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Elmira in Chemung County, New York — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
 

Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery

 
 
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
1. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
Inscription.
Elmira Prison Camp
Overcrowding at the military prison at Point Lookout, Maryland, led the U.S. Army to establish Elmira Military Prison in May 1864. Elmira, New York, initially a rendezvous point for enlisting Union soldiers, had barracks, hospitals, storehouses and stables. The first prisoners arrived on July 6, and by fall 1864, more than 9,000 prisoners occupied Elmira. Most lived in small canvas tents, as barracks would not be completed until New Year's Day 1865, too late for many prisoners.

More than 12,000 prisoners passed through the gates of the prison during the year it operated. Almost 3,000 men died, rendering Elmira's mortality rate the highest of any Union military prison. Most of the deaths were attributed to the harsh winter of 1864-1865.

The Cemetery
Almost immediately, the U.S. Army leased a half acre of land from Woodlawn Cemetery for the internment of Confederate prisoners and Union soldiers. The prison commandant hired John W. Jones, an escaped slave and caretaker of Woodlawn Cemetery, to bury the Confederates. When a prisoner died, his body was taken to the "dead house" and placed in a coffin. His name, rank, company, regiment, date of death, and grave number were written on the lid. At the cemetery, the coffin was placed in a trench and covered. Wooden headboards,
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
2. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
painted with the information copied from the coffin lid, marked each grave. On a single day, Jones buried forty-eight men; he kept records on every burial.

In 1874, the federal government purchased two acres containing the graves of Union and Confederate dead to establish Woodlawn National Cemetery. The Commission for Marking Graves of Confederate Dead visited the cemetery in 1906. The Commission clerk spent a month documenting prison burials and wrote to Southern states asking for further information. Finally, a list of more than 2,000 names was compiled. In 1908, the Commission placed Confederate-style headstones inscribed with the deceased's name and regiment on the graves.

Toward Reconciliation
On May 30, 1868, the Grand Army of the Republic decorated Union and Confederate graves at Arlington National Cemetery. Thirty years later President William McKinley proclaimed:

The Union is once more the common altar of our live and loyalty, our devotion and sacrifice...Every soldier's grave made during out unfortunate Civil War is a tribute to American valor...in the spirit of fraternity we should share with you in the care of the graves of the Confederate soldiers.

The War Department created the Confederate section at Arlington in 1901, and marked the graves with distinctive pointed-top marble headstones. Five years later,
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
3. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
Congress created the Commission for Marking Graves of Confederate Dead to identify and mark the graves of Confederates who died in Northern prisons. Its mission was later expanded to encompass all national cemeteries that contained Confederate burials.

Four former Confederate officers headed the Commission over its lifetime. By 1916, it had marked in excess of 25,000 graves and erected monuments in locations where individual groups could not be identified.

In 1930, the War Department authorized the addition of the Southern Cross of Honor to the Confederate headstone.
 
Erected by National Cemetery Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
 
Location. 42° 6.625′ N, 76° 49.583′ W. Marker is in Elmira, New York, in Chemung County. Marker can be reached from Walnut Street. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 1200 Walnut Street, Elmira NY 14905, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 10 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Shohola Railroad Accident Memorial (within shouting distance of this marker); Confederate Burials (within shouting distance of this marker); Woodlawn National Cemetery (within shouting distance of this marker); A National Cemetery System
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
4. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
(within shouting distance of this marker); The Gettysburg Address (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line); Confederate Soldiers Memorial (about 400 feet away); John W. Jones Museum (approx. 0.2 miles away); Augustus W. Cowles (approx. 0.3 miles away); Mark Twain (approx. 0.3 miles away); Veterans of All Wars (approx. 0.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Elmira.
 
Also see . . .
1. Woodlawn National Cemetery. Woodlawn National Cemetery is located in Elmira, N.Y., in Chemung County. In 1861, the town was both a training and marshalling center for Union soldiers during the Civil War. As trainees were eventually assigned to military units and the barracks emptied, the federal government used the buildings as a prisoner-of-war camp. Originally known as Camp Rathbun, and designated Camp No. 3 during its existence from summer 1864 until the end of the war, this camp housed approximately 12,000 Confederate enlisted men. Approximately 3,000 men died here. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 

2. Woodlawn National Cemetery
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
5. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
. Woodlawn National Cemetery in Elmira, New York, is located in a section of the city’s Woodlawn Cemetery. The U.S. government declared the section a national cemetery in 1877. The town of Elmira hosted a U.S. Army training and troop marshalling center at the beginning of the Civil War and later in the war, the military turned it into a Confederate prisoner of war camp. Overcrowding, inadequate shelter, and disease resulted in the deaths of nearly 3,000 prisoners, who were buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. Today, monuments stand on the cemetery’s grounds honoring the Confederate dead and victims from an 1864 railroad accident. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 

3. Woodlawn National Cemetery - Find-a-grave. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
4. List of Confederate Dead Soldiers Woodlawn National Cemetery in Elmira, NY. Includes Surname, First Name, Death date, State, Rank, Company, and Woodlawn National Cemetery Number. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 

5. Point Lookout State Park. This park's peaceful surroundings belie its history as the location of a prison camp which imprisoned as many as 52,264 Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 

6. Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery, Ridge Maryland
Map of Elmira Prison Camp image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
6. Map of Elmira Prison Camp
Plan by Pvt. Daniel J. Coffman, Co. D, 7th Virginia Cavalry, drawn while incarcerated at the U.S. military prison at Elmira, c. 1864. Library of Congress.
. The Point Lookout Peninsula in Maryland juts south into the Potomac where the river meets the Chesapeake Bay. During the Civil War, the Federal Government quickly converted a resort on the point into a military hospital. After the July 1863 Battle of Gettysburg, the Union established a prisoner-of-war camp at the site. By the end of the war, more than 50,000 Confederate prisoners had passed through Point Lookout’s gates, making it the largest prisoner of war facility in the north. The soldiers who died at the prison camp are now buried at Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery located north of the historic prison. Two memorials stand commemorating the Confederate soldiers buried in a mass grave at the cemetery. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 

7. John W. Jones. John W. Jones was born on June 21, 1817, on a plantation in Leesburg, Virginia, as a slave to the Ellzey family.[1] Jones died on December 26, 1900 and is buried in Woodlawn National Cemetery, not far from Mark Twain.[2] He was married to Rachel Jones (née Swails) in 1856, with whom he had three sons and one daughter.[3] On June 3, 1844, fearing he would be sold to another plantation, as his owner grew old and near death, Jones and four others fled north. They survived a 300-mile trip and arrived in Elmira,
Wooden Headboards Mark the Graves, c. 1875<br>National Archives and Records Administration image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
7. Wooden Headboards Mark the Graves, c. 1875
National Archives and Records Administration
New York in July 1844. (Submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.) 
 
Categories. Cemeteries & Burial SitesWar, US Civil
 
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker<br>Confederate Burials in Background image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
8. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
Confederate Burials in Background
Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott, September 20, 2015
9. Confederate Burials in the National Cemetery Marker
John W. Jones<br>Sexton of Woodlawn Cemetery and an Escaped Slave image. Click for full size.
By Brian Scott
10. John W. Jones
Sexton of Woodlawn Cemetery and an Escaped Slave
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina. This page has been viewed 173 times since then and 53 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. submitted on October 30, 2015, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
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