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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Fort Smith in Sebastian County, Arkansas — The American South (West South Central)
 

Meeting of Nations

 
 
Meeting of Nations Marker image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
1. Meeting of Nations Marker
Inscription. The Fort Smith Council was held in this building in September 1865. To establish relations following the Civil War, delegates of twelve Indian nations met with President Andrew Johnsonís representatives. Bitterly divided, Indians had fought for both sides in the war, but the United States now treated them all as defeated enemies. Tribes were told their rights had been forfeited, their slaves must be freed, and their property could be confiscated.

The Council ended with little resolved. Not expecting to sign treaties, and concerned that tribal sovereignty was at stake, the Indians simply pledged allegiance to the United States. A year later in Washington, D.C., tribes signed separate treaties with the federal government.
 
Erected by Fort Smith National Historic Site, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior.
 
Location. 35° 23.305′ N, 94° 25.789′ W. Marker is in Fort Smith, Arkansas, in Sebastian County. Marker is on Park Avenue, on the left when traveling north. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 301 Parker Avenue, Fort Smith AR 72901, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Old Federal Building (a few steps from this marker); Confederates Occupy The Fort
Meeting of Nations Marker image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
2. Meeting of Nations Marker
(within shouting distance of this marker); Clues from the Past (within shouting distance of this marker); Barracks, Courthouse, Jail (within shouting distance of this marker); Officerís Garden (within shouting distance of this marker); The Flagstaff (within shouting distance of this marker); The Bastion That Never Was (within shouting distance of this marker); The Officerís Quarters (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Fort Smith.
 
Categories. Native AmericansWar, US Civil
 
Meeting of Nations Marker image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
3. Meeting of Nations Marker
General Albert Pike image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
4. General Albert Pike
Confederate General Albert Pike recruited tribal nations to fight for the South in the Civil War. Whether to fight for South or North caused deep rifts affecting tribes for years to come.
Chief Allen Wright image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
5. Chief Allen Wright
At the Fort Smith Council, Choctaw Chief Allen Wright suggested the term “Oklahoma.” Combining two Choctaw words to mean “land of the red man,” it was this Councilís most lasting result.
Nations represented in this 2006 painting: image. Click for full size.
By Denise Boose, July 13, 2012
6. Nations represented in this 2006 painting:
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Muskogee (Creek),Osage, Quapaw, Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Wichita, Wyandotte, and United States.
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on September 2, 2012, by Denise Boose of Tehachapi, California. This page has been viewed 398 times since then and 33 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on September 2, 2012, by Denise Boose of Tehachapi, California. • Craig Swain was the editor who published this page.
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