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MARKER DATABASE
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Near Picacho in Pinal County, Arizona — The American Mountains (Southwest)
 

Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail / Camp 21: El Aquituni

 
 
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Marker image. Click for full size.
By Richard Denney, November 22, 2010
1. Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Marker
Click to enlarge photo to see "You are here" which shows the location of these two markers.
Inscription.
Juan Bautista de Anza
National Historic Trail
While the American Revolution brewed on the Atlantic Coast, Spain expanded its New World empire to protect California against the British and Russians. In 1774, Juan Bautista de Anza, commander of the Royal Presidio of Tubac, successfully explored an overland route from Sonora, Mexico into Alta or Upper California. This route made possible the transport of livestock, goods, and people to sustain the new settlements.

The viceroy of New Spain then authorized Anza to lead a 1775-76 expedition to settle the port of San Francisco. Volunteer soldier-settlers came from as far south as Culiacán. Livestock, equipment, supplies, and expedition members were gathered at Horcasitas and finally at Tubac. From there, they would travel 1000 miles on foot, horseback, burro and mule to their destination.

A variety of people made the trip—soldiers and their families, interpreters, priests, packers, cowboys, and cooks—as well as nearly one thousand head of livestock. At journey’s end, 198 people, over half of them children under 12, stayed to build the Presidio of San Francisco and the missions of San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores) and Santa Clara de Asís.

With others using the trail established by Anza, they helped begin
Camp 21 - El Aquituni Marker image. Click for full size.
By Richard Denney, November 22, 2010
2. Camp 21 - El Aquituni Marker
Click on photo to read the October 29th entry in Anza's journal - Camp below Picacho Peak - in Spanish and the English translation.
the settlements of San José and Los Angeles, and stamped California with the language and customs of their New World Hispanic customs.

Camp 21: El Aquituni
Camp on this night was at a known watering spot, El Aquituni, somewhere in the distant center of the panorama before you. Anza proceeded cautiosly through Apache territory. As captain of Tubac Presidio, he had been called upon several times to rebuff Apache attacks in this area. He had avoided this very campsite on his return from his 1774 exploratory expedition because of Apache activity in the area. He also needed water for the travelers and livestock. The next day they traveled over 30 miles to reach water at the Pima villages on the Gila River. There, Anza learned that the Pima had surprised an Apache band the day before, killing two and causing them to flee.

Anza noted that the long journey to the Gila was necessary "for lack of water, any of which is found only by rare accident. Nevertheless, no dissatisfaction whatever has been shown by the people who have made the march, and this is a thing to marvel at, especially in the women and children, and their patience under the hardships is an indication of the contentment with which they are accepting their lot."
 
Erected by The Juan Bautista de Anza Historic National Trail Association
Panorama referenced on marker, where Camp 21 was located. image. Click for full size.
By Richard Denney
3. Panorama referenced on marker, where Camp 21 was located.
and National Parks.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail marker series.
 
Location. 32° 38.847′ N, 111° 25.754′ W. Marker is near Picacho, Arizona, in Pinal County. Touch for map. Marker is located in the Picacho Peak State Park, off I-10, north of Tucson. Marker is in this post office area: Picacho AZ 85141, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 5 other markers are within 13 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Memorial to the 1st California Cavalry Volunteers (approx. 1.7 miles away); Battle at Picacho (approx. 1.7 miles away); Mormon Battalion Trail (approx. 1.7 miles away); Red Rock Post Office (approx. 7.3 miles away); Stage Station and Homestead (approx. 12.2 miles away).
 
Also see . . .  A KTEH TV Production of the DeAnza Trail on YouTube. In this video the viewer learns the history and purpose of the DeAnza Expedition, the heritage of descendants of expedition members, and current sites along the trail. (Submitted on December 12, 2010.) 
 
Categories. ExplorationHispanic AmericansNative Americans
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on December 12, 2010, by Richard Denney of Austin, Texas. This page has been viewed 1,133 times since then and 58 times this year. Last updated on May 5, 2015, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. Photos:   1, 2, 3. submitted on December 12, 2010, by Richard Denney of Austin, Texas. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.
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