Marker Logo HMdb.org THE HISTORICAL
MARKER DATABASE
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Astoria in Clatsop County, Oregon — The American West (Northwest)
 

Harvesting River & Sea

 
 
Harvesting River & Sea Marker image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
1. Harvesting River & Sea Marker
Inscription.
For thousands of years, Native Americans thrived on salmon fishing on the Columbia River. They traded dried fish with other native people all over the west. In the 1870s, later settlers also made commercial fishing a way of life. It remains a strong part of the region's economy today.

While salmon were historically the most important catch, their declining numbers led fishermen to turn to other river and ocean fisheries during the 20th century. Tuna, groundfish, shrimp, shellfish, and crab are now significant harvests.

Fishing is one of the most dangerous of occupations. Captains and crew rely on hard-won skill and knowledge to navigate the Columbia River and North Pacific waters to bring in their catch. But however hard, fishers call theirs a rewarding way of life.
 
Erected by City of Astoria.
 
Location. 46° 11.42′ N, 123° 49.864′ W. Marker is in Astoria, Oregon, in Clatsop County. Marker can be reached from East Columbia River Highway (U.S. 30) east of 11th Street, on the left when traveling east. Touch for map. Marker is located along the Astoria Riverwalk, north of the highway, overlooking the Columbia River, east of 11th Street. Marker is in this post office area: Astoria OR 97103, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers.
Marker detail: Troller image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
2. Marker detail: Troller
Fishing boats come in many sizes, from just over 20 feet long to 70-foot and larger boats used on the open ocean. There are many hull types, shapes, and rigs. Trollers, seen here at dock in Astoria in the 1950s, fish the ocean water for salmon, halibut, tuna, or even shark. They are rigged with tall poles that are lowered sideways to drag long lines. Trollers can also be re-rigged to set and retrieve crab pots.
At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. At Play on the River (a few steps from this marker); Pilots on the Columbia River (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line); Columbia River Tugs And Towboats (about 500 feet away); 14th Street Ferry Slip (about 600 feet away); Crossroads of Cultures (about 600 feet away); Gimre's Shoe Store (about 700 feet away); Clark Gable (approx. 0.2 miles away); Into the Unknown (approx. 0.2 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Astoria.
 
Also see . . .
1. Seine Fishing.
For much of their fishing history in Oregon, Native Americans used hand-operated haul seines. A fish seine is a horizontal net that has floats holding the top line of the net at the water's surface. The net extends down in the water due to weights placed on the net's bottom line. The weighted line can then be pulled, so that the net acts like a purse. Indian seines were made from wild grasses or fiber from spruce roots. The bottom line of the net's webbing had stones to weight the net, and cedar sticks served to float the top line. (Submitted on January 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

2. Commercial Fishing on the Oregon Coast.
The Oregon Coast has a long history of commercial fishing and processing. Commercial salmon fisheries developed in the 1860s, supporting early salmon-canning enterprises in Astoria, Tillamook Bay, Yaquina Bay, and Gold Beach. By the turn of the
Marker detail: Fishermen image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
3. Marker detail: Fishermen
Fisherman Ludwig Larsen pulls a salmon gillnet into a 26-foot sailing gillnet boat, being handled by the boat-puller, his stepson Edward Erickson. They are fishing off Desdemona Sands (near the center of today's Astoria-Megier Bndge) in 1894. The name “Kinney” and the number “49” show that the boat is owned by the Kinney Cannery – a common arrangement during Astoria’s salmon–canning days.
twentieth century commercial fishing was an important part of the coastal economy. Fishermen supplied crab, black cod, halibut, albacore, pink shrimp, and several varieties of rockfish to packers and fresh markets. By 1881 salmon canning was a major industry in the Pacific Northwest, and Astoria, by now the largest town on the Oregon coast, was its center. At the peak of the salmon canning industry there were 39 canneries along the Columbia, and many others on Oregon's coastal rivers. (Submitted on January 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 

3. Columbia River Commercial Fishermen.
The Columbia River non-Indian commercial salmon fishery traces its roots back to the mid-19th century. Following the development of the salmon canning process, Columbia River salmon were introduced to a growing world market. The first Columbia River cannery was operated by the Hume family at Eagle Cliff, Wahkiakum County, Washington, in 1866. At the height of the salmon canning boom, there were 38 canneries on the lower Columbia River, 22 of which were in Astoria alone. But, following the boom-and-bust pattern typical of 19th century extractive industries, the cannery system was dramatically over-capitalized and excessively wasteful. (Submitted on January 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
Marker detail: J.W. Hume Salmon Label image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
4. Marker detail: J.W. Hume Salmon Label
J.W. Hume was among the salmon canning pioneers. The first cannery was established on the lower Columbia in 1966.

4. Columbia River Salmon Canning Labels.
Joseph Hume, whose brothers set up the first cannery on the Columbia River in 1866, operated a cannery in Astoria until 1881, when Samuel Elmore bought him out. He was known for the quality of his salmon. In 1896 Hume moved all of his operations to Alaska.Declining salmon runs, competition from other regions, the expansion of the ocean fishery, increased prices for canned salmon, and decreased worldwide demand all contributed to the decline of the Columbia River salmon canning industry during the twentieth century. By 1973 only 25 percent of the catch was being canned, down from 75 percent just ten years earlier. By the end of the 1970s most of the river's canneries had closed. (Submitted on January 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.) 
 
Categories. Industry & CommerceNative AmericansWaterways & Vessels
 
Marker detail: Salmon seining image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
5. Marker detail: Salmon seining
Haul seiners used teams of horses as well as muscle power to net huge catches of salmon, often tens of thousands of pounds in one net. Seiners fished from tidal sand islands in the middle of the river. Both men and horses stayed in buildings on pilings on those islands. The fisherman in overalls and a hat is Henry Sprague; working the right side of the net is Joe Holland.
Harvesting River & Sea Marker (<i>wide view looking north across the Columbia River</i>) image. Click for full size.
By Cosmos Mariner, July 8, 2015
6. Harvesting River & Sea Marker (wide view looking north across the Columbia River)
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on January 26, 2018. This page originally submitted on January 24, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 66 times since then. Photos:   1. submitted on January 24, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.   2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on January 25, 2018, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.
Paid Advertisement