“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Environment Topic

The Eastern Shore Trail Marker image, Touch for more information
By Sandra Hughes, January 17, 2019
The Eastern Shore Trail Marker
1 Alabama, Baldwin County, Daphne — The Eastern Shore Trail
The Eastern Shore Trail is a 24-mile pedestrian/bike trail from US Hwy 98 at Gator Alley in Daphne to Weeks Bay on Scenic Hwy 98. Teko Wiseman, founder of the Baldwin County Trailblazers-the organization responsible for the trail's . . . Map (db m128881)
2 Alabama, Baldwin County, Magnolia Springs — The Springs
Old tales have it that early explorers and even pirate vessels obtained potable water from springs scattered throughout the community of Magnolia Springs. This park is located at the largest of dozens of springs in the area. In 1865 The . . . Map (db m68486) HM
3 Alabama, Colbert County, Cherokee — Welcome!Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is designed to encourage leisurely exploration of the history and beauty of Old Southwest. Here are a few pointers to make your trip more enjoyable. Regulations and Safety Obey posted speed limits. Be alert for . . . Map (db m107254)
4 Alabama, Colbert County, Cherokee — Wet, Wild, and Wonderful
Alabama’s Winter Waterfowl The Tennessee River Valley is the winter home for thousands of waterfowl. These birds migrate from across the northern US and Canada down through the center of the continent to the Tennessee River. Careful . . . Map (db m107253) HM
5 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Birds of North Alabama
Many Kinds of Birds Call North Alabama Home The northern tier of Alabama has two distinct landforms-the Tennessee River Valley and the Appalachian Plateau. A variety of terrain provides wonderful birding habitat and offers excellent . . . Map (db m150937) HM
6 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Building a New Future
In the early 1930s, which Wilson Dam serving as the starting point for the newly formed TVA and its river development plan, an era of new prosperity in the region began. TVA embarked on one of the largest U.S. hydropower construction programs . . . Map (db m106193) HM
7 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Explore the River
Just downstream from Wilson Dam lies a series of trails maintained by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Starting at the Visitor Center, explore the trails as they meander along the riverbank and through the forest 1.Wilson Dam Visitor Center . . . Map (db m106186) HM
8 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Gulls Glorious Gulls
Gulls are a Diverse and Fascinating Group of Birds Popularly known as sea gulls, these birds actually occur at the seashore and far inland as well. Each winter thousands of gulls gather along the Tennessee River. Three species form the . . . Map (db m106184)
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9 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Home Sweet HomeHeron Rookery
Scan the wooded island just across the Tennessee River for numerous bundles of sticks scattered through the canopy. These bulky structures are the nest of Great Blue Herons. Dozens of these nests are scattered across the island, and each year Great . . . Map (db m106179) HM
10 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Muscle Shoals National Recreational Trail
The Muscle Shoals National Recreational Trail complex is a 17-mile paved and primitive trail and bikeway for public use located on TVA’s Muscle Shoals Reservation. This National Recreation Trail System connects numerous historical sites including . . . Map (db m106117) HM
11 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Natural and Cultural Preservation/Protecting Resources
Natural and Cultural Preservation TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam. Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . Map (db m106189)
12 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — TVA: A History of Progress and Innovation / A Valley of Hardships
The Tennessee Valley Authority is much more than just “a power company.” TVA has been proving this for more than 80 years by powering the region’s progress and managing the natural resources in its care for the greatest public good. . . . Map (db m106190) HM
13 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — TVA: Our Enduring Mission/Powering Prosperity
TVA has a rich history of improving quality of life and economic prosperity for people and businesses in the TVA service area. As times have changed, TVA has changed with them, updating and refining its focus to better serve it's enduring mission . . . Map (db m106187) HM
14 Alabama, Colbert County, Muscle Shoals — Wilson Dam: Cornerstone of the TVA System
Wilson Dam is the longest-operating hydroelectric facility in the TVA System and certainly one of the most significant. Built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, primarily to supply power for nitrate production during World War I, Wilson Dam became . . . Map (db m106188) HM
15 Alabama, Colbert County, Sheffield — Forest Elders
Escape to an Earlier Time The giant trees of Northern Alabama's mature forest have stood throughout generations, witnessing considerable natural, historical, and cultural changes. Some probably witnessed the Civil War while others only date . . . Map (db m117058) HM
16 Alabama, Colbert County, Tuscumbia — The Moon Tree
The Moon Tree was grown from seeds that journeyed to the moon and back aboard Apollo 14 during the period of January 31-February 9, 1971. The seed was germinated by the U.S. Forest Service in Gulfport, Mississippi, and the seedling was presented to . . . Map (db m108374) HM
17 Alabama, Colbert County, Tuscumbia — Yellow Fever Epidemic 1878 / The 31 Victims of Yellow Fever Who died in Tuscumbia
Side AYellow Fever Epidemic 1878 Taking 31 Lives in Tuscumbia Citizen's Relief Committee: F.H. Aydlett, H.M. Finley, J.J. Davis, James Jackson, Chm. J.W. Rand Jr., F.A. Ross, J.N. Sampson, Sec. and C. A. Womble. . . . Map (db m29263) HM
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18 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — Alabama's Aquatic Biodiversity
Alabama is one of the states with the most biodiversity. In fact, Alabama ranks #1 when it comes to the number of freshwater critters! Biodiversity refers to the total number of different plant and animal species. Every organism from . . . Map (db m106105)
19 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — Alabama's Physical Diversity
Alabama is a very geological diverse state. The vast natural resources and biodiversity of Alabama can greatly be attributed to its geological history. Clarkson Bridge is located in the physiographic region called the Cumberland Plateau, which . . . Map (db m106097) HM
20 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — Birds of Alabama
Birdwatching is a popular hobby for many in Alabama. Not only are birds fun to watch, but they also tell us a lot about environmental health. Pileated Woodpecker • Red-tailed Hawk • Yellow-bellied Sapsucker • Cardinal • Bluebird • American . . . Map (db m106103) HM
21 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — Land-Use and Water Quality
Land-based activities affect water quality and quantity. For that reason, it is important that we make good decisions about our day to day actions. Dry stacks prevent poultry manure from entering streams. Silt fences prevent erosion from . . . Map (db m107957) HM
22 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — What happens to my wastewater?
There are two main ways wastewater is treated. In rural areas septic tanks are common, in more populated areas homes are connected to wastewater treatment plants. A Septic Tank is a concrete or steel tank buried near a home. Raw sewage . . . Map (db m106106) HM
23 Alabama, Cullman County, Cullman — Where does your drinking water come from?
At Clarkson Covered Bridge, your drinking water comes from Lake Catoma. Following a drop of water from the source through the treatment process and eventually to the faucet. 1. Coagulation is the process that removes dirt and particles . . . Map (db m106109) HM
24 Alabama, Dallas County, Cahaba — Alabama's Native Prairie
Waist-high grasses billowing in the wind. Rolling prairie expanses. Most people connect these images with the Midwest's Great Plains. But for thousands of years, tallgrass soils of Alabama's Black Belt. Along prairie—25 miles across . . . Map (db m112692) HM
25 Alabama, Jackson County, Estillfork — Walls of Jericho
Nature preserve, recreation area, and wildlife management area. This tract was protected and made available for public recreation through the efforts of the Alabama forever wild land trust. The Alabama state lands division of the department of . . . Map (db m145464)
26 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — Building The ParkVisiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park —
Side 1 - Building the Park In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks . . . Map (db m83807) HM
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27 Alabama, Jefferson County, Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama
On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, . . . Map (db m25110) HM
28 Alabama, Lauderdale County, Florence, East Florence — Dr. Augustine Uzo Mokwunye
As Director of the United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa, 1996-2004, Dr. Mokwunye capped a career of service to farmers and others in his native Nigeria and in many other African nations. Inducted 2021 City of . . . Map (db m219317) HM
29 Alabama, Lauderdale County, Rogersville — Elk River Shoals
(side 1) At this location is the Elk River that flows into the Tennessee River approximately four miles south of here. That location is the easternmost point of a massive underwater formation which was exposed until the early 1900s. The . . . Map (db m133187) HM
30 Alabama, Lauderdale County, Rogersville — Return of a Native
When the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources began a Bald Eagle Restoration Project in 1984, Bald Eagles had not successfully nested in Alabama since 1949. Thanks to these restoration efforts, Bald Eagle populations increased . . . Map (db m107997) HM
31 Alabama, Lauderdale County, Waterloo — A Gathering of Eagles
When the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources began a Bald Eagle Restoration Project in 1984, Bald Eagles had not successfully nested in Alabama since 1949. Thanks to these restoration efforts, Bald Eagle populations increased . . . Map (db m105709) HM
32 Alabama, Lauderdale County, Waterloo — Tiny Jewels of the Air
Few birds are as distinctive and charismatic as hummingbirds. From their iridescent plumage to their incredible aerial antics, hummingbirds are an irresistible attraction at Rock Springs. Each fall, hundreds of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds pass this . . . Map (db m84702)
33 Alabama, Lawrence County, Moulton — A Significant Forest
A Special Place: for People and Birds The forest of Bankhead have been here for many generations, witnessing considerable natural, historical and cultural changes. This area was home to native Americans for many years. The pioneers who live . . . Map (db m107295) HM
34 Alabama, Lawrence County, Moulton — Birds of North Alabama
Many Kinds of Birds Call North Alabama Home The northern tier of Alabama has several district landforms including the Tennessee River Valley and the southern Cumberland Plateau. The variety of terrain and the large expanse of forest in the . . . Map (db m107297) HM
35 Alabama, Lawrence County, Moulton — Explore the Forest
Discover the Incredible Variety of Habitats and Birds in the Bankhead National Forest 1. Walston Ridge Road The road along Walston Ridge provides a variety of forest habitats. Prescribed fire maintains the open oak-pine woodlands. . . . Map (db m107294) HM
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36 Alabama, Madison County, Huntsville — 8 — Huntsville Utilites Special AwardsHuntsville Water Trail
The mission of Huntsville Utilities is to supply our community with clean safe, great-tasting drinking water. We're proud to have been recognized with numerous regional and national accolades over the years for outstanding public service. . . . Map (db m189504) HM
37 Alabama, Madison County, Huntsville — Norwegian Light Beacon And Fog Bell
The light beacon and fog bell in Big Springs International Park were presented as a gift from Norway in 1973. The light beacon served as one of the guiding lights to the mariner from 1903 to 1966 being situated on the west coast of Norway at . . . Map (db m85545) HM
38 Alabama, Madison County, Huntsville — 6 — The Water's Journey to YouHuntsville Water Trail
The Big Spring served as Huntsville's main water source for more than 150 years. But since the late 1950s, Huntsville Utilities has supplied our water through a combination of groundwater wells and surface water plants on the Tennessee River. Today . . . Map (db m189505) HM
39 Alabama, Mobile County, Dauphin Island — Energy from the Sands of Time
The platform that you can see east of Dauphin Island is operated by one of many oil and gas companies operating in Alabama waters. These platforms are extracting natural gas (methane), a relatively clean-burning petroleum product. The platform . . . Map (db m122548) HM
40 Alabama, Mobile County, Mobile — Gen. William C. Gorgas
On this site stood the Gov. John Gayle home, birthplace of William Crawford Gorgas, world famous sanitarian, Panama Canal Zone, 1902-14; Surgeon Gen. & Maj. General; conqueror of dread plagues of yellow fever and malaria.Map (db m98590) HM
41 Alabama, Montgomery County, Montgomery — Ray W. Scott Jr. Founded Bass Anglers Movement
Montgomery native Ray W. Scott Jr. launched the Bass Anglers Sportsman Society (B.A.S.S.) in 1967 from a small office upstairs at 513 Madison Avenue. From this beginning, B.A.S.S. became the largest sportfishing organization in the world. Scott . . . Map (db m98551) HM
42 Alabama, Morgan County, Decatur — Health and Civic WelfareRestoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy
"The opportunies which were at hand in the development of the river and the region were being seized upon by our people with renewed courage and confidence. We now know that we couldn't be licked again, that what had been preached to us by TVA was . . . Map (db m86505) HM
43 Alabama, Morgan County, Decatur — Our HistoryU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service — Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge —
1838 Trail of Tears: The discovery of gold in Georgia and thirst for land expansion prompted the U.S. Government and white communities to force the Cherokee nation from their ancestral lands. During the summer and winter of 1838, the first . . . Map (db m113290) HM
44 Alabama, Morgan County, Decatur — Recreation and RefreshmentRestoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy
"We are definitely in an era of building; the best kind of buildings - the building of great projects for the benefit of the public and with the definite objectives of building human happiness". Franklin Delano Roosevelt Delano park was . . . Map (db m86510) HM
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45 Alabama, Russell County, Fort Mitchell — Archaeology And Our Understanding of the Creek People — Creek Heritage Trail —
Archaeology is the scientific study of the past through analysis of physical traces of daily life discovered through excavation. It enables us to extend our knowledge of human history beyond the limits of written records and to learn details about . . . Map (db m101816) HM
46 Alabama, Russell County, Fort Mitchell — Bartram's Trail
William Bartram, American's first native born artist - naturalist, passed through Russell County during the Revolutionary era, making the first scientific notations of its flora, fauna and inhabitants. As the appointed botanist of Britain's King . . . Map (db m164144) HM
47 Alabama, Russell County, Phenix City — William Bartram TrailTraced 1773-1777 — Deep South Region — Reported missing
Wm. Bartram, Colonial naturalist, crossed theis "Chata Uche" in 1777. He described the water as clear, cool, and salubrious.Map (db m165836) HM
48 Alabama, Sumter County, Emelle — Town of Emelle, AlabamaA One of a Kind Community
This community honors Emelle Dial, whose father Joseph Dial gave land to the Alabama, Tennessee and Northern Railroad with the provision that the station be named for his daughter. The daughter is said to have been named for her two aunts, Emma and . . . Map (db m92660) HM
49 Alabama, Tuscaloosa County, McCalla — Bessemer Sewer System
The large 54 inch inside diameter pipe was unearthed in 2001 behind the Woodward Golf Course by Bob Hall and the Jefferson County Environmental Services. It was used by the Bessemer sewer system. (Donated by U.S. Pipe & Foundry Company, 2002)Map (db m107497) HM
50 Alabama, Winston County, Natural Bridge — The Free State of Winston / Natural Bridge
The "Free State” of Winston In 1862, this county's representatives opposed secession, voted to remain neutral, and were labeled as "Torries". In honor of the first Alabama born governor, Winston County received its name. It was . . . Map (db m168066) HM
51 Alaska, Denali Borough, Denali National Park — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done.Map (db m195774) HM
52 Alaska, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Silver Springs — Violent Silhouettes
Visible from here are two prominent mountains: Mount Drum and Mount Wrangell. Both are volcanoes, but their silhouettes suggest a difference in their eruption histories. The younger Mount Wrangell is a shield volcano, a broad-dome mountain built . . . Map (db m173912) HM
53 American Samoa, Vaifanua County, Vatia — Vai'ava Strait
has been designated a National Natural Landmark This site possesses exceptional value as an illustration of the nation's natural heritage and contributes to a better understanding of the environment 1972 National Park Service . . . Map (db m185282) HM
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54 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . Map (db m60114) HM
55 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . Map (db m60089) HM
56 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . Map (db m60105) HM
57 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . Map (db m60110) HM
58 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . Map (db m60107) HM
59 Arizona, Coconino County, Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . Map (db m60087) HM
60 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — Albright Training Center History
The Horace M. Albright Training Center is a National Park Service facility for employee development. Established in 1963 and named for the National Park Service's second director, the training center serves as an educational program center for . . . Map (db m39602) HM
61 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail
Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water . . . Map (db m39563) HM
62 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — Colonel Claude Hale Birdseye1878-1941 — Explorer • Geographer • Surveyor —
The first Chief Topographic Engineer of the U.S. Geological Survey • 1919-1929 and the first President of the American Society of Photogrammetry • 1934 He headed a Geological Survey expedition through the Grand Canyon in 1923 to acquire information . . . Map (db m157000) HM
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63 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — How's the View?
On a clear day you can easily see Mount Trumbull just above the western horizon, 62 miles (99 km) away. Most days, haze makes spotting this distant landmark difficult. Sadly, most of this haze is human-caused. It can be a plume from a local . . . Map (db m196818) HM
64 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa
In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point. For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was . . . Map (db m39662) HM
65 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — Mission 66
Responding to mounting political and public pressure, Congress authorized a ten-year program in 1955 to regenerate and modernize the national parks dubbed "Mission 66" for the target date of 1966, the National Park Service's 50th anniversary. The . . . Map (db m39587) HM
66 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon National Park — The Mighty Colorado?
Can you spot the Colorado River? It looks tiny, surrounded by the vast Grand Canyon, but do not be deceived. Its racing, muddy waters carved the one-mile (1.6 km) depth of Grand Canyon, Standing on the canyon's edge you may feel distant and . . . Map (db m196819) HM
67 Arizona, Coconino County, Grand Canyon Village — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 — Jan. 22, 1930 —
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done.Map (db m169438) HM
68 Arizona, Coconino County, Jacob Lake — Jacob Lake Lookout Tower
This location has two markers This steel lookout tower is 80 feet tall and has a 7 foot by 7 foot steel cab on top. It was erected in 1934. As guardians of our nation's vast timber reserves, the U.S. Forest Service has always given fire . . . Map (db m94919) HM
69 Arizona, Coconino County, Jacob Lake — Kaibab Squirrel Area
Has been designated a National Natural Landmark This site possesses exceptional value as an illustration of the Nation's natural heritage and contributes to a better understanding of the environment. Map (db m94912)
70 Arizona, Coconino County, Jacob Lake — Theodore Roosevelt
In memory of Theodore Roosevelt 1858 'Teddy' 1919 Est. Grand Canyon National Game Preserve ‘06 Map (db m94913) HM
71 Arizona, Coconino County, Marble Canyon — Vermilion Cliffs National Monument
Welcome to Vermilion Cliffs National Monument, an isolated and spectacular landscape. Tucked away in north-central Arizona, this Monument is a wonderland of geologic formations and rugged terrain that supports a rich array of desert wildlife and . . . Map (db m94911) HM
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72 Arizona, Coconino County, Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks
These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the . . . Map (db m40321) HM
73 Arizona, Coconino County, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . Map (db m41664) HM
74 Arizona, Coconino County, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Changes to Come
Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption. The changed . . . Map (db m41693) HM
75 Arizona, Coconino County, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant
Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. . . . Map (db m41665) HM
76 Arizona, Coconino County, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Power to Symbolize
As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for. People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. . . . Map (db m41678) HM
77 Arizona, Coconino County, Tusayan — The Tusayan Lookout TreeEarly Fire Detection on the Kaibab National Forest
The Tusayan Lookout Tree is an example of one of the earliest fire detection systems in American history. Early rangers were tasked with keeping the forest safe, especially from wild fire. With little funding and no staff, rangers would simply . . . Map (db m141327) HM
78 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Complex Community
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos. On . . . Map (db m61304) HM
79 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender? [Photo captions read] Hopi men plant and tend . . . Map (db m61350) HM
80 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Ribbon of Life
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the . . . Map (db m61305) HM
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81 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the . . . Map (db m61325) HM
82 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — Cliff Homes and Canyon Life
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine. It may be difficult to imagine . . . Map (db m61302) HM
83 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — From Ocean to Alcove
Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built . . . Map (db m61342) HM
84 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — Migration is not abandonment.
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and . . . Map (db m61328) HM
85 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — Tension and Harmony
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive . . . Map (db m61326) HM
86 Arizona, Coconino County, Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Quest for Water
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community. Still, people . . . Map (db m61356) HM
87 Arizona, Coconino County, Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . Map (db m41701) HM
88 Arizona, Gila County, Globe — Old Dominion Mine
Included in this historic copper mine are the Globe ledge silver claims. Discovered in 1873, the first to yield profitable ore in the Globe-Miami district. The Old Dominion included many other early claims. Production ceased in the 30s, due to . . . Map (db m67463) HM
89 Arizona, Gila County, Payson — The Dude Fire
On June 25, 1990 a lightning caused fire entrapped ten members of the Perryville fire crew in this canyon. Resulting in six fatalities. Before the fire was contained it had burned more than 24,000 acres and destroyed over 70 structures. This . . . Map (db m28210) HM
90 Arizona, Gila County, Payson — These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990
These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990 Sandra J. Bachman • Joseph Chacon • Alex S. Contreras • James L. Denny • James E. Ellis • Curtis E. SpringfieldMap (db m28211) HM
91 Arizona, Mohave County, Fredonia — Pipe Spring National Monument
Pipe Spring National Monument is establishing a native vegetation plot, reminiscent of the grasslands of the Arizona Strip prior to the 1850s. Over-abundant shrubs (four-wing saltbush and sagebrush) were removed from the area, and native grasses and . . . Map (db m149366) HM
92 Arizona, Mohave County, Fredonia — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 — Jan. 22, 1930 —
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done.Map (db m149341) HM
93 Arizona, Mohave County, Fredonia — When the Good Grass Goes — Pipe Spring National Monument —
1880 — Ten years ago the desert spaces… were covered with abundant grasses. Today hardly a blade of grass is to be found within 10 miles of [Pipe] spring… Even if there had been no drought… cattle would have… destroyed the grass by cropping . . . Map (db m149473) HM
94 Arizona, Mohave County, Temple Bar Marina — Taming the Colorado
You are looking into Black Canyon and a narrow, river-like portion of Lake Mohave. To your left, about 59 miles downstream, is Davis Dam. To your right, 11 miles upstream, is Hoover Dam. The U.S. Government built the dams to tame the periodic . . . Map (db m111185) HM
95 Arizona, Navajo County, Holbrook — Pioneers of Paleontology
Petrified Forest is a laboratory where scientists study not only the fossil record, but the records of earlier discoveries by naturalists and paleontologists. Interest in the area’s fossils goes back to 1853, when a U.S. Army expedition . . . Map (db m68873) HM
96 Arizona, Pima County, Tucson — Desert Laboratory
. . . Map (db m63672) HM
97 Arizona, Pima County, Tucson — Desert LifeSaguaro National Park
The Sonoran Desert can be described as a “desert jungle” because more than 200 species of animals and 600 species of plants live here. Saguaros---with their branching arms and accordion-like pleats—dominate this scene. Intermixed . . . Map (db m83147) HM
98 Arizona, Pima County, Tucson — Home for Saguaros
The saguaro cactus before you owes its existence to the foresight of local residents. In the 1920s grazing and development threatened the saguaro's future. Saguaro forests began to disappear as mature cactuses were chopped to make way for new . . . Map (db m85355) HM
99 Arizona, Pima County, Tucson — Seed to SentinelSaguaro National Park
Standing like desert sentinels, mature saguaros start life as tiny black seeds. These seeds usually germinate under nurse plants but only a few survive to become mature saguaros. Look for young saguaros growing low to the ground. Those that are . . . Map (db m83146) HM
100 Arizona, Pima County, Tucson — Where Have All the Saguaros Gone?
The view from this hill has changed a lot over the years. In the 1930s, this was the most spectacular cactus forest in Arizona. But no one knew that these aging giants were near the end of their lives. Today we speculate that mild weather in the . . . Map (db m85357) HM

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Nov. 30, 2023