largest concentration of unaltered prehistoric petroglyphs and associated sites in North America. . . . Map (db m116049) HM
99California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 1054 — Tomo-Kahni
In the Kawaiisu language, tomo-kahni means winter village. The site's location between the coast and desert allowed the site occupants to hold an important place for trade between these areas and the southern Central Valley. The sacred rock art . . . Map (db m92889) HM
100California (Lassen County), Westwood — Paul BunyanThe Legend Lives On
Paul Bunyan has been the hero of lumberjack whopper tales that were handed down for generations in the camps of White Pine lumbermen in the north eastern forests of America. In 1913 the Walker family who owned the Red River Mill in Minnesota, moved . . . Map (db m56687) HM

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Sep. 28, 2021