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Teotihuacán de Arista in Municipality of Teotihuacán, Estado de Mexico, Mexico — The Central Highlands
 

Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun

 
 
Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 2, 2017
1. Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun Marker
Inscription.
Sistemas Constructivos de la Pirámide del Sol
La monumentalidad del edificio, sus dimensiones y sus caracteristicas arquitectonicas, muestran el desarrollo tecnológico y los conocimientos de ingenieria y arquitectura que alcanzó la sociedad teotihuacana. Actualmente, la Pirámide tiene una altura de 64 m., medida que corresponde a su penúltima etapa constructiva. La longitud de su base, para la última fase constructiva, es de 224 m. por lado y se ha calculado que su volumen total es cercano al millon de m3. Además, la cúspide estuvo originalmente coronada por un templo ricamente ornamentado.

Se construyó mediante un sistema de rellenos de tierra, arena y adobes, recubiertos por una capa de roca; ésta estuvo, a su vez, recubierta por un grueso aplanado compuesto de gravilla, cementada con cal y arena. El acabado final era de cal, arena y pintura color rojo. Las piedras salientes que se observan en los cuerpos del edificio servían para detener el deslizamiento del aplanado que lo cubría. Los grandes muros que se aprecian en los costados y que simulan grandes escalones, funcionaron como retenes para el relleno de la última etapa constructiva. En los taludes de los cuerpos, las piedras forman alineamientos diagonales; esta colocación probablemente es para evitar el deslizamiento de los taludes.
Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 2, 2017
2. Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun Marker
The '...chunks of stones now seen on the pyramid's sides' mentioned in the text can be seen to the left of the marker on the pyramid's southern face.


Náhuatl:
Ihueyiliz inin caltepamitl, itamachiuhcayo ihuan in quenin omotlatetecpano, teixtitia in quenin hueyi icaltecpanchichihualiz quipiayà ininque Teotihuacan altepetlacà. In axan, in teocalli quipiaya 64 m. in tlen huecapa yatoc, inin itamachiuhca in tlen axan quipiya, noço inin quipiaya in cuac quipolohuaya occe tlachichihualiztli. Itzintla ihueyiliz, in tlen çatepan omochichiuh quipiya 224 m. in çan ce inacaztla ihuan yomotamachiuh in tlen quipiya mochi ihueyiliz inin mach mate aci ipan ce millón de metros in tlen itoca cúbicos. Ihuan mochi, icpac mach catca ce teopantli in tlen cuali tlatlamachyo catca.

Inin mochichiuh in quenin cuali motlatlaltemiaya, noço ica tlalli, xalli ihuan ica xamitl, ihuan çatepa oquitlalilique tetl, ihuan çatepan occepa oquixahuilique onoço oquizoquipepetzoque, inin zoquitl mochi tetepil quipiaya, mochi tenextli ihuan xalli. Ihuan in quenin oquiyecoque quipiaya tenextli, xalli ihuan chichiltic tlapalli. In teme in tlen ixquiquizá ipan mochi tlen quipiya in catepamitl, ininque cuali tlatzacuiliayâ in amo motoxahuani in zoquipépetzahuiliztli in tlen quitlapachohuaya. In huehueyi tepamitl in tlen cuali momahuizohua ipan itlanacaztla ihuan mate mixpantia in quenin ixtlacha mate huehueyi temamatlatl, ininque cuali quitzaculiaya in tialli, in tlen amo motoxahuani in cuac quitlaltemiaya. Ipan in tlaltlatzacuiliztli in tlen itoca talud in tlen quipiya mochin caltepamitl, ihuan mochi in teme moyeyecatia ihuan mochi mixnanamiqui; in quenin in teme motetecpanque mate cuali motialique in tleca in ohquion mate amo mototoxahuaya in tlatetzontin in tlen itoca taludes.

English:
Construction Systems of the Pyramid of the Sun
The building's monumental appearance, its huge size and architectural features evidence the technological development and the level of engineering and architectural knowledge reached by Teotihuacan's society. At present the Pyramid of the Sun has a height 213 feet from its base, a measurement which corresponds to the building's penultimate construction stage. Each side has a length of 746 feet at its base, and the pyramid's volume has been calculated at about one million cubic yards. It should be taken into account, furthermore, that the summit of the pyramid was originally crowned by a richly ornamented temple.

Its construction was accomplished by means of a system using dirt, sand and adobe fills covered over by a layer of rock. This facing was then entirely sheathed first by a thick coating made with gravel cemented together with a lime/sand mix, and then a finish of lime, sand and red paint. The chunks of stones now seen on the pyramid's sides served in the prevention of any loosening or slippage of the building’s facing. The large walls seen on the sides, looking like enormous steps, functioned as retaining walls for the fill of the last stage of construction. On the slopes of the pyramid's tiers one notes that the stones are aligned diagonally probably for the purpose of counteracting any tendency in the structure to shift or slip.
 
Erected by Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH).
 
Location. 19° 41.479′ N, 98° 50.629′ W. Marker is in Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico, in Municipality of Teotihuacán. Marker can be reached from Calle Paloma just west of Calle Tuxpan. Touch for map. This marker is along the southern base of the Pyramid of the Sun at the Teotihuacan Archaeological Site. Marker is in this post office area: Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico 55880, Mexico.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Teotihuacan After Its Abandonment (within shouting distance of this marker); The Meaning of the Pyramid of the Sun (about 90 meters away, measured in a direct line); The Importance of the Pyramid of the Sun (about 120 meters away); Teotihuacan (about 150 meters away); Pyramid of the Sun (about 150 meters away); a different marker also named The Meaning of the Pyramid of the Sun (about 180 meters away); A Ceremonial Incense Burner (about 210 meters away); a different marker also named The Importance of the Pyramid of the Sun (about 240 meters away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Teotihuacán de Arista.
 
Categories. AnthropologyArchitectureMan-Made FeaturesNative Americans
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on December 16, 2017. This page originally submitted on December 16, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. This page has been viewed 62 times since then and 8 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on December 16, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.
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