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Puebla in Municipality of Puebla, Mexico — The Central Highlands
 

Jesuit Education in Puebla

 
 
Jesuit Education in Puebla Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 1, 2017
1. Jesuit Education in Puebla Marker
The marker is a three-sided, bilingual marker. The other two sides are repeated on the three-sided marker in the Zócalo entitled "Granting the Coat of Arms to the City of Angels (1538)".
Inscription.

Educación Jesuita en Puebla
En Puebla de los Ángeles la Compañía de Jesús contó con los colegios del Espíritu Santo, San Ildefonso, San Jerónimo, San Ignacio y San Francisco Javier, en ellos se impartían diferentes aspectos educativos, siendo los fines y las líneas fundamentales elaboradas para la formación de los estudíantes religiosos y seglares. Sus estudiantes deberian tener un gran espíritu de servicio en vida social y profesional. El método pedagógíco seguido en los colegios para escolares externos de la Compañía de Jesús fue la llamada Ratio atque Institutio studiorum, documento publicado desde 1599 el cual contenía 467 reglas que se distribuían en cuatro apartados, a través de ellas se debían organizar los colegios y sus estudios. El método buscaba instruir a los jesuitas y consagrarlos a la enseñanza, trata asimismo sobre la naturaleza, extensión y obligaciones de los cargos. La segunda parte es la relativa a los profesores, cursos y textos utilizados. La tercera se dedica a los estudios elementales, y la cuarta contiene todas las reglas que normaban los estudios superiores y la formación académica. Sin duda la Ratio consiguió un sistema organizativo en niveles, grados, cursos progresivos y consecutivos donde estaban integrados para su desarrollo todos los miembros de la comunidad.

La educación
'The Foundation of the City of Puebla' side of the marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 1, 2017
2. 'The Foundation of the City of Puebla' side of the marker
jesuita era mediante la virtud y las letras, mediante el aprendizaje y enseñanza de las letras humanas, los aspectos morales como buenos hábitos y la virtud, en un perfecto sistema de orden y participación.


La Fundación de Puebla
En 1531 la autoridades españolas iniciaron en el valle de Cuetlaxcoapan un “ensayo de República de Españoles y para Españoles” a la que pusieron por nombre “Ciudad de los Ángeles”. La fundación de esta nueva “Puebla” formó parte de un proyecto inédito e innovador por parte de la corona española, de grandes alcances sociales, políticos y económicos.

El nuevo centro de población pretendió demostrar que el español recién llegado a las nuevas tierras de promisión era capaz de sostenerse por sí mismo, sin tener que depender del tributo de indígenas “encomendados”; se buscó también salvaguardar la metrópoli mexicana de una probable rebellión indígena y se aseguró asimismo una ruta comercial franca y segura entre la Ciudad de México y el puerto de Veracruz.

Tan exitoso resultó este “ensayo de República” que a los pocos años de su erección, la Puebla de los Ángeles se convirtió en el centro del obispado más antiguo de América, el más rico de la Nueva España y civilmente pasó a ser considerada la segunda ciudad en importancia y opulencia del virreinato; estatus que
The 'Granting The Title of City of the Angels (1532)' side of the marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 1, 2017
3. The 'Granting The Title of City of the Angels (1532)' side of the marker
mantendría por casi tres centurias.

Urbanísticamente, fue desde el inicio todo un ejemplo de trazo renacentista en la que se aplicaron cánones arquitectónicos más avanzados de la época. Ejemplo es el alineado perfecto de sus calles, formando la retícula o damero que durante siglos delimitó muy bien la "traza española" de la ciudad con relación a los barrios indígenas de la perifería,tales como Analco, San Pablo, San Francisco, Santiago, San Sebastián, Santa Ana, San Miguel y Xanenetla, entre otros.

Cédula Real
Que otorga El Título de Ciudad de los Ángeles (1532)
Considerada el acta fundacional de la capital del estado, que otorga el Título de Ciudad a “un pueblo que se decía Puebla de los Ángeles entre Cholua y Tlaxcala”. El real documento fue emitido en Medina del Campo, el 30 de Marzo de 1532, por la reina gobernadora Isabel de Portugal, validando con ello la existencia de población recién erigida en el valle de Cuextlacoapan, que hizo realidad el deseado proyecto español de fundación de una "Cludad de Españoles y para Españoles”, siendo el encargado de ejecutarlo, a nombre de la Real Audiencia de México, su oidor, el Lic. Juan de Salmerón, quien garantizó la supervivencia de la nueva "Puebla" concediendo, a nombre del rey, prerrogatvas especiales a los fundadores y primeros pobladores que se asentaron permanentemente en
Jesuit Education in Puebla Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, December 1, 2017
4. Jesuit Education in Puebla Marker
The marker can be seen just behind the tree in this view north along Calle 4 Sur.
la nueva población. Los privilegios concedidos a sus nuevas moradores eran la exención del pago de impuestos por treinta años, junto con la asignación de un solar para edificar su casa y la dotación de "suertes de tierra” en el fértil valle de Atlixco.

Por su trascendencia histórica, el documento fue distinguido como Memoria del Mundo, América Latina y Caribe, en 2015.

English:
Jesuit Education in Puebla
In Puebla de los Ángeles, the Company of Jesus comprised the schools Espíritu Santo, San ldefonso, San Jerónimo, San Ignacio and San Francisco Javier, in which different educational aspects were attended. The aims and fundamental lines were developed for the formation of the religious and secular students. Their students had to have a great spirit of service in professional life. The pedagogic method followed by the schools for external students of the Company of Jesus was called Ratio atque institutio studiorum, a document published in 1599, which contained 467 rules that were distributed in four sections; by this means, each school organized its institutions and curriculum. The method aimed to instruct the Jesuits and consecrate them to teaching, as well as nature, and the extension and obligations of such responsibilities. The second part relates to the professors, courses and textbooks used. The third is concerned with the elemental studies and the fourth contains all the rules that standardized higher learning and academic formation. Without doubt, the Ratio attained an organizational system in levels, grades, progressive and consecutive courses where all the members of the community were integrated for their development. Jesuit education was based on virtue and liberal arts, through the learning and teaching of humanities and moral aspects, such as good ha habits and virtue, in a perfect system of order and participation.

The Foundation of the City of Puebla
In 1531, the Spanish authorities began a “trial Republic of Spaniards for Spaniards” in the valley of Cuetlaxcoapan, naming it “City of the Angels”.

The foundation of this new "Puebla” was part of an innovative unpublished project by the Spanish Crown, and it had great social, political and economic scope. The new population center was supposed to show that a recently arriving Spaniard in these new lands of promise was capable of self-sustainment, without having to depend on taxes of the “entrusted” indigenous people: its purpose was also to safeguard the Mexican metropolis from a probable indigenous rebellion and ensure at the same time a clearly-marked,secure commercial route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz.

So successful was this “trial Republic” that a few years after its beginning, Puebla of the Angels became the center of the oldest Bishopric in America,the richest of New Spain, and in terms it became considered the number 2 in cities of importance and opulence of he Viceroy - a status that it would keep for almost three centuries.

In terms of urbanism it was from the beginning a true example of renaissance drafting, in which the most advanced architectural standards of the times were applied. Example of this is the perfect alignment of its streets, forming the reticle or checkerboard which for centuries marked very precisely the “Spanish draft” of the city with reference to the indigenous neighborhoods around it, such as Analco, San Pablo, San Francisco, Santiago, San Sebastián, Santa Ana, San Miguel and Xanenetla, among others.

Granting The Title of City of the Angels (1532)
Considered the foundational document of the State's capital, which grants the City Title to “a town that was called Puebla of the Angels between Cholula and Tlaxcala”. The royal document was issued in Medina del Campo on March 30, 1532 by Reigning Queen Isabella of Portugal, validating with it the existence of the settlement recently erected in the Cuextlacoapan valley; that turned the desired Spanish project of founding a “City of Spaniards and for Spaniards” into a reality, with the person in charge of executing it in the name of the Royal Audience of Mexico. Its judge Juan de Salmerón, who guaranteed the survival of the new “Puebla”, conceding, in the name of the King, special prerogatives for the founders and first settlers who settled permanently in the new town. The privileges conceded to the new inhabitants were the exemption of tax payment for 30 years together with the allocation of a plot for building their house and the provision of “royal concessions of land” in the fertile valley of Atlixco.

For its historic transcendence, the document was distingushed by the Memory of the World Programme, Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015.
 
Location. 19° 2.541′ N, 98° 11.759′ W. Marker is in Puebla, Puebla, in Municipality of Puebla. Marker is at the intersection of Calle 4 Sur and Calle 3 Oriente, on the left when traveling south on Calle 4 Sur. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: Calle 4 Sur 105, Puebla 72000, Mexico.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. First Speech by Francisco Madero in Puebla (within shouting distance of this marker); Memorial to Those Killed in University Protest of 1973 (within shouting distance of this marker); The Oath to Independence in the City of Puebla... (within shouting distance of this marker); Emperor Iturbide at the Casa del Mendrugo (within shouting distance of this marker); The House of Alms (within shouting distance of this marker); Plaza de la Democracia (within shouting distance of this marker); The Oriental Bank Building (about 180 meters away, measured in a direct line); The Old Portal of the Audience (about 210 meters away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Puebla.
 
Categories. Charity & Public WorkChurches & ReligionColonial EraEducation
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on January 22, 2018. This page originally submitted on January 20, 2018, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. This page has been viewed 47 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on January 20, 2018, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.
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