Near Newark in New Castle County, Delaware — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
A 250 million year old fossilized sea shell found in the Pencader Area
Delaware is the second smallest state in the country. However, we played an important role in the formation of the nation. Caesar Rodney rode from Lewes to Philadelphia to cast the deciding vote for independence in 1776. We were the first state to ratify the constitution in 1787.
Piedmont Rocks (crystalline rocks):
Metamorphosed (changed by pressure and heat) sedimentary rocks of the ancient North American Continent and adjacent ocean basin.
Igneous (formed by molten rock) and metamorphic rocks of a volcanic island arc that collided with the ancient North American continent during the convergence of tectonic plates (that formed the super coastal continent.)
Atlantic Coastal Plain Rocks:
Sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Period (230 million to 63 million years ago) deposited over the eroded surface of the metamorphic basement rocks after North America drifted away from Africa and Europe to form the Atlantic Ocean basin.
* From Pencader Hundred shipping was possible by either the Delaware River or the Chesapeake Bay.
* One third of the population of the United States now lives within a day's drive of Pencader Hundred.
* The shortest distance overland between the Delaware River Watershed and the Chesapeake Bay was through Pencader [,] which made this area the hub of Mid-Atlantic travel.
* The Native Americans used the rivers in the two riversheds to travel from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain for food gathering and the trading of furs and materials such as jasper from Iron Hill. Their trails passed through Pencader.
* As European settlements grew into cities, Pencader remained a center point, lying midway between Philadelphia and Baltimore, New York and Washington, Boston and Richmond. Thus, travelers between these early urban centers passed through the area on their way to and from these early centers of commerce. Much of today's commerce follows the same early routes.
North to South cross section of canal
100 Million to 250 million years ago
250 million to 550 million plus years
Generalized northwest to southeast geologic cross section across the Pencader Heritage Area (PHA)
[start 3rd column]
The Christina drops 350 feet in 15 miles from it's source near Kemblesville, Pennsylvania to Smalley's Dam. This provided the water power to operate grist and saw mills.
Division between the Delaware River Watershed and the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
Typical Delaware fossils found along the canal
[start timeline across bottom]
When did it happen?
550 Million Years Ago
--- 550-350 Million Years ago
--- Volcanic action formation
--- of the Wilmington Complex
250 Million Years Ago
--- 250 Million Years Ago
--- Global action formed
--- the Coastal Plain
--- around these two
12,000 Years Ago
--- 12,000 BC to 10,000 BC
--- Evidence that Native
--- Americans occupied the
--- Pencader Area during their
--- summer migration
--- 1638: Swedes arrived on the
--- Kalmar Nyckel bringing European
--- agricultural practices to the
--- Pencader Area
Erected by Pencader Heritage Area Association.
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Environment • Native Americans • Settlements & Settlers. A significant historical year for this entry is 1638.
Location. 39° 38.462′ N, 75° 43.941′ W. Marker is near Newark, Delaware, in New Castle County. Marker is on Dayett Mills Road near Old Baltimore Pike, on the right when traveling south. This marker is to right of Delaware's Field of Valor marker. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Newark DE 19702, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. American Position (here, next to this marker); Delaware's Field of Valor (here, next to this marker); Mason Dixon Line & the Boundaries of Delaware (here, next to this marker); Milling in Pencader Hundred (here, next to this marker); The Philadelphia Campaign (here, next to this marker); Enjoy the Pencader Area Today (here, next to this marker); Your Gateway to Pencader Heritage (here, next to this marker); The Battle of Cooch’s Bridge (here, next to this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Newark.
More about this marker. In 1st column, Wilmington Complex paragraph, period should be outside the right parenthesis.
At bottom of 2nd column, I omitted extra letter "l" at end of "Heritage", in case a reader is not as familiar with English.
Near top of 3rd column,"it's" is used; should have been "its" (no apostrophe).
Credits. This page was last revised on September 28, 2020. It was originally submitted on September 8, 2020, by Carl Gordon Moore Jr. of North East, Maryland. This page has been viewed 65 times since then and 9 times this year. Last updated on September 27, 2020, by Carl Gordon Moore Jr. of North East, Maryland. Photos: 1, 2. submitted on September 8, 2020, by Carl Gordon Moore Jr. of North East, Maryland. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.